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NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



SCIENTIFIC SURVEY 



OF 



Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 



VOLUME VI 

Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 

Myrtales to Lycopodiales. 
Supplement. Bibliography. Index to Volumes V and VI. 




NEW YORK: 

Published by the Academy 

1925-1930 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI. 

Title-page I 

Contents Ill 

Dates of publication of parts Ill 

Descriptive Flora — Dicotyledones (Continued) 1-325 

Gymnospermae 325-330 

Appendix to Spermatophyta 330-371 

Pteridophyta 373-521 

Supplement to Descriptive Flora 523-575 

Bibliography — Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta 570-582 

Index to Volumes V and VI 583-003 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF PARTS 

Part 1, pp. 1-158. January 14, 1925. 
Part 2, pp. 159-310. August 31, 1925. 
Part 3, pp. 317-521. June 15, 1920. 
Part 4, pp. 523-003. December 19, 1930. 



4 0912 




Order 24. MYRTALES. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, unarmed, sometimes aquatic or amphibious. 

Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers regular, or irregular, complete, and 

often showy. Calyx-tube merely enclosing the ovary or adnate to it. 

Stamens few or many. Anthers opening by slits, valves or pores. Stigma 

terminating the style, or sessile. Fruit capsular, drupaceous or baccate, or 

resembling an achene. 

Anthers opening by pores. 
Anthers opening by longitudinal valves. 
Calyx-tube merely enclosing the ovary. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary or mainly so. 
Cotyledons spirally convolute in the embryo. 
Ovary several-celled; ovules many. 
Ovary 1-celled; ovules 2-5. 
Cotyledons not spirally convolute. 

Sepals imbricated, or united and the calyx 

falling away as a cap. 
Sepals valvate. 

Leaves stipulate; sepals leathery. 
Leaves not stipulate; sepals membranous 
or herbaceous. 



Fam. 


1. 


Melastomaceae. 


Fam. 


2. 


Lythraceae. 


Fam. 
Fam. 


3. 

4. 


PUNICACEAE. 
TERMINALIACEAE. 


Fam. 


5. 


Myrtaceae. 


Fam. 


6. 


Rhizophoraceae. 


Fam. 


7. 


Onagraceae. 



Family 1. MELASTOMACEAE R. Br. 
Meadow-beauty Family. 

Herbs, or many shrubs or trees in tropical regions, with opposite 3-9- 
nerved leaves (pinnately veined or nearly veinless in Mouriri), and regular 
perfect often showy but rarely odorous flowers. Stipules none. Calyx- 
tube usually 4-5-lobed, the lobes imbricated. Petals as many as the lobes 
of the calyx and inserted on its throat, imbricated. Stamens twice as many, 
or equal in number to the petals, often inclined or declined, the alternate 
ones sometimes shorter. Ovary 2-several-ceUed (often 4-celled); style 
terminal, simple; ovules many, anatropous. Fruit included in the calyx- 
tube, capsular or baccate. Seeds mainly small, with no endosperm. About 
150 genera and 2500 species, widely distributed in tropical regions, most 
abundant in South America. Many or most of the shrubs of this family 
are known in Porto Rico as Camasey. 



Fruit many-seeded: seeds minute; leaves 3-9-nerved. 

1. Fruit capsular. 

Base of the connective prolonged. 
Petals obtuse. 

Base of the connective not prolonged. 

2. Fruit baccate. 

a. Inflorescence terminal, rarely also axillary. 

Panicle-branches flattened, 3-flowered at ends. 
Panicle-branches not flattened. 
Exterior calyx-lobes inconspicuous or none. 
Calyx constricted above the ovary. 
Calyx not constricted above the ovary. 
Calyx oblong; anthers linear-subulate. 
Calyx hemispheric to campanulate. 
Exterior calyx-lobes longer than the interior. 
Ovary 3-4-celled; leaves coriaceous. 
Ovary 6-12-celled; leaves membranous. 



1. Acisanlhera. 

2. Nepsera. 

3. Bhexia. 



4. Menendezia. 



5. Tetrazygia. 

6. Tamonea. 

7. Miconia. 

8. Calycogonium. 

9. Heterotrichum. 



2 MELASTOMACEAE 

b. Inflorescence axillary or lateral. 
Petals obtuse. 

Base of the connective prolonged. 10. Mecranium. 

Base of the connective not prolonged. 11. Clidemia. 

Petals acute or acuminate. 

Flowers borne below the leaves. 12. Henrietella. 

Flowers axillary. 13. Ossaea. 

B. Fruit only 1-4-seeded; leaves pinnately veined. 14. Mouriri. 

1. ACISANTHERA P. Br.; Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 85. 1763. 

Herbs or low shrubs, with small, short-petioled or sessile leaves, and small, 
axillary or terminal, solitary or panicled flowers. Flowers 4-parted or 5-parted. 
Calyx-tube subhemispheric or campanulate, its lobes acute or acuminate. Petals 
obovate or suborbicular, obtuse. Stamens 8 or 10, the smaller alternate ones 
often imperfect; filaments glabrous; anthers various, the connective produced 
below the sacs, 2-lobed or 2-spurred. Style filiform or subclavate; stigma very 
small. Capsule 2-4-valved, many-seeded; seeds minute, foveolate. [Greek, 
pointed anthers.] About 20 species, of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Acisanthera Acisanthera (L.) Britton. 

Rhexia Acisanthera L. Syst. ed. 10, 998. 1759. 

Acisanthera quadrata Juss.; Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 1: 111. 1810. 

Uranthera dicranophora Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 12: 283. 1849. 

Melastoma uniflora Sess6 & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 105. 1894. 

Subherbaceous, perennial, usually much branched, 3 dm. high or less, the 
branches sharply 4-angled, glabrous or glandular-pubescent, slender. Leaves 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, membranous, serrulate, 1.5 cm. long or less, short- 
petioled, the apex acute, the base narrowed or obtuse ; flowers solitary in the axils, 
short-peduncled; calyx-tube about 3 mm. long, its lobes about as long; petals 
rose or purple, about 6 mm. long ; capsule globose, about 4 mm. in diameter. 

In wet sandy soil at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, especiaUy on the north- 
ern coastal plain: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Central and South America. 

2. NEPSERA Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 13: 28. 1849. 

A low slender, loosely pilose or glabrate, branching shrub with thin ovate 
petioled leaves and small, white or pink, panicled 4-parted flowers. Calyx-tube 
ovoid, its lobes narrowly lanceolate, persistent. Petals oblong-lanceolate, acute. 
Stamens 8, the alternate ones unequal; filaments glabrous; anthers subulate, 1- 
porose, the connective produced below the sacs into 2 spurs. Ovary globose, 3- 
celled ; style filiform ; stigma very small. Capsule 3-valved, many-seeded. Seeds 
minute, foveolate. [Bad anagram of Spennera.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Nepsera aquatica (Aubl.) Naud. Aim. Sci. Nat. III. 13: 28. 1849. 

Melastoma aquatica Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 430. 1775. 

Spennera aquatica Mart.; DC. Prodr. 3: 116. 1828. 

Homonoma aridum Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 269. 1881. 

Stem 0.5-1.5 m. high, the larger plants much branched. Lea\es membran- 
ous, 2-7 cm. long, serrulate, 5-7-nerved, the apex acute or acuminato, the base 
rounded or subcordate, the slender petioles 0.5-2 cm. long; panicles loosely 
pyramidal with filiform branches and pedicels; calyx-tube 2-3 mm. long, about 
as long as the lobes; petals 5-6 mm. long; capsule globose, 2 mm. in diameter. 

Woodlands, thickets and grassv banks in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, ascending 
into the eastern mountains; recorded from St. Thomas, probably erroneously:— Jamaica; 
recorded from Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe and Dominica to Trimdad; northern South 
America. Altea. 



MELASTOMACEAE 3 

3. RHEXIA L. Sp. PL 346. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, often somewhat woody at the base, sometimes tuber-bearing, 
with mostly sessile opposite 3-5-nerved leaves, and terminal showy cymose or 
rarely solitary flowers. Calyx-tube urn-shaped or campanulate, constricted at 
the neck, its limb 4-lobed, the lobes shorter than the tube. Petals 4, obovate, 
oblique. Stamens 8, equal; anthers incurved or inverted in the bud. Ovary 
free from the calyx, glabrous, 4-celled; style slender; stigma truncate. Capsule 
4-celled, 4-valved. Placentae 4-central. Seeds numerous, coiled or bent, rough. 
[Greek, breaking, applied originally to a different plant.] Thirteen known species , 
of eastern North America and the West Indies. Type species : Rhexia virginica L. 

1. Rhexia cubensis Griseb. Cat. PL Cub. 104. 1866. 

Stems slender, branched, loosely glandular-pilose, erect or ascending, 5 dm. 
high or less. Leaves linear, sessile, remotely denticulate, 1-2.5 cm. long, 1-3 
mm. wide, 1-nerved; flowers few in terminal cymes or solitary; bracts small; 
calyx glandular-pilose or glabrate, 6-8 mm. long, its lobes lanceolate, acuminate, 
about 2 mm. long; petals pink or purple, 12-16 mm. long; anthers linear, spurred 
at the base; capsule about 7 mm. long, its neck about as long. [R. linearifolia 
Hamilt.?; R. Mariana of Stahl, of Cogniaux and of Urban, in part; Melastoma 
linearis of Sessg & Mocino, not of Eeinw.j 

Wet sandy ground on the northern coastal plain of Porto Rico: — Florida; Cuba. 
West Indian Meadow-beauty. 

4. MENENDEZIA Britton, gen. nov. 

Trees, with chartaceous, 3-5-nerved entire petioled leaves, and rather large 
white 4-parted flowers in terminal panicles, sessile in 2's or 3's on the flattened 
spreading panicle-branches. Calyx-tube 4-angled, scaly, constricted above the 
ovary, the lobes ovate or subulate. Petals obovate. Stamens 8 ; filaments slen- 
der; anthers linear, 1-porose. Style filiform. [In honor of Rafael Menendez 
Ramos, Director of the Insular Agricultural Experiment Station of Porto Rico.] 
Three known species of Porto Rico mountain forests. Type species: Tetrazygia 
Stahlii Cogn. The fruit is not known. 

Leaves green above, canescent beneath. 

Outer calyx-lobes linear-subulate. 1. M. Stahlii. 

Calyx-lobes narrowly ovate. 2. M. Urbanii. 

Leaves nearly equally green on both sides. 3. M. biflora. 

1. Menendezia Stahlii (Cogn.) Britton. 

Tetrazygia Stahlii Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 279. 1886. 

A tree, up to about 20 m. high, the young twigs, inflorescence, petioles and 
under leaf-surfaces densely canescent. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 
chartaceous, 5-10 cm. long, entire, green and glabrous above when mature, whit- 
ish-canescent beneath, 5-nerved from the base, the apex acute or acuminate, the 
base obtuse or rounded, the lateral venation delicate, spreading, the petioles 1-2 
cm. long; panicles narrow; calyx sharply tetragonal, canescent, its tube about 
5 mm. long, its subulate outer lobes 6-7 mm. long; petals white, obovate, sub- 
truncate, about 10 mm. long; anthers yellow, 5 mm. long. 

Thickets, and mountain forests in wet districts, Porto Rico. Endemic. 



4 MELASTOMACEAE 

2. Menendezia Urbanii (Cogn.) Britton. 

Tetrazygia Urbanii Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 278. 1886. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, or shrubby, the twigs, inflorescence, petioles and under 
leaf-surfaces canescent. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous, 6-12 
cm. long, 5-nerved from the base, green and glabrous above, when mature, densely 
whitish-canescent beneath, the apex acuminate, the base rounded or narrowed, 
the petioles 1.6-3 cm. long; panicles rather broad, about as long as the leaves; 
calyx-tube tetragonal, canescent, about 6 mm. long, its lobes narrowly ovate, 
obtusish, 3-4 mm. long; petals white, obovate, rounded, about 8 mm. long; 
anthers yellow, 4-5 mm. long. 

In forests at middle altitudes in the Luquillo Mountains. Similar to the preceding 
species, but the calyx-lobes quite different. Endemic. 

3. Menendezia biflora (Cogn.) Britton. 

Calycogonium biflorum Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 276. 1886. 
Tetrazygia Krugii Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 719. 1891. 
Tetrazygia biflora Urban, Repert. 17: 405. 1921. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. in height, the slightly angular twigs, the petioles, 
inflorescence and under leaf-surfaces puberulent. Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong- 
lanceolate, chartaceous, 6-12 cm. long, 5-nerved from the base, green on both 
sides, minutely scurfy above or glabrous when mature, the apex short-acuminate, 
the base rounded or narrowed, the petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; panicles about as long 
as the lea\es or shorter; calyx-tube 6-7 mm. long, its ovate-triangular lobes 
nearly as long; petals obovate, acute, about 10 mm. long. 

Thickets and forests, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations in moist or wet 
districts. Endemic. 

5. TETRAZYGIA L. C. Rich.; DC. Prodr. 3: 172. 1828. 

Trees or shrubs, the foliage often scurfy, with petioled, entire or toothed 
leaves, and rather small flowers in terminal panicles or corymbs. Calyx con- 
stricted above the ovary, its limb 4-5- lobed or subtruncate. Petals 4 or 5, ob- 
ovate. Stamens 8 or 10, nearly equal; filaments subulate; anthers linear, opening 
by a pore. Ovary 4-5-celled; style curved, filiform; stigma minute. Fruit a 
4-5-celled fleshy berry. [Greek, referring to the 4-parted flowers of the type 
species.] About 16 species, of the West Indian region. Type species: Melastoma 
discolor L. 

Leaves sessile, crenulate. 1. T. crotonifolia. 
Leaves petioled, entire or nearly so. 

Panicle corymbiform, many-flowered. 2. T. angustifolia. 

Panicle pyramidal, few-flowered. 3. T. elaeagnoides. 

1. Tetrazygia crotonifolia (Desv.) DC. Prodr. 3: 172. 1828. 

Melastoma crotonifolia Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 4: 43. 1797. 

A shrub, about 1 m. high or less, the slender but stiff, terete branches glabrous. 
Leaves lanceolate to ovate, sessile, rigid, 3-8 cm. long, acuminate, 3-5-nerved 
from the base with the lateral venation delicate and distant, yellow-green and 
glabrous above, pale-tomentulose beneath, the apex acuminate or acute, the base 
cordate; panicles loosely few-flowered, about as long as the leaves or shorter, 
glabrous; pedicels Aliform, purple, about 1 cm. long or shorter; calyx glabrous, 
purple, its tube oblong, 3-4 mm. long, its lobes short, acute; petals ovate, white 
or pink, about 4 mm. long; fruit black, ovoid, about 5 mm. long. 

Hillsides and cliffs, at middle altitudes in moist parts of the western districts of Porto 
Rico : — Hispaniola. 



MELASTOMACEAE 5 

2. Tetrazygia angustifolia (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 172. 1828. 

Melastoma angustifolia Sw. Prodr. 71. 1788. 
Miconia angustifolia Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 258. 1860. 

A small tree, reaching, on St. Jan, a maximum height of about 12 m., usually 
much smaller, often shrubby, the many slender twigs densely canescent, the 
branches nearly erect. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 4-8 cm. long, 
4-12 mm. wide, subchartaceous, entire, strongly 3-nerved from the base with the 
lateral venation prominent beneath, yellow green and glabrous above, stellate- 
canescent beneath, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the slender 
petioles 5-10 mm. long; panicles corymbiform, many-flowered, about as long as 
the leaves, stellate-canescent; pedicels short; calyx about 1.5 mm. long, its lobes 
triangular, acute; petals yellowish or pink, obovate, 2 mm. long; fruit blue-black, 
globose, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Attributed to Porto Rico by Sess6 and Moclno; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique. Recorded 
by Swartz from Jamaica, and by Cogniaux from Trinidad, both records perhaps er- 
roneous. Shoots from stumps bear thin glabrate larger leaves, green on both sides. 

3. Tetrazygia elaeagnoides (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 172. 1828. 

Melastoma elaeagnoides Sw. Prodr. 72. 1788. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. high, often smaller, sometimes shrubby, much 
branched, the slender twigs, the petioles and inflorescence densely scurfy-puberu- 
lent, the bark separating in narrow flakes. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrowly 
oblong, chartaceous, 3-nerved from a little above the base, with the delicate lateral 
venation spreading, green and glabrous above, canescent beneath, the apex acute 
or obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles 4-16 mm. long; panicles loosely few- 
flowered, mostly shorter than the leaves; pedicels short ; calyx scurfy, about 5 mm. 
long, its short lobes obtuse; petals white, obovate, about 10 mm. long; anthers 
linear, 5-6 mm. long; fruit depressed-globose, 4-lobed, 6-8 mm. thick. 

Hillsides, thickets and woodlands, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in 
dry and moist districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Hispaniola; 
recorded from Montserrat. Cenizo. Verde seco. Kre Kre. 

6. TAMONEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 441, pi. 175. 1775. 

Trees or shrubs, the leaves ample, the inflorescence large, terminal, panicu- 
late, the flowers large, 5-6-parted. Calyx oblong or oblong-cylindric, its limb 
truncate or merely denticulate. Petals obovate, rounded or retuse ; stamens twice 
as many as the petals; anthers linear-subulate, elongated, mostly curved or 
falcate, minutely 1-porose. Fruit baccate, many-seeded. [Guiana name.] 
About 40 species of tropical America. Type species: Tamonea guianensis Aubl. 
In two slightly differing editions of the '' Plantes de Guiane " Aublet published this 
genus both as Tamonea and as Fothergilla, but there is an earlier genus Fothergilla 
of Linnaeus. 

Calyx tomentose; leaves stellate-pubescent beneath. 1. T. macrophylla. 

Calyx glabrous; leaves scurfy beneath. 2. T. guianensis. 

1. Tamonea macrophylla (D. Don) Krasser in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 3 7 : 188. 1893. 

Chitonia macrophylla D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 319. 1823. 

Diplochita serrulata DC. Prodr. 3: 177. 1828. 

Miconia macrophylla Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 103. 1871. 

A small tree, up to about 12 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the stout twigs 
compressed, densely short-tomentose. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, charta- 



6 MELASTOMACEAE 

ceous, 1-3 dm. long, 5-7-nerved and with many slender lateral veins, closely 
crenulate-serrulate, dark green and glabrous or nearly so above, densely stellate- 
pubescent and whitish beneath, the apex short-acuminate or acute, the base 
rounded or subcordate, the stout pubescent petioles much shorter than the 
blades; panicles many-flowered, tomentose, as long as the leaves or shorter; 
flowers 6-parted, sessile or nearly so; bracts about 5 mm. long; calyx densely 
tomentulose, subtruncate, oblong, about 7 mm. long; petals white or pink, 6-8 
mm. long; filaments hirtellous; anthers violet, linear-subulate, elongated; fruit 
subglobose, about 6 mm. in diameter. [M . holosericea of Bello, not of de Candolle.] 

Hillside thickets and mountain forests in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico, 
ascending to 500 meters altitude or higher; St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Eggers): — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

2. Tamonea guianensis Aubl. PL Guian. l: 441. 1775. 

Diplochaeta Fothergilla DC. Prodr. 3: 176. 1828. 

Miconia guianensis Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 280. 1886. 

Tamonea Fothergilla Cook. & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 249. 1903. 

A shrub, or small tree up to about 7 m. high, the young twigs scurfy-puber- 
ulent. Leaves oblong, elliptic, or ovate, chartaceous, 8—20 cm. long, 5-nerved and 
with many spreading slender lateral veins, green and glabrous above, pale and 
more or less scurfy beneath, entire or sparingly denticulate, the apex acuminate, 
the base obtuse or subcordate, the petioles 2-5 cm. long; panicles many-flowered, 
rather narrow, often longer than the leaves; flowers 6-parted, very short-pedi- 
celled; bracts oblong, canescent, 6-10 mm. long, caducous; calyx glabrous, its 
lobes broad, nearly 1 mm. long; petals white, 6-8 mm. long; filaments glabrous; 
anthers yellow, elongated; fruit subglobose, about 6 mm. in diameter. [M. punc- 
tata of Bello, not of Don.] 

Woodlands and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to high 
elevations; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Trinidad; continental 
tropical America. Doubtfully recorded from Porto Rico by Cogniaux as Miconia 
splendens. 

7. MICONIA R. & P. Syst. 1: 104. 1798. 

Trees or shrubs, the foliage various, the inflorescence terminal, paniculate 
or corymbose, the flowers mostly small and 5-parted. Calyx hemispheric, sub- 
globose or campanulate, mostly small, its limb toothed or lobed. Petals oblong 
or obovate. Stamens usually twice as many as the petals; anthers subulate, 
linear, obovoid or cuneate, 1-4-porose. Fruit baccate, mostly globose. [Com- 
memorates D. Micon, a Spanish physician.] An immense genus of tropical 
America, the species probably 600 or more. Type species: Miconia pulverulenta 
R. & P. 

1. Anthers elongated, subulate. 1. M. thomasiana. 

2. Anthers short. 

a. Anthers linear. 

♦Panicle-branches simple, spike-like; leaves subamplexi- 

caul, sessile. 2. M. impetiolaris. 

♦♦Panicle compound; leaves not amplexicaul. 
fLeaves glabrous, or nearly so, beneath. 
Leaves 3-5-nerved from the base. 

Young branches densely pilose; leaves narrowed 

at the base. 3. M. affinis. 

Young branches furfuraceous; leaves rounded 

or narrowed at the base. 4. M. laevigata. 

Leaves 5-nerved above the base. 5. M. prasina. 

tfLeaves pubescent or lepidote beneath. 

Mature leaves glabrous or loosely stellate-tomentu- 

lose above. 6. M. rubiginosa. 

Leaves densely stellate-tomentose on both sides. 7. M. lanata. 

Leaves densely brown-lepidote beneath. 8. M. punctata. 



MELASTOMACEAE 7 

b. Anthers obovoid-oblong or cuneiform. 
♦Anthers apically 1-porose. 
Flowers secund on the panicle-branches; leaves ser- 
rulate. 9. M. racemosa. 
Flowers not secund; leaves entire, subcordate. 10. M. pachyphylla. 
♦♦Anthers 2-porose; leaves entire. 11. M. tetrandra. 
♦♦♦Anthers 2-rimose. 

tLeaves bullate, setulose above, deeply cordate at base, 

7-nerved. 12. M. foveolata. 

tfLeaves glabrous above, narrowed or cordate at base, 

3-5-nerved. . .. 

Panicle pyramidal or elongated; leaves denticulate. 13. M. Sintemsn. 
Panicle corymbiform, broad ; leaves entire. 

Leaves chartaceous, oblong-lanceolate; panicles 

loose. 14. M. subcorymbosa. 

Leaves coriaceous, ovate; panicles very dense. 15. M. pycnoneura. 

1. Miconia thomasiana DC. Prodr. 3: 189. 1828. 

Miconia vernicosa Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 16: 191. 1851. 

Acinodendrum thomasianum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 953. 1891. 

Tamonca thomasiana Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 249. 1903. 

A shrub, or a little tree about 4 mm. high, the young twigs and the inflores- 
cence somewhat scurfy. Leaves ovate to elliptic, coriaceous, 5-nerved, with 
slender lateral veins, 5-15 cm. long, green and glabrous on both sides, distantly 
serrulate with short curved teeth or entire, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
rounded or subcordate, the setulose petioles 15 mm. long or less; panicles diffusely 
several-many-flowered, commonly longer than the leaves; longer pedicels Aliform, 

2 cm. long or less; flowers 5-parted; calyx campanulate, somewhat scurfy, about 

3 mm. long, its spreading limb obscurely lobed ; petals rose or pink, retuse, 5-6 
mm. long; anthers subulate, elongated; fruit globose, about 6 mm. in diameter. 

Thickets and hillsides at lower elevations, in moist parts of the northern and eastern 
districts of Porto Rico, mostly near the coasts; Tor tola; doubtfully and apparently erro- 
neously recorded as found on St. Thomas. Endemic. 

2. Miconia impetiolaris (Sw.) D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 316. 1823. 

Melastoma impetiolaris Sw. Prodr. 70. 1788. 

Miconia Wydleriana DC. Mem. Mel. 77. 1828. 

Tamonea impetiolaris Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 249. 1903. 

A small tree, 4-10 m. high, or shrubby, the twigs and inflorescence densely 
scurfy-tomentulose. Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate-oblong, chartaceous, sessile, 
2-5 dm. long, 5-nerved, and with many lateral veins, denticulate, dark green and 
glabrous above, paler and densely stellate-tomentulose beneath, the apex acu- 
minate, the base subauriculate ; panicles densely many-flowered, the branches 
spike-like, mostly shorter than the leaves; flowers small, sessile; calyx densely 
stellate-scurfy, about 3 mm. long, with 5 short lobes; petals white, retuse, about 
2 mm. long; fruit globose, about 4 mm. in diameter. [M. elata of Bello, not of 
de Candolle.] 

Thickets, woodlands, valleys and shaded hillsides in moist or wet districts of Porto 
Rico, ascending to higher elevations; recorded from St. Thomas and St. Croix, but not 
found on those islands in many years: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Eustatius; 
Guadeloupe; Dominica; continental tropical America. 

3. Miconia affinis DC. Prodr. 3: 187. 1828. 

A small tree, up to about 8 m. high, the young twigs densely pilose. Leaves 
oblong to oblong-obovate, rigid, entire, 1.5-20 cm. long, 6-8 cm. wide, 5-nerved 
with the transverse venation prominent, dark green and glabrate above, stellulate- 
punctate beneath, the apex short-acuminate, the base obtuse, the petioles 1-2 
cm. long; panicles pyramidal, about as long as the leaves; flowers sessile or nearly 
so; calyx about 2.5 mm. long, obscurely 5-lobed; petals oblong, obtuse, about 3 
mm. long; fruit about 4 mm. in diameter. 



8 MELASTOMACEAE 

Monte Santo de Leon, near Juncos, Porto Rico, collected only by Sintenis: — Cuba; 
French Guiana. 

4. Miconia laevigata (L.) DC. Prodr. 3: 188. 1828. 

Melastoma laevigata L. Syst. ed. 10, 1022. 1759. 
Melastoma portoricensis Spreng. Neue Ent. 3: 61. 1822. 
Miconia pyramidalis DC. Prodr. 3: 188. 1828. 
Acinodendrum laevigatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 244. 1891. 
Tamonea laevigata Krasser in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 3 7 : 142. 1893. 

A shrub, or a small tree 4-6 m. high, the slender twigs, the inflorescence and 
the petioles finely scurfy. Leaves oblong to ovate-oblong or elliptic, submem- 
branous, 8-20 cm. long, 5-nerved from the base, serrulate or entire, green on both 
sides, glabrous above, usually scurfy on the veins beneath, the lateral venation 
slender, the apex acuminate, the base rounded or narrowed, the slender petioles 
about 3 cm. long or less; panicles many-flowered, as long as the leaves or shorter; 
flowers small, short-pedicelled or sessile; calyx about 3 mm. long, its teeth acute; 
petals white or pale pink, 3-4 mm. long; fruit blue, globose, about 3 mm. in 
diameter. [M. ascendens of Sprengel, not of Swartz; M. racemosa of Bello, not 
of de Candolle; M. trinervis of Millspaugh, not of Don; M. prasina of Millspaugh, 
not of de Candolle.] 

Thickets, hillsides, woodlands and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts ; Vieques ; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to 
Trinidad; Margarita; continental tropical America. 

5. Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 188. 1828. 

Melastoma prasina Sw. Prodr. 69. 1788. 

Miconia collina DC. Prodr. 3: 185. 1828. 

Acinodendrum prasinum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 245. 1891. 

Tamonea prasina Krasser in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 3 7 : 142. 1893. 

A shrub, or a small tree, occasionally 10 m. high, the slender young twigs 
scurfy-puberulent or glabrous. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, subchar- 
taceous, 8-20 cm. long, repand-denticulate or entire, 5-nerved above the base, 
glabrous and nearly equally bright green on both sides, or dark green above, pale 
and puberulent beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the 
petioles 1-3 cm. long, margined or marginless; panicles ample, pyramidal, many- 
flowered, often as long as the leaves, glabrous or scurfy; flowers 5-parted, sessile 
or very nearly so; calyx about 3 mm. long; petals white, about 3 mm. long; anthers 
linear, 1-porose; fruit blue or purple, about 3 mm. in diameter. [M. trichotoma 
of Bello, not of de Candolle.] 

Thickets, hillsides, valleys and mountain forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, 
ascending to high elevations; Tortola; erroneously recorded from St. Thomas: — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Grenada; Trinidad; Margarita; continental tropical America. 

6. Miconia rubiginosa (Bonpl.) DC. Prodr. 3: 183. 1828. 

Melastoma rubiginosa Bonpl. Melast. 109. 1816. 

Tamonea rubiginosa Krasser in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 3 7 : 142. 1893. 

A shrub, or a small tree 4-8 m. high, the stout twigs, the inflorescence, the 
petioles and the under leaf-surfaces densely brownish-tomentose. Leaves ovate 
or elliptic-ovate, subcoriaceous, 6-13 cm. long, entire, dark green and glabrous or 
loosely minutely stellate-pubescent above, 5-nerved, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base rounded or subcordate, the lateral venation slender, spreading, the stout 
short petioles 3-8 mm. long; panicles many-flowered, as long as the leaves or 
longer; flowers 5-parted, sessile, clustered; calyx tomentulose, about 3 mm. long; 
petals white, about 2 mm. long; anthers linear, short, 1-porose; fruit black, about 
3 mm. in diameter. 



MELASTOMACEAE 9 

Mountain woods and thickets, western districts of Porto Rico: — Hispaniola; con- 
tinental tropical America. 

7. Miconia lanata (DC.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 27: 113. 1871. 

Clidenia lanata DC. Prodr. 3: 162. 1828. 

Twigs, leaves and inflorescence densely tomentose. Leaves ovate, short- 
petioled, entire, subchartaceous, 8-20 cm. long, 6-nerved from the base with the 
lateral venation slender, the apex short-acuminate, the base rounded or sub- 
cordate; panicles as long as the leaves or longer, the fragrant 5-parted flowers 
glomerate on its branches; calyx 5-lobed, about 4 mm. long; petals white, 3-4 mm. 
long; anthers linear, short, 1-porose; fruit black, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Recorded by Cogniaux as collected in Porto Rico by Bertero: — Cuba; St. Vincent; 
Trinidad; northern South America. 

8. Miconia punctata (Desv.) D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 316. 1823. 

Melastoma punctata Desv.; Lam. Encycl. 4: 50. 1797. 

A small tree, about 4 m. high, the stout angular twigs lepidote. Leaves 
oblong to oblanceolate, 1-2.5 dm. long, subcoriaceous, entire, 3-nerved from the 
base with the slender lateral venation spreading, dark green and glabrous above, 
densely brownish-lepidote beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, the base nar- 
rowed or cuneate, the stout petioles 2 cm. long or less; panicles large, many- 
flowered ; calyx about 2 mm. long; petals about 3 mm. long; anthers short, narrow; 
fruit about 3 mm. in diameter. [Miconia fulva of Cogniaux, in part; Miconia 
chrysophylla of Urban, in part.] 

Mountain forests near Utuado: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Guatemala; Bolivia. 

9. Miconia racemosa (Aubl.) DC. Prodr. 3: 179. 1828. 

Melastoma racemosa Aubl. PI. Guian. l: 406. 1775. 

Miconia brachypoda DC. Prodr. 3: 180. 1828. 

Tamonea racemosa Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 249. 1903. 

A shrub, 2-3 m. high, or occasionally a small tree about 4 m. high, the twigs 
with a ring of hairs at the nodes, otherwise glabrous. Leaves obovate to elliptic, 
submembranous, 5-nerved from the base with the lateral venation prominent 
and ascending, serrulate, ciliate, green on both sides but paler beneath than above, 
stellate-puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, the apex acute, short- 
acuminate or obtuse, the base mostly obtuse, the rather stout petioles 1-4 cm. 
long; flowers sessile and secund on the branches of the panicles; calyx about 2 mm. 
long; petals white, pink or purple, 1.5-2 mm. long; anthers oblong, purple, short; 
fruit dark blue to black, about 3 mm. in diameter. [Melastoma decussatum of 
Sprengel, not of Vahl.] 

Banks, thickets and woodlands in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico, ascending to 
higher elevations: — Jamaica; Hispaniola; Grenada; Tobago; Trinidad; northern South 
America. 

10. Miconia pachyphylla Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 279. 1886. 

Acinodendrum pachyphyllum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 952. 1891. 

A tree, up to 10 m. high, the young twigs flattened, densely scurfy. Leaves 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 8-15 cm. long, 5-nerved from the base, 
with the delicate lateral venation widely spreading, entire, dark green, glabrous 
above, scurfy on the veins beneath, the apex acute, acuminate or blunt, the base 
cordate or subcordate, the petioles 1^3 cm. long ; panicles several-many-flowered, 
shorter than the leaves; flowers 4-parted, short-pedicelled ; calyx about 2.5 mm. 



10 MELASTOMACEAE 

long; petals oblong, purple, about 4 mm. long; anthers short, 1-porose; fruit 
blue-black, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Forests at higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

11. Miconia tetrandra (Sw.) D. Don; London, Hort. Brit. 174. 1830. 

Melastoma tetrandra Sw. Prodr. 72. 1788. 
Telrazygia tetrandra DC. Prodr. 3: 172. 1828. 
Cremanium tetrandrum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 262. 1860. 

A tree, up to about 15 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the obtusely 4-angled 
young twigs, the petioles, the under leaf-surfaces and the inflorescence finely 
scurfy. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, subchartaceous, entire, 8-20 cm. 
long, 3-nerved with the lateral venation delicate, green on both sides but paler 
beneath than above, the apex acuminate, the base rounded or obtuse, the upper 
surface glabrous or nearly so, the petioles 2-4 cm. long; panicles pyramidal, 
many-flowered, often longer than the leaves; flowers 4-parted, sessile; calyx sub- 
truncate, about 1.5 mm. long; petals white or greenish, about 1 mm. long; anthers 
short. 2-porose; fruit globose, black, 3-4 mm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests at high elevations in wet districts of Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; 
Guadeloupe; Dominica; Grenada; Trinidad (?). 

12. Miconia foveolata Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 281. 1886. 

Acinodendrum foveolatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 951. 1891. 

A shrub, or a small tree 5-10 m. high, the twigs, petioles, inflorescence and 
calyx pilose with black gland-tipped hairs. Leaves ovate to ovate-elliptic, 7- 
nerved with numerous spreading lateral veins, stiff, subchartaceous, entire, ciliate, 
8-16 cm. long, the upper surface scabrous-bullate and setulose, the under surface 
foveolate-reticulate, the apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or cordate, 
the stout petioles 3-9 mm. long; panicles several-many-flowered, as long as the 
leaves or shorter; flowers 5-parted, short-pedicelled ; calyx subcampanulate, its 
tube about 4 mm. long, its lobes 1-1.5 mm. long; petals rose or white, about 3 
mm. long; anthers obovoid; fruit blue, about 7 mm. in diameter. 

Forests at high elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

13. Miconia Sintenisii Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 281. 1886. 

Acinodendrum Sintenisii Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 952. 1891. 

A large shrub, or a small tree up to about 8 m. in height, the twigs, petioles 
and inflorescence glabrous or nearly so. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, cori- 
aceous, 8-25 cm. long, 5-nerved from the base with the delicate lateral venation 
spreading, denticulate, green on both sides but paler beneath than above, the 
apex acute, the base cordate or rounded, the upper surface glabrous, the under 
side with minute tufts of short hairs, the stout petioles 2-5.5 cm. long; panicles 
long-peduncled, several-many-flowered; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; calyx urceolate, 
about 6 mm. long, its lobes triangular; petals white, 6-7 mm. long; anthers short, 
obovoid; fruit light blue, about 8 mm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations. Endemic. 

14. Miconia subcorymbosa Britton. sp. nov. 

Miconia cubensis latifolia Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 932. 1891. 
Miconia cubensis nervulosa Cogn. loc. cit. 933. 1891. 
Miconia cubensis minor Cogn. loc. cit. 1891. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, or shrubby, glabrous or very nearly so throughout. 
Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, subchartaceous, entire, 8-17 cm. long, 



MELASTOMACEAE 11 

5-nerved from the base with the two lateral nerves marginal and the transverse 
veins numerous and delicate, bright green above, paler beneath, the apex acu- 
minate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 2-A cm. long; panicles broad, 
subcorymbose, many-flowered, about as long as the leaves; pedicels slender, 3-8 
mm. long; flowers mostly 5-parted; calyx-tube about 4 mm. long, its ovate lobes 
about 1 mm. long; petals white, 3-4 mm. long; fruit globose, blue or turning white, 
about 6 mm. in diameter. [M. laevigata of Bello, not of de Candolle; Charianthus 
coccineus of Cogniaux, as to the Porto Rico plant; included by Cogniaux and by 
Urban in Miconia cubensis (Griseb.) C. Wright.] 

Mountain forests, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations: — Hispaniola (ex 
Cogniaux); Cuba; differs from M. cubensis in foliage and in inflorescence. Type from 
Indiera Baja {Britton 7390). 

15. Miconia pycnoneura Urban, Report. 17: 162. 1921. 

Miconia Grisebachii reticulata Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 280. 1886. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to 7 m. high, the rather stout 4-angled twigs and 
the inflorescence minutely scurfy. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, coriaceous, 
entire, 8-14 cm. long, 5-nerved from the base, with the transverse veins very 
numerous, impressed above, rather prominent beneath, green on both sides, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or subcordate, the petioles 3-5 cm. 
long; panicles corymbiform, densely-many-flowered, often broader than high, 
10 cm. broad or less; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; calyx about 2 mm. long, its broad 
lobes much shorter than the tube; petals about 2 mm. long; fruit globose, 4-5 mm. 
in diameter. 

Forests at higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

Miconia stenostachya (Schr. & Mart.) DC, recorded by authors as col- 
lected by Finlay on St. Thomas, was really from Trinidad. [Melastoma steno- 
stachya Schr. & Mart.; M. argyrophylla of Bentham, not of de Candolle.] 

Miconia Acinodendrum (L.) Triana, also recorded by authors as collected 
by Finlay on St. Thomas, was really from Trinidad. West recorded it from St. 
Croix, apparently erroneously, as it is otherwise known only from Martinique 
southward.. [Melastoma Acinodendrum L. ; Tshudya berbiceana Griseb.] 

Urban records another Miconia, known only from a barren specimen col- 
lected by Krug (no. 41s) near Mayaguez. 

8. CALYCOGONIUM DC. Prodr. 3: 168. 1828. 

Shrubs or trees, with rather small, mostly entire and coriaceous 3-5-nerved 
leaves, the white flowers variously clustered or solitary, terminal or also axillary, 
4-6-parted. Calyx various, in some species 4-angled, its lobes subulate, often as 
long as the tube or longer. Petals oblong or obovate, mostly obtuse. Stamens 
twice as many as the petals, the anthers linear or oblong, 1-porose, the connective 
unappendaged. Ovary 3-5-celled. Fruit globose, baccate, few-seeded. [Greek, 
angled calyx.] About 30 species, natives of the West Indies.' Type species: 
Calycogonium slellatum (Vahl) DC. 

Flowers 4-parted; leaves oblong or obovate, entire. 1. C. squamulosum. 

Flowers 6-parted; leaves oval or suborbicular, bullate, serrate, 

scabrous. 2. C. Krugii. 

1 . Calycogonium squamulosum Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4 : 277. 1886. 

A tree, 8-15 m. high, the young twigs, petioles, inflorescence and calyx 
densely scaly. Leaves oblong to obovate, coriaceous, 4-8 cm. long, entire, 3- 



12 MELASTOMACEAE 

nerved with the 2 lateral nerves near the margin and the transverse venation 
rather delicate, the apex obtuse or acutish, the base narrowed, the petioles 8-12 
mm. long; peduncles terminal and in the upper axils, about as long as the petioles, 
mostly 3-flowered, the flowers nearly sessile, 4-parted; calyx-tube narrowly cam- 
panulate, about 5 mm. long, its broad lobes 1-2 mm. long; petals white, ovate, 
about 6 mm. long. 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. 

2. Calycogonium Krugii Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 278. 1886. 

A shrub, 3 m. high or less, much branched, the twigs, petioles and calyx 
densely setose-lepidote. Leaves oval to elliptic or orbicular, rigid, 2-4.5 cm. 
long, serrulate, 5-nerved with the lateral venation slender, bullate above, densely 
lepidote beneath, the apex and base both obtuse or rounded, the petioles 4 mm. 
long or less; flowers solitary at the ends of twigs, sessile, 6-parted; calyx-tube 
subcampanulate, about 5 mm. long, its subulate lobes 7-9 mm. long, petals white, 
obovate, obtuse, about 15 mm. long; fruit globose, setose, about 12 mm. in 
diameter. 

Summit of Mt. Cerrote near Adjuntas, and on Mt. Alegrillo and vicinity near 
Maricao. Endemic. 

9. HETEROTRICHUM DC. Prodr. 3: 173. 1828. 

Shrubs or small trees, mostly hispid, hirsute or glandular-hirsute, with 
petioled, 5-7-nerved leaves and rather large, 5-9-parted flowers in terminal pan- 
icles. Calyx-tube campanulate to subglobose, its lobes mostly subulate and 
elongated. Petals obovate, spreading. Stamens twice as many as the petals; 
filaments filiform; anthers narrow, 1-porose, the connective unappendaged. 
Ovary 6-12-celled; style slender or stout; stigma small. Fruit a many-seeded 
berry. [Greek, various pairs.] About 12 species of tropical America. Type 
species: Heterotrichum angustifolium DC. 

Leaves broadly ovate, membranous. 1. H. cymosum. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous. 2. H. angusttfohum. 

1. Heterotrichum cymosum (Wendl.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 462. 1910. 

Melastoma cymosum Wendl.; Spreng. Syst. 2: 299. 1825. 
Heterotrichum Eggersii Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 282. 1886. 

A shrub, or a small tree 5-10 m. in height, the twigs, petioles and inflores- 
cence densely stellate and glandular-pubescent, somewhat viscid. Leaves long- 
petioled, the blades very broadly ovate, submembranous, 8-15 cm. long, denticu- 
late, ciliate, 7-nerved from the base with the transverse veins numerous and 
slender, pale, densely stellate-pubescent, and setulose on the veins beneath, 
bright green, scabrate and setulose above, the apex acuminate, the base cordate, 
the stout petioles 2-10 cm. long; panicles broad, few-several-flowered, shorter 
than the leaves; pedicels short or none; calyx-tube subcampanulate, 6-7 mm. 
long, its outer lobes 5-6 mm. long; petals white, about 9 mm. long; fruit globose, 
glandular-hirsute, about 12 mm. in diameter. 

Thickets, forests and rocky hillsides in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, ascending 
to higher elevations. Endemic. Terciopelo. 

2. Heterotrichum angustifolium DC. Prodr. 3: 173. 1828. 

A shrub, the twigs, petioles, inflorescence and under leaf-surfaces densely 
stellate-tomentulose and long-setulose, not glandular. Leaves lanceolate to 



MELASTOMACEAE 13 

oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, rigid, short-petioled, entire, ciliate, 5-nerved, 6-12 
cm. long, pale beneath, the transverse venation spreading, the apex acuminate, 
the base rounded or subcordate, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; inflorescence few- 
several-flowered, shorter than the leaves; calyx-tube urceolate, about 6 mm. 
long, the exterior lobes about as long; petals white, 8-10 mm. long; fruit globose, 
nearly black, described as edible. 

Recorded by Cogniaux as collected in Porto Rico by Rledlg: — Known otherwise 
only from Hispaniola. 

10. MECRANIUM Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 1: 980. 1867. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees, with petioled oblong, ovate or lanceolate, 
3-5-nerved leaves and small 4-5-parted flowers in short lateral or axillary panicles. 
Calyx-tube ovoid, campanulate or hemispheric, the short lobes obtuse. Petals 
obovate, obtuse or retuse. Stamens twice as many as the petals, the filaments 
subulate, the anthers linear, 1-2-porose, the base of the connective prolonged, not 
appendaged. Ovary 3-5-celled; style short; stigma small. Fruit a small 
globose berry. [Anagram of Cremanium.] About 10 species, natives of the 
Greater Antilles. Type species: Cremanium virgatum (Sw.) Griseb. 



1. Mecranium amygdalinum (Desr.) C. Wright; Sauvalle, Anales Acad. 
Habana 5: 435. 1869. 

Melastoma amygdalina Desr. in Lam. Encycl. 4: 35. 1797. 

Ossaea amygdalina DC. Prodr. 3: 169. 1828. 

Cremanium amygdalinum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 261. 1860. 

Tamonea integrifolia Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 249. 1903. 

A shrub, or a small tree 5-8 m. high. Leaves lanceolate to oblong or ovate, 
subchartaceous, 5-15 cm. long, green on both sides but somewhat paler beneath 
than above, serrulate or entire, 3-nerved from above the base and with a pair of 
slender marginal veins, the transverse venation slender, the apex acuminate, the 
base narrowed or obtuse, the slender petioles 1-3 cm. long; panicles few-several- 
flowered, about as long as the petioles; pedicels short; calyx ovoid, about 2 mm. 
long; petals white, about 1 mm. long; fruit globose, black, 2-3 mm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, mostly at middle and higher 
elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. Erroneously attributed to St. Thomas. 
Races differ in shape and width of the leaves. 



11. CLIDEMIA D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 306. 1823. 

Shrubs, mostly hirsute or villous, with 3-5-nerved leaves, the small 4-5- 
parted flowers in axillary panicles or fascicles. Calyx-tube campanulate to ur- 
ceolate, variously lobed. Petals obtuse or retuse. Stamens mostly twice as 
many as the petals; the filaments glabrous, filiform or subulate, the anthers linear, 
1-porose, the connective not prolonged. Ovary 3-5-celled; style short or long; 
stigma very small. Berry usually hirsute, many-seeded. [Dedicated to Clide- 
mus, an ancient Greek physician, who studied plant diseases.] About 100 species 
or more, natives of tropical America. Type species: Clidemia neglecta D. Don. 

Flowers 5-6-parted. . 

Inner calyx-teeth very short or none. i. o. num. 

Inner calyx-teeth 2-3 mm. long. 2. C. stngillosa. 

Leaves densely long-hirsute on both sides. 3. C. polystachya. 

Leaves sparsely short-hirsute on both sides. 4. C. dommgensis. 



14 MELASTOMACEAE 

1. Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 309. 1823. 

Melastoma hirta L. Sp. PI. 390. 1753. 
Clidemia crenata DC. Prodr. 3: 157. 1828. 

A shrub, 1.5 m. high or less, the rather slender twigs, the petioles and In- 
florescence densely setose. Leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate, membranous, 5-10 
cm. long, green and setose on both sides, 5-7-nerved from the base with the 
transverse venation slender, denticulate, the apex acute or short-acuminate, the 
base rounded or subcordate, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; panicles 
short, few-flowered; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; flowers 5-6-parted; calyx-tube about 
5 mm. long, its inner teeth very short, the outer 2-4 mm. long, setose; petals white, 
about 8 mm. long; berry globose or ovoid, loosely strigose, black, about 6 mm. in 
diameter. 

Banks, hillsides and woodlands in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico, ascending to 
higher elevations; recorded from St. Thomas, perhaps erroneously; Tortola; — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

2. Clidemia strigillosa (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 159. 1828. 

Melastoma strigillosa Sw. Prodr. 71. 1788. 

Staphidium spicatum Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 17: 316. 1852. 

Clidemia spicata strigillosa Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 247. 1860. 

A shrub, about 1 m. high or less, the twigs, petioles, inflorescence and calyx 
densely glandular-pubescent. Leaves ovate to ovate-elliptic, membranous, 5-12 
cm. long, denticulate, 7-nerved from the base, with the transverse venation rather 
prominent, dark green and setulose above, pale green, reticulated and hirsute 
beneath, the apex acuminate, the base rounded or subcordate, the petioles 1-2 
cm. long; panicles peduncled, mostly many-flowered and shorter than the leaves; 
flowers 5-6-parted, subsessile; calyx-tube about 5 mm. long, the inner teeth 2-3 
mm., the outer 5-7 mm. long; petals white, about 5 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 
black, 6-7 mm. in diameter. [C. lima of Bello, not of de Candolle; C. neglecta 
of Stahl, not of Don.] 

Banks and thickets in moist parts of the central and western districts of Porto Rico, 
ascending to high elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guiana and Peru. 

3. Clidemia polystachya (Naud.) Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 1021. 1891. 

Staphidiaslrum polystachyum Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 17: 327. 1852. 
Sagraea polystachya Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 27: 138. 1871. 

Branches densely and softly hirsute. Leaves narrowly ovate, minutely 
crenulate, 12-18 cm. long, 6-10 cm. wide, densely long-hirsute on both sides, 5- 
nerved from the base; panicles up to 10 cm. long, geminate, many-flowered, their 
branches verticillate, slender, elongated, the 4-parted flowers subsessile; calyx- 
tube campanulate, hirsute, 2 mm. long, the outer teeth 0.5 mm. long; petals 1.5 
mm. long; fruit globose, very small. 

Porto Rico, collected only by Plee, and known to us from descriptions only. En- 
demic. 

4. Clidemia domingensis (DC.) Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 283. 1886. 

Sagraea domingensis DC. Prodr. 3: 171. 1828. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, the twigs hirtellous. Leaves narrowly ovate, or oblong- 
ovate, membranous, 10-17 cm. long, denticulate, 5-nerved, sparsely short-hirsute 
on both sides, the apex acute or short-acuminate, the base rounded, the petioles 
3-7 cm. long; panicles slender, diffuse, few-flowered, 10 cm. long or less; flowers 
4-parted; calyx-tube hirtellous, about 2 mm. long, the outer teeth 0.5 mm. long; 
petals white, about 1 mm. long; berry black or blue, subglobose, 2-3 mm. in 
diameter. 



MELASTOMACEAE 15 

Woodlands near Bayamon, in the Yabucoa Mountains and on Mt. Piedra Azul at 
Jacana: — Hispaniola; St. Vincent. 

Clidemia umbrosa (Sw.) Cogn. was recorded by Cogniaux as found at 
Mayaguez by Krug, after a study of a leaf only, noting that the determination was 
uncertain. Nothing more is known about the species in Porto Rico; it ranges 
from St. Kitts to St. Lucia. 

Clidemia spicata DC, recorded by Cogniaux as collected on St. Thomas 
by Finlay, was really from Trinidad. Eggers erroneously records it as found on 
all three of the former Danish Islands. 

Clidemia rubra Mart., attributed by Naudin to St. Thomas as collected 
by Finlay, was really from Trinidad. 

Clidemia attenuata (Naud.) Cogn., recorded by authors as from St. 
Thomas, collected by Finlay, was also from Trinidad. [Sagraea attenuata Naud.] 



12. HENRIETELLA Naudin, Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 18: 107. 1852. 

Shrubs or trees, with petioled, 3-5-nerved, mostly entire leaves and small 
4-5-parted flowers in fascicles borne on the twigs below the leaves. Calyx cam- 
panulate to hemispheric, its limb truncate or 4-5-toothed. Petals acute or 
acuminate. Stamens usually 10; filaments filiform; anthers oblong, obtuse, 1- 
porose, the connective not appendaged. Ovary 4-5-celled; style filiform. Fruit 
a many-seeded berry. [Diminutive of Henriettea, a related genus.] About 25 
species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Henrietella Seemanni Naudin. 

Calyx-limb truncate; foliage glabrous; leaves 3-nerved. 1. H. MacFadyenii. 
Calyx-limb obtusely dentate; leaves pubescent, 5-nerved. 

Leaves rounded at base; flowers nearly sessile. 2. H. membranifolia. 

Leaves narrowed at base; flowers pedicelled. 3. H. fascicularis. 



1. Henrietella MacFadyenii Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 27: 143. 1871. 

A tree, up to 20 m. high, nearly glabrous throughout, the young foliage some- 
what scurfy, the slender young twigs angular. Leaves oblong, submembranous, 
3-nerved above the base, 5-12 cm. long, bright green above, light green beneath, 
the transverse venation delicate, the apex short-acuminate, the base narrowed, the 
petioles 1-2 cm. long; fascicles few-flowered; pedicels filiform, 5-10 mm. long; 
calyx subhemispheric, about 3 mm. long, its slightly dilated limb truncate; fruit 
subglobose, about 4 mm. in diameter. 

Forests on Mt. Jimenes in the Luquillo Mountains and at Viva Cristo, between 
Adjuntas and Guayanilla: — Jamaica. The petals of this species are unknown. 



2. Henrietella membranifolia Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 1042. 1891. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 10 m. high, the slender twigs terete, hirsute. 
Leaves ovate, membranous, long-petioled, 1-2 dm. long, 5-nerved from above the 
base, ciliate, the apex acute, the base rounded, the petioles 3.5 cm. long or shorter; 
flowers small, 4-parted, nearly sessile in the fascicles; calyx ovoid-campanulate, 
2 mm. long, 4-denticulate ; petals white, triangular-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
2-3 mm. long. 

Woodlands near Lares and Aguada. Endemic. Collected only by Sintenis. 



16 MELASTOMACEAE 

3. Henrietella fascicularis (Sw.) C. "Wright; Sauvalle, Anales Acad. Habana 5: 
435. 1869. 

Melastoma fascicularis Sw. Prodr. 71. 1788. 

Sagraea fascicularis DC. Prodr. 3: 170. 1828. 

Sagraea acutifiora Naud. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 18: 99. 1852. 

Ossaea fascicularis Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 246. 1860. 

A tree, 6-15 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the young twigs and petioles 
densely hirsute. Leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, membranous, 5-nerved above 
the base with the transverse venation slender, green on both sides but paler 
beneath than above, short-hirsute on both sides, especially on the veins beneath, 
the apex acute, the base narrowed, the petioles 1.5 cm. long or shorter; fascicles 
few-several-flowered; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; calyx campanulate, about 3 mm. 
long, obscurely 4-denticulate ; petals white, about 4 mm. long, triangular-lance- 
olate, long-acuminate; berry black, globose, about 6 mm. in diameter. 

Woodlands and forests in moist or wet districts of Porto Rico, ascending to high 
elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

13. OSSAEA DC. Prodr. 3: 168. 1828. 

Shrubs, mostly with pubescent or scabrous foliage, the leaves 3-7-nerved, 
the small 4-6-parted flowers in axillary clusters. Calyx campanulate to oblong, 
its limb truncate or dentate, the outer teeth often subulate. Petals lanceolate or 
subulate, acuminate, often coherent. Stamens twice as many as the petals; 
filaments filiform. Ovary 3-5-celled; style filiform, glabrous. Fruit a many- 
seeded, small berry. [Commemorates Jose Antonio de la Ossa, Spanish botanist.] 
About 50 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Ossaea scalpta 
(Vent.) DC. 

Flowers 5-6-parted, red. 1. O. Krugiana. 
Flowers 4-parted, white. 

Leaves ovate, 7-nerved. 2. O. scabrosa. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 3-nerved. 3. O. domingensts. 

1. Ossaea Krugiana Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 1048. 1891. 

A shrub, about 3 m. high, the slender twigs, the petioles and inflorescence 
densely strigose with thick scale-like hairs. Leaves ovate, membranous, 4-10 
cm. long, serrulate, green on both sides but paler beneath than above, 5-nerved 
with the transverse venation delicate, the apex acuminate, the base rounded, the 
petioles 1-3 cm. long, the upper surface conic-pustulate, the under side strigose 
on the veins; flowers 5-6-parted, nearly sessile, in small, short-peduncled cymes; 
calyx-tube ovoid, about 3 mm. long, its narrow teeth 1-1.5 mm. long; petals red, 
acute, triangular-ovate, about 3 mm. long. 

Primeval forests near Adjuntas. Endemic. The fruit of this species is unknown. 

2. Ossaea scabrosa (L.) DC. Prodr. 3: 169. 1828. 

Melastoma scabrosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 1022. 1759. 
Clidemia scabrosa Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 248. 1860. 

A shrub, up to about 4 m. high, the twigs and petioles densely plumose-stri- 
gose. Leaves ovate, subm'embranous, 5-12 cm. long, denticulate, about 7-nerved 
with the transverse venation delicate, dark green and sparsely tuberculate above, 
pale green and hirtellous beneath, the apex bluntly acute, the base rounded or 
obtuse, the rather stout petioles 1-7 cm. long; flowers in small axillary glomerules; 
calyx-tube campanulate, hirsute, about 2 mm. long, its triangular-subulate teeth 



MELASTOMACEAE 17 

about 1 mm. long; petals acuminate, white, about 2 mm. long; berry small, 
bluish. 

Primeval forest near Utuado, collected only by Sintenls: — Jamaica; Cuba. 

3. Ossaea domingensis Cogn. in Urban, Symb. Ant. 7: 530. 1913. 

A slender shrub, the terete twigs and the petioles densely stellate-scurfy. 
Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, membranous, 6-11 cm. long, nearly 3 times 
as long as wide, 3-nerved, entire, dark green and sparsely setulose above, light 
green and stellulate-puberulent beneath at least on the veins, the apex acute or 
acutish, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers in 
small axillary clusters, 4-parted, the calyx about 1.5 mm. long, puberulent, its 
subulate teeth 1 mm. long or shorter; berry about 2 mm. in diameter. 

Alto de la Bandera, Porto Rico {Stevens 8717): — Hispaniola. 

14. MOURIRI Aubl. PL Guian 1: 452. 1775. 

Glabrous shrubs or trees, with entire, short-petioled or sessile, coriaceous, 
faintly pinnately veined or veinless leaves but the midnerve prominent, the 
mostly small and 5-parted flowers fascicled or solitary at the nodes of twigs, or 
in the axils. Calyx-tube turbinate to hemispheric, smooth or in some species 
scurfy, the limb cup-like, lobed or subtruncate. Petals acute or acuminate. 
Stamens twice as many as the petals, the filaments filiform, the anthers 2-rimose. 
Ovary 1-5-celled; style slender; stigma small; ovules 2-several in each cavity. 
Fruit a drupe-like, 1-4-seeded berry. [Guiana name.] About 40 species, of 
tropical America. Type species: Mouriri guianensis Aubl. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-8 cm. long. 1. M. domingensis. 

Leaves obovate to oval, obtuse, 2-3 cm. long. 2. M. Helleri. 

1. Mouriri domingensis (Tuss.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. 4: 276. 1835. 

Petaloma domingensis Tuss. Fl. Ant. 3: 119. 1824. 
Aulacocarpus quadrangularis Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 239. 1860. 
Eugenia telrasperma Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 271. 1881. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 10 m., with slender, somewhat 
4-angled twigs. Leaves ovate, slightly fleshy, 4-9 cm. long, shining above, faintly 
few-veined, the apex acute or short-acuminate, the base obtuse or somewhat 
narrowed, the petioles 3-5 mm. long; flowers fascicled; pedicels 6 mm. long or 
less; calyx-tube turbinate, about 3 mm. long, its lobes short and broad; petals 
oblong, rose, acute, 4 mm. long; fruit subglobose, yellow or orange, about 15 mm. 
in diameter. [Petaloma Mouriri of West.] 

Woodlands and thickets at lower and middle altitudes, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. 
Croix: — Hispaniola; Antigua; Guadeloupe. Sometimes cultivated. Caimitillo. Gua- 

SAVARA. MURTA. 

2. Mouriri Helleri Britton, Torreya 2: 10. 1902. 

A spreading shrub, 2-3 m. high, much branched, the slender young twigs 
quadrangular. Leaves obovate to oval or oval-obovate, 2-3 cm. long, bluish 
green, shining, coriaceous, very obscurely veined, the apex rounded or obtuse, the 
base narrowed, the margins slightly revolute, the petioles about 1 mm. long, 
flowers solitary in the upper axils; pedicels 5—6 mm. long, 2-bracteolate at about 
the middle; fruit orange, 10 mm. in diameter or larger, the persistent calyx-limb 
with short broad acute lobes. [M. domingensis of Bello, not of Spach.] 

Sandy and rocky soil, near Catano, Hatillo and Guanica. Endemic. Mameytjelo. 



IS LYTHKACEAE 

Mouriri guianensis Aubl., a related species, of Trinidad and northern 
South America, was recorded by Krebs in 1852, as found in St. Thomas; it may 
have been planted there. 

Tibouchina (?) diffusa (Pav.) Cogn., described as from Porto Rico by 
D. Don, has not been identified with any known species by modern botanists. 
[Melasioma diffusa Pav.; D. Don, Mem. Wern. Soc. 4: 291. 1823. Pleroma (?) 
diffusa DC] 

Charianthus nodosus (Desr.) Triana, of the Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts 
southward, was recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, presumably in error. 
[Melastoma nodosa Desr.] 

Conostegia procera (Sw.) D. Don, a species endemic in Jamaica, was 
erroneously recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas; there is a parish of St. Thomas in 
Jamaica. 



Family 2. LYTHRACEAE Lindl. 

Loosestrife Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, or often trees in tropical regions, mostly with opposite 
leaves and perfect flowers. Stipules usually none. Calyx persistent, free 
from the ovary, the limb toothed. Petals as many as the primary calyx- 
teeth; inserted on the calyx, or none. Stamens inserted on the calyx; 
anthers versatile. Ovary 2-6-celled or sometimes 1-celled; style 1; ovules 

00, rarely few, anatropous. Capsule 1-several-celled. Seeds without 
endosperm; cotyledons flat, often auricled at the base. About 21 genera 
and 400 species of wide distribution. 

Calyx-tube short, globose to turbinate. 
Herbaceous plants. 

Capsule septicidally dehiscent. 1. Rotala. 

Capsule bursting irregularly. 2. Ammannia. 

Shrubs or small trees. 

Stamens 10-20; capsule dehiscent; native tree. 3. Ginoria. 

Stamens 8 ; capsule indehiscent or irregularly bursting; introduced. 4. Lawsonia. 
Calyx-tube tubular; flowers irregular. 5. Parsonsia. 

1. ROTALA L. Mant. 143, 175. 1771. 

Low annual mainly glabrous herbs, usually with opposite leaves, 4-angled 
stems, and axillary, mainly solitary, small flowers. Calyx campanulate or globose, 
4-lobed. Stamens 4, short. Ovary free from the calyx, globose, 4-celled. Cap- 
sule subglobose, 4-celled, the valves minutely and densely striate transversely. 
[Latin, wheel, from the whorled leaves of some species.] About 30 species, of 
wide distribution. Type species: Rotala verticillata L. 

1. Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 13 2 : 194. 1877. 

Ammannia ramosior L. Sp. PL 120. 1753. 
Ammannia humilis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 99. 1803. 
Peplis occidentalis Spreng. Syst. 2: 135. 1825. 
Ammannia occidentalis DC. Prodr. 3:.78. 1828. 



r-, } 



Glabrous, 5-25 cm. high- Leaves oblong or linear-oblong, 1-3 cm. Ion 
blunt at the apex, narrowed and sessile at the base or tapering into a short petiole, 



LYTHEACEAE 19 

not auricled; flowers solitary or rarely 3 in the axils, very small; petals minute; 
style almost none; capsule about 3 mm. long. 

Wet or moist open grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — Hispani- 
ola; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Trinidad; Margarita; continental temperate and tropical 
America; Philippine Islands. Yerba de cancer. 

2. AMMANNIA [Houst.] L. Sp. PI. 119. 1753. 

Annual glabrous or glabrate herbs, mostly with 4-angled stems, opposite 
sessile narrow leaves, and small axillary flowers. Calyx campanulate, globose or 
ovoid, 4-angled, 4-toothed, often with small accessory teeth in the sinuses. Petals 
4, deciduous, or none. Stamens 4-8, inserted on the calyx-tube. Ovary nearly 
globular, 2-4-celled. Capsule bursting irregularly. [Named for Johann Am- 
mann, 1699-1741, a German botanist.] About 20 species, of wide distribution, 
known as Crab-weed and Yerba de cancer. Type species: Ammannia 
latifolia L. 

Style very short. 1. A. latifolia. 

Style filiform, usually more than half as long as the capsule. 2. A. coccinea. 

1. Ammannia latifolia L. Sp. PI. 119. 1753. 

Erect, 2-11 dm. high, the branches nearly erect, or ascending. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 2-7 cm. long, 2-10 cm. wide, acute or blunt 
at the apex, sessile, clasping the stem by an auricled base; flowers minute, green, 
sessile and solitary or few together in the axils; calyx about 2 mm. long; petals 
none ; style short ; capsule about 4 mm. in diameter, enclosed by the calyx. 

Marshes, ditches, borders of lakes and in cultivated ground, Porto Rico, at lower 
elevations; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tor tola: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical 
America. 

2. Ammannia coccinea Rottb. PI. Hort. Havn. Descr. 7. 1773. 

Ammannia sanguinolenta Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 272. 1797. 

Erect, 1.5-5 dm. high. Leaves obtusely cordate-auriculate and dilated at 
the somewhat clasping base, entire, 2-8 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide; flowers 1-5 in 
each axil, sessile or nearly so; petals purple, fugacious; style very slender; cap- 
sule 3-4 mm. in diameter, enclosed by the calyx. 

Marshes, ditches and borders of lakes, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; Curacao; temperate 
and tropical continental America; Pacific and Philippine Islands. 

3. GINORIA Jacq. Enum. 5, 22. 1760. 

Shrubs or small trees, prickly or unarmed, with opposite entire leaves, and 
large or small, solitary or clustered, often showy, axillary pedicelled flowers. 
Calyx hemispheric to turbinate, 4-6-lobed. Petals 4-6, broad, erose. Stamens 
10-20, borne on the calyx-tube; filaments filiform; anthers oblong. Ovary sub- 
globose; style slender ; stigma capitate. Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule. 
Seeds many, small. [Commemorates Carlo Ginori, Italian botanist.] About 10 
species, natives of the West Indies. Type species: Ginoria americana Jacq. 

1. Ginoria Rohrii (Vahl) Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. 3: 351. 1882. 

Antherylium Rohrii Vahl, Skr. Nat. Selsk. 2 1 : 211. 1792. 

A shrub, or small tree about 5 m. high, the branches nearly erect, glabrous 
throughout, the twigs sharply 4-angled, bearing 2-4 short decurrent prickles at 



20 LYTHRACEAE 

the nodes. Leaves ovate to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, membranous when 
young, chartaceous when old, 3-8.5 cm. long, strongly pinnately veined, green 
on both sides, the apex acute, obtuse or rounded, the base mostly narrowed, the 
petioles 3 mm. long or shorter; flowers in sessile axillary or lateral umbels or 
sometimes solitary; pedicels filiform, 2-13 mm. long; calyx about 6 mm. long, 
its lobes much longer than the tube; petals obovate, white, 6-9 mm. long; style 
filiform; capsule globose-ovoid, about as long as the calyx. 

Thickets, hillsides and plains along and near the eastern and southern coasts and about 
Lake Guanica, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin 
Gorda: — Hispaniola; recorded from St. Vincent. Sometimes occurs within saline in- 
fluence. Ucaeillo. Rosa de cienega. Bastard Gregre. 

4. LAWSONIA L. Sp. PI. 349. 1753. 

A glabrous shrub, the slender branches unarmed or spinescent, the small 
opposite leaves entire, the small fragrant flowers paniculate. Calyx-tube tur- 
binate, 4-angled, much shorter than the 4 ovate spreading lobes. Petals 4, 
sessile, erose. Stamens 8, borne at the base of the calyx-tube ; filaments subulate ; 
anthers oblong. Ovary globose, 4-celled; style filiform; stigma capitate. Cap- 
sule globose, at length irregularly bursting. [Commemorates John Lawson, 
English physician and naturalist.] A monotypic genus. 

l. Lawsonia inermis L. Sp. PI. 349. 1753. 

A densely much-branched shrub, 2 m. high or higher, the twigs terete. 
Leaves oblong, or some of them obovate, thin, dark green, 2-5 cm. long, delicately 
pinnately veined, the apex acute, the base narrowed, the petioles 1-2 mm. long; 
panicles subcorymbose, longer than the leaves, commonly many-flowered ; pedicels 
filiform, 3-6 mm. long; flowers white, about 8 mm. broad; stamens rather longer 
than the petals; capsule 5—7 mm. in diameter. 

Spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — widely planted 
for ornament and spontaneous in the West Indies. Native of the Old World tropics. 
Reseda. Egyptian Privet. Henna Plant. Mignonette-tree. 

5. PARSONSIA P. Br.; Adans. Fam. PL 2: 234. 1763. 

Herbs (some shrubs in tropical regions), with opposite or verticillate leaves. 

Flowers axillary, irregular and unsymmetrical. Calyx-tube elongated, 12-ribbed, 

gibbous or spurred at the base, oblique at the mouth, with 6 primary teeth and 

usually as many accessory ones. Petals 6, unequal. Stamens 6-11, inserted on 

the throat of the calyx, unequal; filaments short. Ovary with a curved gland at 

its base, unequally 2-celled; style slender; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule oblong, 

1-celled, laterally dehiscent. Seeds flattened. [In honor of James Parsons, 

M.D., a Scotch botanist.] About 180 species, natives of America, those of 

Porto Rico called Chiagari. Type species: Lythrum Parsonsia L. 

Pubescence short, rough; plant diffuse. 1. P. Parsonsia. 

Pubescence long, often viscid; plant erect. 2. P. micrantha. 

1. Parsonsia Parsonsia (L.) Britton; Northrop, Mem. Torr. Club 12: 53. 1902. 

Lythrum Parsonsia L. Syst. ed. 10, 1045. 1759. 
Parsonsia herbacea J. St. Hil. Exp. Fam. Nat. 2: 173. 1805. 
Cuphea Parsonsia R. Br.; Steud. Nom. 1: 245. 1821. 
Parsonsia radicans Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 87. 1893. 
Lythrum repens Sessg & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 121. 1894. 

Annual; stem little-branched, the branches prostrate or ascending, 1-3 dm. 
long, rough-pubescent. Leaves ovate or oblong, 1-2 cm. long, very short- 



PUNICACEAE 21 

petioled, acute or obtuse at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, scabrous or 
nearly smooth; flowers solitary in upper axils, short-peduncled ; calyx about 4 
mm. long, gibbous at the base, its teeth very small; petals pale purple, about 2 
mm. long; stamens mostly 6, included; filaments glabrous; capsule about 5 mm. 
long, few-seeded. 

Sandy and rocky soil, and in cultivated grounds at lower and middle elevations in wet 
or moist districts of Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; Mexico. 

2. Parsonsia micrantha (H.B.K.) Jennings, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 11: 198. 1917. 

Cuphea micrantha H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 6: 196. 1823. 
Melanium hirtum Spreng. Syst. 2: 454. 1825. 

Annual; stem erect, slender, simple or branched, pubescent and glandular- 
hirsute, 1-4.5 dm. high. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, nearly sessile, 
thin, loosely hirsute, 1.5-6.5 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
narrowed, rounded or subcordate; flowers solitary or few in the upper axils, the 
peduncles 1-3 mm. long; calyx 4-7 mm. long, slightly gibbous, the teeth short; 
stamens 11. 

Wet sand near Dorado, Porto Rico, collected only by Statu; we failed to find it in 
that vicinity in 1922 and 1923: — Cuba; Hispaniola; continental tropical America. 

Parsonsia platycentra (Lemaire) Britton, Mexican, occasionally grown in 
Porto Rico flower gardens, is a low shrub, 3-5 dm. high, with oblong thin pu- 
berulent acuminate petioled leaves 2-4 cm. long, slender-peduncled flowers 2-3 
cm. long, the nearly cylindric calyx scarlet with a white 6-toothed mouth; there 
are no petals. [Cuphea platycentra Lemaire.] 

Lagerstroemia indica L., Astromeda, Astromera, Crape Myrtle, 
Queen of Shrubs, Asiatic, much planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands, perhaps sometimes subspontaneous after cultivation, is a tall 
shrub or small tree, with rather small, entire, mostly opposite leaves, the showy 
pink or white flowers in terminal panicles, with 6-clawed and crisped petals and 
many long unequal filaments, the fruit a leathery capsule about 1 cm. in diameter. 

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., Queen of Flowers, East Indian, 
occasionally planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a tree, 
becoming under favorable conditions 10 m. high or higher; the elliptic leaves 
are pinnately veined, 8-10 cm. long, the elegant rose to purple flowers 5-8 cm. 
broad, in panicles 2-3 dm. long, the fruit a capsule 3-5 cm. long. [Munchausia 
speciosa L. ; Lagerstroemia Flos-reginae Retz.] 



Family 3. PUNICACEAE Horan. 

Pomegranate Family. 

Shrubs or small trees, with terete branches. Leaves opposite or nearly 
so, entire. Flowers perfect, showy, solitary or clustered in the axils, short- 
peduncled. Calyx leathery, turbinate, adnate to the ovary, its lobes 5-7. 
Corolla of 5-7 petals inserted at the throat of the calyx-tube, wrinkled. 
Stamens numerous in many series on the calyx-tube; filaments filiform; 
anthers versatile. Ovary several-celled, inferior; styles united; stigma 
slightly lobed. Ovules numerous, superimposed in 2 series. Fruit a several- 
celled berry crowned with the calyx, with a leathery coat, its septa mem- 
branous. Seeds angled, in a watery. pulp, with a leathery testa. Embryo 
with spirally convolute cotyledons, each auricled at the base. Only the 
following genus containing the one typical species and perhaps one other. 



22 TERMINALIACEAE 

1. PUNICA L. Sp. PL 472. 1753. 

Characters of the family. [Latin, from the Roman name for Carthage, 
where the fruit was obtained.] 

1. Punica Granatum L. Sp. PL 472. 1753. 

Punica nana L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 676. 1763. 

A shrub, or tree reaching a height of 7 m. Foliage glabrous; leaves leathery, 
oval, elliptic or oblong, varying to broadest slightly above or below the middle, 
1-8 cm. long, obtuse or acute, or rarely retuse, flat, short-petioled ; peduncles 
stout, 1-several-flowered; calyx-tube turbinate, becoming campanulate, later 
subglobose, its lobes triangular or triangular-lanceolate, much shorter than the 
tube, acute, fin ally deciduous; petals scarlet or white, their blades suborbiculhr or 
orbiculhr-obovate, 2.5 cm. long or less, short-clawed; fruit subglobose, 6-14 cm. 
in dihmeter. 

Occasionally spontaneous after planting for its fruit in Porto Rico: St. Croix; St. 
Thomas; St. Jan: — widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions. Native of the 
Mediterranean region. The dwarf, small-leaved and small-flowered race was seen 
growing well in Mrs. McKinley's garden near San Juan in 1924. Granada. Pome- 
granate. 



Family 4. TERMINALIACEAE J. St. Hil. 

White Mangrove Family. 

Trees, shrubs, or vines, with petioled, usually simple and entire, estipu- 
late leaves, and regular, perfect or rarely polygamo-dioecious flowers, mostly 
spicate, racemose or capitate. Tube of the calyx adnate to the ovary, the 
limb 4-8-cleft. Petals usually small or none. Stamens various; filaments 
filiform; anthers didymous or 2-celled, the sacs dehiscent longitudinally or 
by valves. Ovary 1-celled; ovules 1-several; style usually straight; stigma 
simple. Fruit various, mostly indehiscent, coriaceous or baccate. About 
15 genera and some 275 species, mostly tropical. 

Petals wanting. 
Calyx deciduous. 

Flowers in axillary spikes; fruit drupaceous. 

Fruit ellipsoid, compressed. 1. Terminalia. 

Fruit oblong, subterete. 2. Buchenavia. 

Flowers in globose heads; fruit scale-like. 3. Conncarpus. 

Calyx persistent. 4. Bucida. 

Petals present; calyx persistent. 5. Laguncularia. 

1. TERMINALIA L. Mant. 1: 21, 128. 1767. 

Trees or shrubs, with broad alternate entire leaves, usually clustered at the 
ends of the branches, and small spicate flowers. Calyx-tube terete, ribless, the 
lobes deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 10 to 20, exserted, the filaments 
slender, the anthers cordate. Fruit a flattened drupe. [Latin, referring to the 
clustered leaves at the ends of the branches.] About 100 species, mostly of the 
Old World tropics. Type species: Terminalia Calappa L. 

1. Terminalia Catappa L. Mant. 1: 128. 1767. 

Buceras Catappa Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 85. 1893. 

A tree, up to 24 m. high, with a trunk diameter of 1.5 m., usually much 
smaller, the spreading branches whorled, the twigs stout, glabrous, the bark 



TERMINALIACEAE 23 

shallowly Assured. Leaves clustered at the ends of the twigs, obovate or broadly 
oblanceolate, 1-3 dm. long, short-petioled, glabrous, rounded or short-pointed 
at the apex, cuneate at the base, dark green and shining above, pale green 
beneath; spikes slender, many-flowered, 5-15 cm. long; calyx 8-10 mm. long, 
pubescent, its ovate lobes about as long as the tube or longer; drupe ellipsoid, 
compressed, glabrous, 2-edged, pointed, 4-7 cm. long; seed 3-4 cm. long. 

Hillsides and sand dunes, Porto Rico, mostly near or along the coasts; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; much planted for shade: — Florida; 
West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Native of Malaya. 
The brownish hard and strong wood, used for furniture and in construction, has a specific 
gravity of about 0.7. The ripe seeds are eaten, like almonds; the green fruits are highly 
astringent and may be used in tanning. Almendron. Indian Almond. Malabar 
Almond. 

2. BUCHENAVIA Eichl. Flora 49: 164. 1866. 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate entire leaves, mostly clustered at the ends of 
the twigs, the small flowers capitate or spicate. Calyx terete, 5-toothed, the 
teeth deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 10, scarcely exserted, in 2 series; 
filaments cylindric; anthers subdidymous. Fruit an oblong or ovoid drupe. 
[Named in honor of Franz Buchenau, German botanist, 1831-1906.] About 8 
species, the following typical one widely distributed in tropical America, the others 
mostly Brazilian. 

l. Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Eichl. Flora 49: 165. 1866. 

Bucida capitata Vahl, Eclog. 1: 50. 1796. 

Pseudolmedia bucidaefolia Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 12: 109. 1883. 

A large tree, up to 25 m. high or higher, with a trunk 6-15 dm. in diameter, 
the young twigs pubescent, the brown bark slightly fissured. Leaves obovate to 
spatulate, subcoriaceous, 3-7 cm. long, reticulate-veined, dark green, nearly 
glabrous and shining above, light green beneath and appressed-pubescent on the 
veins, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base cuneate, the petioles 3-8 mm. long, 
pubescent; peduncles pubescent, 1-3 cm. long; spikes subglobose or oblong, 10- 
18 mm. long; flowers green, very small; drupe oblong, 1.5-2.5 cm. long. 

Woodlands and forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, mostly at middle and 
higher elevations; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Montserrat to St. Vincent; 
continental tropical America. The wood is satiny, hard, strong and heavy, valued for 
furniture and in construction. Granadillo. 

3. CONOCARPUS L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

A shrub or tree of the seacoast, with alternate entire leathery leaves, the 
petioles 2-glandular, the small greenish perfect flowers in racemed or panicled 
heads. Calyx-tube flattened, not prolonged beyond the ovary; sepals 5, decidu- 
ous. Petals none. Stamens mostly 5, with slender elongated filaments and 
cordate anthers. Style pubescent. Ovules 2. Drupes scale-like, densely aggre- 
gated. Seeds flat ; cotyledons convolute. [Greek, referring to the cone-like heads 
of fruit.] A monotypic American genus. 

1. Conocarpus erecta L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

A glabrate or silky-pubescent shrub or tree, sometimes 20 m. tall, sometimes 
less than 1 m. high, with angled or winged twigs, the bark astringent. Leaves 
2-5 cm., long, elliptic to oval or acuminate at both ends, entire, short-petioled; 
racemes 3-5 cm. long, peduncled; heads 5-8 mm. in diameter at flowering time; 
calyx-tube funnel-like, greenish, a little over 1 mm. long; its lobes triangular, 



■ 



24 TERMINALIACEAE 

about as long as the limb of the calyx, pubescent; stamens and style conspicuously 
exserted; heads of fruit 9-14 mm. long; drupes 2-winged, 4-7 mm. long. 

Coastal rocks and mangrove swamps, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies; 
continental tropical America; western tropical Africa. The wood is brownish, hard, 
strong and very heavy, its specific gravity barely 1.00. Mangle boton. Buttonwood. 
Button-tree. 

4. BUCIDA L. Syst. ed. 10, 1025. 1759. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes spinescent, with coriaceous entire alternate leaves 
clustered at the end of the twigs, and small spicate or capitate flowers, some 
perfect, some staminate. Calyx broadly campanulate, slightly 5-toothed, per- 
sistent. Petals none. Stamens 10, in 2 series; filaments slender, exserted. 
Fruit a small, slightly fleshy drupe, crowned by the at length deciduous calyx. 
[Latin; slender horn-like galls develop from the fruit after it is bitten by a mite.] 
Two species, natives of the West Indian region. Type species: Bucida Buceras L. 

1. Bucida Buceras L. Syst. ed. 10, 1025. 1759. 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 25 m., the trunk up to 1 m. in 
diameter or more, the young twigs and leaves pubescent, becoming glabrous, the 
old bark grey, separating into oblong scales. Leaves clustered at the ends of 
twigs, spatulate to elliptic, 3-9 cm. long, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, nar- 
rowed at the base, short-petioled; spikes peduncled, slender, pubescent, 3-10 cm. 
long; calyx-lobes triangular, acute; stamens exserted; drupe ovoid-conic, about 
8 mm. long, tomentulose, slightly curved. 

Plains, hillsides, river banks and coastal woods, at lower elevations, Porto Rico; 
Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; West Indies; Panama. The 
light brown or nearly white wood is used for shingles, cogs, in carpentry and for boats; 
it is durable, hard, heavy, strong and tough, with specific gravity about 1.04. A resin 
exudes from cut trunks; the astringent bark has been used in tanning. Bucaro. Black 
Olive. Water Gregre. Gregory Wood. 

5. LAGUNCULARIA Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 209. 1805. 

A halophytic tree or shrub, with opposite entire leaves, the petioles 2-glandu- 
lar, and small greenish flowers in clustered spikes. Flowers polygamous or per- 
fect. Calyx-tube terete, 5-lobed. Petals 5, minute. Stamens 10, short, the 
filaments subulate, the anthers cordate. Ovary with a scalloped epigynous disk; 
style short, glabrous; stigma somewhat 2-lobed; ovules 2 in each cavity. Drupes 
coriaceous, ribbed or angled. Seed solitary, germinating within the drupe. 
[Latin, from the fancied resemblance of the drupe to a flask. J A monotypic genus. 

l. Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 209. 1805. 

tlonocarpus racemosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 930. 1759. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 20 m. with a trunk up to 8 dm. 
in diameter, usually much smaller, and often shrubby, the reddish brown, glabrous 
twigs thickened at the nodes. Leaves oblong, oval or obovate, 2-7 cm. long, 
emarginate or rounded at the apex, rounded, narrowed or subcordate at the base, 
the stout petioles 0.5-2 cm. long; spikes 3-6 cm. long, few-several-flowered; 
calyx tomentulose, its lobes rounded; petals 5, orbicular, not longer than the 
calyx; drupes oblong to obovoid, reddish, 1.5-2 cm. long, constricted below the 
persistent calyx-lobes. 

Coastal swamps, Porto Rico; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Anegada: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America; west tropical Africa. 



MYRTACEAE 25 

Its yellowish brown wood is hard and strong, with specific gravity about 0.86; the bark is 
astringent. Mangle blanco. White Mangrove. 

Quisqualis indica L., Qttisqtjal, Rangoon Creeper, a woody vine of the 
Old World tropics, is planted for ornament about houses in Porto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands; it has opposite, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, entire, acuminate 
leaves 7-10 cm. long, the flowers numerous and showy in terminal drooping 
spikes with a very slender calyx-tube 7 or 8 cm. long and 5 white, pink to red 
oblong-lanceolate petals 1.5-2 cm. long, the leathery capsular fruit 5-angled. 

Grislea coccinea (Lam.) Britton, Madagascan, an elegant vine seen in 
1923 in a garden at St. Thomas, where it had nourished for many years, becomes 
at least 6 m. long, slender and with long branches, the opposite oblong-glabrous 
acute leaves 7-10 cm. long, the small numerous bright red flowers in terminal 
panicled racemes, the calyx 5-lobed, the petals 5, the 10 exserted stamens about 
12 mm. long. [Combretum coccineum Lam.] 



Family 5. MYRTACEAE R. Br. 
Myrtle Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with simple, usually opposite and entire, pellucid- 
punctate, estipulate leaves, the regular and perfect, often bracteolate flowers 
mostly panicled. Calyx-tube (hypanthium) adnate to the ovary, the limb 
usually 4-5-cleft. Petals usually 4 or 5, imbricated, rarely wanting. Disc 
mostly annular and fleshy. Stamens usually numerous, sometimes only as 
many as the petals; filaments filiform, distinct, or united at the base; anthers 
small, 2-celled. Ovary inferior, 2-several, or rarely 1-celled, style simple; 
stigma terminal, small; ovules usually 2-several in each cavity. Fruit 
drupaceous or baccate, often crowned by the calyx-limb, or in some genera 
capsular. Seeds various; endosperm usually wanting._ About 60 genera, 
including over 1700 species, mostly tropical in distribution. 

A. Radicle well developed, usually about as long as the cotyledons or longer. 

1. Embryo much curved or spiral. 

Testa of the seed horny. 

Calyx-lobes persistent. 1. Psidium. 

Calvx-limb closed in bud, circumscissile and irregularly 

separating. 2. Calyptropsidium. 

Testa of the seed thin or crustaceous. 3. Amomis. 

2. Embryo straight or somewhat curved. 

a. Anther-sacs all alike and equal. 

Calyx-limb persistent. 

Calyx-lobes 4 or 5, distinct. 4. Myrcia. 

Calyx closed in bud, rupturing in anthesis. 5. Plinia. 

Calyx-limb deciduous, cup-like. 6. Calyptranthes. 

b. The two inner anther-sacs higher than the two outer. 7. Gomidesia. 

B. Radicle very short, much shorter than the thick cotyledons. 
Inflorescence centripetal. 

Calyx-tube subhemispheric. 8. Eugenia. 

Calyx-tube obconic. 9. Jambos. 

Inflorescence centrifugal, cymose. 10. Anamomis. 

1. PSIDIUM L. Sp. PI. 470. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs with pinnately veined leaves and large, axillary or terminal, 
solitary or clustered flowers. Calyx-tube somewhat prolonged beyond the ovary, 
its 4 or 5 lobes often united in the bud, irregularly parting at anthesis, persistent. 
Petals 4 or 5, spreading. Stamens numerous, with filiform filaments in several 
series. Ovary 4-5-celled; ovules several or many in each cavity. Berry 
crowned by the calyx-lobes. Seeds several or many, the testa horny. Embryo 



26 MYRTACEAE 

curved, with small cotyledons and a long radicle. [Greek, referring to the 
edible fruit.] A large genus, of which about 100 species have been described. 
Type species: Psidium Guajava L. 

Leaves oblong, short-petioled, not cordate, chartaceous. 1. P. Guajava. 

Leaves suborbicular, subsessile, subcordate, coriaceous. 2. P. amplexicaule. 

1. Psidium Guajava L. Sp. PI. 470. 1753. 

Psidium pyriferum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 672. 1762. 
Psidium pomiferum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 672. 1762. 
Psidium pumilum Vahl, Symb. 2: 56. 1794. 
Psidium Guava Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 241. 1860. 

A shrub, or a small tree, sometimes 7 m. tall, the trunk up to 2 dm. in 
diameter, with pubescent 4-angled branchlets. Leaves subchartaceous, oblong 
or nearly so, 4-8 cm. long, acute or obtuse, pubescent beneath, with prominent 
rib-like nerves, short-petioled; calyx-lobes 1-1.5 cm. long, united in the bud; 
petals 1.5-2 cm. long; fruit globular or pyriform, yellow, 3-6 cm. in diameter. 

Thickets and hillsides at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies and continental tropical 
America; widely planted for its fruit in tropical and subtropical regions. The fruit yields 
the well-known dulce de guayava or guava jelly. The hard brownish, strong and tough wood 
has a specific gravity of about 0.7 , and is used for implements and in carpentry. Guayava. 
Guava. 

2. Psidium amplexicaule Pers. Syn. 2: 27. 1807. 

Psidium cordatum Sims, BOt. Mag. pi. 1779. 1816. 

A glabrous shrub, 2-A m. high, the twigs gray, rather stout, subdivaricate. 
Leaves suborbicular or ovate-orbicular, coriaceous, very nearly sessile, sub- 
cordate, 4-7 cm. long, the venation spreading; peduncles terminal and sometimes 
axillary, solitary or few together, stout, 1 cm. long or less; calyx 6-8 mm. long; 
ovary 2^1-celled; fruit subglobose, about 2 cm. in diameter. 

Hillsides, St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda. Recorded as planted on 
St. Croix and on Guadeloupe. Recorded by Sims from Nevis. Sperry Guava. Moun- 
tain Guava. 

Psidium aromaticum Krebs, recorded from St. Thomas, is not identified; 
it is not the same as P. aromaticum Aublet. 

Psidium Cattleyanum Sabine, Purple Guava, Strawberry Guava, 
Brazilian, occasionally planted in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands for its fruit, 
is a small tree with obovate cuneate leaves, its twigs terete, its flowers smaller 
than those of the Common Guava, its globose purplish fruit about 2.5 cm. in 
diameter. 

A tree, planted at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Mayaguez, about 
7 m. high when seen in 1913, called Guayabota, has small oblong-oblanceolate, 
short-petioled leaves about 2 cm. long, narrowed at both ends, the Aliform axillary 
peduncles somewhat shorter than the leaves, the globose fruit about 5 mm. in 
diameter. 

2. CALYPTROPSIDIUM Berg, Linnaea 27: 349. 1856. 

Trees, with opposite, densely punctate leaves and mostly solitary, axillary 
flowers. Calyx closed in bud, circumscissile and irregularly separating. Petals 5. 
Stamens many, filiform, in several, series. Ovary 5-celled; ovules many. Fruit 
a many-seeded small berry. Embryo curved, with a long radicle and short 



MYRTACEAE 27 

cotyledons. [Greek, capped- Psidium.] About 10 species of tropical America. 
Type species: Calyptropsidium Friedrichsthalianum Berg. 

1. Calyptropsidium Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 280. 1890. 

A small tree, up to about 8 m. high, the foliage glabrous, the twigs slender. 
Leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 3-6 cm. long, subchartaceous, indistinctly 
veined, densely punctate, the apex acute, the base narrowed, the slender petioles 
6 mm. long or less; flowers solitary, lateral, the slender peduncles 1—2.5 cm. long; 
calyx-tube about 2 mm. long; fruit subglobose, about 8 mm. long, crowned by 
the calyx. 

High mountain forests in the Sierra de Luquillo. Endemic. 

3. AMOMIS Berg. Handb. Pharm. Bot. ed. 3, 1: 339. 1855. 

Aromatic trees, with large coriaceous punctate pinnately veined leaves, and 
small 5-parted flowers in axillary many-flowered panicles. Calyx-tube scarcely 
prolonged beyond the ovary, its spreading lobes persistent. Petals spreading. 
Stamens many, in several series, with filiform filaments. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 
about 6 in each cavity; style short; stigma slightly oblique. Seed with a thin 
crustaceous testa, the embryo spiral, with a long radicle and short cotyledons. 
[Name, Greek, significance not given.] Three species, of the West Indies and 
northern South America. Type species: Myrtus acris Sw. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 1. A. carophyllata. 

Leaves densely whitish-puberulent beneath. 2. A. grisea. 

1. Amomis caryophyllata (Jacq.) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 573. 1895. 

Myrtus caryophyllatus Jacq. Obs. 2: 1. 1767. 

Myrtus Pimenta Ortega, Hist. Malagueta. 1780. 

Myrtus acris Sw. Prodr. 79. 1788. 

Myrica acris DC. Prodr. 3: 243. 1828. 

Pimenta acris Kostel. Allg. Med. Fl. 4: 1526. 1835. 

Pimenta acuminata Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 270. 1881. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 15 m., with a trunk up to about 
6 dm. in diameter, usually lower, mostly 5-10 m. high, sometimes shrubby, the 
angular and glandular twigs, the leaves and inflorescence glabrous or nearly so. 
Leaves elliptic, oblong-elliptic or obovate, 5-15 cm. long, bright green and finely 
many-veined and reticulated on both sides, the apex rounded, obtuse, emarginate 
or sometimes acutish, the base narrowed or obtuse, the rather stout petioles .5-15 
mm. long; panicles usually ample and many-flowered, longer than the leaves, 
glandular; calyx-teeth broad, short, acutish; petals rounded, about 4 mm. long; 
fruit oval to obovoid, 8-10 mm. long, few-seeded. [P. vulgaris of Bello, not of 
Lindley.) 

Hillsides and forests in moist districts, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations ; 
Vieques; St. Croix (according to Eggers); St. Jan; Tortola: — Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin 
to Trinidad and northern South America. The leaves and twigs yield by distillation the 
important oil of bay or bay oil; a superior kind of this oil is produced on St. Jan, where 
there are extensive forests of the tree, obtained for the most part by clearing away other 
trees and bushes thus permitting the bay trees to grow from seedlings without much 
cultivation. Much oil is also obtained from wild trees in Porto Rico, but little or none 
in St. Croix, St. Thomas or Tortola. The species consists of many races differing mainly 
in the amount and quality of the oil contained, but also in shape, size and color of the 
leaves and shape of the fruit. Reference is made to an important paper on " The Bay 
Rum and Bay Oil Industries of St. Thomas and St. Jan" written by Mr. W. C. Fishlock 
and published in West Indian Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 4. The dark wood is strong, very 
hard, tough, mottled and durable, with a specific gravity of about 0.9; it is utilized for 
rollers, sills, posts and to some extent in carpentry. Malagueta. Ausu. Gtjayavita. 
Bat Rum Tree. Wild Cinnamon. 



28 MYRTACEAE 

2. Amomis grisea (Kiaersk.) Britton. 

Pimenta acris grisea Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 289. 1890. 

Amomis caryophyllata grisea Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 575. 1895. 

A tree, up to 8 m. high or higher, the young twigs densely puberulent, angular, 
slender. Leaves elliptic to obovate, coriaceous, similar to those of the preceding 
species, but pale, whitish and densely puberulent beneath, at least when young; 
panicles short, often not longer than the leaves, densely puberulent or tomentu- 
lose; calyx tomentose, its teeth ovate. [Pimenta Pimento of Bello, not of Grise- 
bach.j 

Wooded hills and forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Kico; St. Thomas (ex 
Eggers); Tortola: — Hispaniola. Limoncillo. Cinnamon Bush. 

4. MYRCIA DC; Guill. Diet. Class. Nat. 11: 378, 401. 1826. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite punctate pinnately veined leaves, and small 

flowers in terminal and axillary panicles. Calyx-tube scarcely, or not at all 

produced beyond the ovary, the limb mostly 5-lobed. Petals mostly 5. Stamens 

many, in several series, the anthers filiform. Ovary usually 2-celled; ovules 2 

in each cavity; style very slender; stigma very small. Berry crowned by the 

persistent calyx-lobes, 1-2-seeded. Seeds subglobose, the radicle curved, the 

cotyledons large. [Greek, like Myrtus.) A very large genus, the species perhaps 

as many as 500, natives of tropical America. Type species : Myrtus coriacea Vahl. 

Calyx-tube produced beyond the nearly glabrous ovary. 

Leaves ovate to oblong or elliptic, obtuse or acute. 1 . M. citrifolia. 

Leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. 2. M. leptoclada. 
Calyx-tube not produced beyond the silky ovary. 
Panicles and twigs glabrate or pubescent. 

Leaves densely reticulate-veined ; fruit little longer than thick. 3. M. splendens. 

Leaves pinnately veined; fruit twice as long as thick. 4. M. Berberis. 

Panicles and twigs densely brown-tomentose. 5. M. deflexa. 

Affinity unknown. 6. M. (?) Pagani. 

1. Myrcia citrifolia (Aubl.) Urban, Report. 16: 150. 1919. 

Myrtus citrifolia Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 513. 1775. 

Eugenia paniculata Jacq. Coll. 2: 108. 1788. 

Myrtus coriacea Vahl, Synib. 2: 59. 1791. 

Myrcia coriacea DC. Prodr. 3: 243. 1828. 

Eugenia acetosans Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 125. 1813. 

Aulomyrcia coriacea Berg, Linnaea 27: 70. 1855. 

Myrtus trifida Sessg & Moc. Fl. Hisp. ed. 2. 124. 1894. 

Myrcia paniculata Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 577. 1895. 

A tree, up to about 15 m. high, usually lower, sometimes shrubby, with 
slender puberulent twigs. Leaves oblong, elliptic or ovate, glabrous or nearly 
so, chartaceous or coriaceous, shining, 2-6 cm. long, the apex obtuse or acute, 
the base narrowed, the margin more or less revolute, the petioles 2-4 mm. long, 
puberulent; panicles terminal, glabrous, few-several-flowered; pedicels slender, 
5-15 mm. long; hypanthium glabrous; calyx-tube slightly produced beyond the 
ovary, its lobes short, rounded; petals 2-3 mm. long, obtuse, punctate; fruit 
globular, 6-9 mm. in diameter. [? Myrtus nitida Sessg and Mocino, not of Vahl.) 

Thickets, forests and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in wet or 
moist districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Cuba; St. 
Martin and Saba to Barbados. Doubtfully recorded from Hispaniola. Hoya menuda. 

2. Myrcia leptoclada DC. Prodr. 3: 244. 1828. 

Aulomyrcia leptoclada Berg, Linnaea 27: 40. 1855. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. high, or shrubby, glabrous throughout, or the 
young slender twigs sparingly puberulent. Leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 



MYRTACEAE 29 

chartaceous, shining, 5-10 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, the 
margins not revolute, the petioles 3-6 mm. long; panicles terminal and axillary, 
loosely several-many-flowered; pedicels very slender, 3-10 mm. long; hypanthium 
glabrous; calyx-tube a little produced beyond the ovary, its lobes broadly ovate; 
petals about 1.5 mm. long; fruit globose, about 6 mm. in diameter. [Myrcia 
divaricata of Bello and of Stahl, not of de Candolle; Myrcia Kegeliana of Kiaerskou, 
not of Berg; ? Myrtus acuminata of Sesse and Mocino, not of Miller. J 

Forests and wooded hills in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, mostly at higher 
elevations: — Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Vincent; Trinidad. Doubtfully 
recorded from Jamaica. Gtjayabacon. 



3. Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 244. 1828. 

Myrtus splendens Sw. Prodr. 79. 1788. 
Myrcia sororia DC. Prodr. 3: 243. 1828. 

A tree, up to 10 m. high, sometimes flowering as a shrub, the slender twigs, 
the young leaves, the petioles and inflorescence pubescent. Leaves glabrous 
when mature, chartaceous, strongly shining, 3-7 cm. long, densely reticulate- 
veined, ovate to lanceolate, the apex acuminate, the base obtuse or narrowed, 
the petioles 2-4 mm. long; panicles mostly axillary, sometimes also terminal, 
several-many-flowered; pedicels very short; hypanthium pubescent; calyx-tube 
not prolonged beyond the ovary, its lobes ovate, unequal ; petals nearly orbicidar, 
sericeous, about 2 mm. long; fruit oval, obovoid or subglobose, 6-8 mm. long. 

Thickets and woodlands in wet or moist districts at lower and middle elevations, 
Porto Rico, ascending into the eastern mountains; St. Croix; Tortola: — Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Saba to Trinidad. Doubtfully recorded from St. Thomas, probably erroneously. Rama 
mentjda. Punch Berry. 

4. Myrcia Berberis DC. Prodr. 3: 254. 1828. 

Similar to M. splendens, but not known to form so large a tree, the twigs, 
petioles and inflorescence somewhat pubescent. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 
2-8 cm. long, less strongly reticulate-veined than those of M. splendens, the apex 
acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse; panicles axillary and terminal, mostly 
many-flowered; hypanthium pubescent; petals small; fruit oblong or obovoid, 
8-15 mm. long. [M. divaricata of Grisebach, not of de Candolle.] 

Monte Jimenes, Sierra de Luquillo (according to Urban) collected only by Sin- 
tenis: — Montserrat to Tobago; northern South America. We have not seen Porto Rico 
specimens; those collected by Sintenis were referred to this species by Urban with hesita- 
tion; they may represent an undescribed one. 



5. Myrcia deflexa (Poir.) DC. Prodr. 3: 244. 1828. 

Eugenia dejlexa Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 124. 1813. 
Myrcia Humboldliana DC. Prodr. 3: 256. 1828. 
Myrcia ferruginea Berg, Linnaea 27: 90. 1855. 

A tree, 8-18 m. high, perhaps sometimes flowering as a shrub, the twigs, 
young leaves, petioles and inflorescence densely brown-tomentose. Leaves 
oblong, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, coriaceous, 5-15 cm. long, glabrous and 
shining above, pubescent on the veins beneath, strongly pinnately veined, the 
apex acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 3-6 mm. long; 
panicles terminal or axillary, usually many-flowered; pedicels short; hypanthium 
tomentose; calyx-tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, its lobes suborbicular ; 
petals about 3 mm. long; fruit oval, 6-7 mm. long. 

Woodlands and forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, ascending to higher 
elevations: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad and northern South America. 
The wood is hard, reddish, heavy and strong. CiENEGUlLLO. 



30 MYRTACEAE 

6. Myrcia (?) Pagani Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 587. 1895. 

Described as a tree up to 20 m. high, the young twigs villous, compressed, 
the leaves oval to elliptic-oblong, 10-16 cm. long, 4-9 cm. wide, the apex rounded 
or obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles 4-5 mm. long, the under side reticulate- 
veined. 

Primeval forest near Guajateca, Sierra de Lares, collected only by Sintenis, its 
flowers and fruit unknown. Ausu. 

5. PLINIA [Plum.] L. Sp. PI. 516. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs with chartaceous or subcoriaceous punctate leaves, the in- 
florescence lateral, axillary or terminal. Calyx subturbinate or hemispheric, 
closed in the bud, irregularly rupturing in anthesis. Petals 4 or 5. Stamens 
numerous, in several series; filaments filiform; anther-sacs longitudinally dehis- 
cent. Ovary 2-4-celled; ovules mostly 2 in each cavity; style filiform; stigma 
small. Berry globose. Seeds 1 or few. Embryo nearly straight, the radicle 
long, incurved. [Dedicated to Pliny.] Perhaps 50 species or more, natives of 
tropical America. Type species : Plinia pinnata L. 

Leaves ovate to elliptic, petioled, narrowed or cuneate at the base; 

inflorescence nearly sessile. 1. p. Dussii. 

Leaves ovate-orbicular, sessile, rounded or subcordate at the base; in- 
florescence peduncled. 2. P. Sintenisii. 

1. Plinia Dussii (Krug & Urban) Urban, Report. 15: 413. 1919. 

Marlieria Dussii Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 590. 1895. 

A small tree, up to about 10 m. high, or shrubby, the young twigs short- 
pilose. Leaves ovate to elliptic, subcoriaceous, 2-4 cm. long, glabrous, shining, 
deep green above, pale green beneath, the apex bluntly acuminate or obtuse, 
the base mostly narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 6 mm. long or shorter; in- 
florescence subsessile, lateral or axillary, few-flowered; pedicels 1-3 mm. long; 
buds obovoid, glabrous, 3-4 mm. long; calyx-lobes 4; petals 4, white, about 1 
mm . long, puberulent; berry 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests, central and western districts of Porto Rico: — Guadeloupe; 
Martinique. 

2. Plinia (?) Sintenisii (Kiaersk.) Britton. 

Marlierea Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 252. 1889. 

A shrub, 3-4 m. high, the young twigs and inflorescence ferruginous- 
tomentose. Leaves ovate-orbicular or ovate, sessile or very short-petioled, about 
9 cm. long or shorter, glabrous or somewhat tomentose, rounded at the apex, 
subcordate at the base; panicles small; peduncle 6-25 mm. long; flowers glomerate, 
sessile; flower-buds obovoid, blunt, 2.5 mm. long; calyx 4-lobed; petals 4, obovate, 
1.5 mm. long; stamens about twice as long as the petals. 

Monte Jimenes, Sierra de Luquillo, collected only by Sintenis. Endemic. Com- 
plete specimens are needed to make the generic position of this species certain ; its fruit 
is unknown. 

6. CALYPTRANTHES Sw. Prodr. 79. 1788. 

[Chytraculia P. Br. Hist. Jam. 239. Hyponym. 1756.] 

Evergreen shrubs or trees, with opposite coriaceous or subcoriaceous leaves, 

and small panicled cymose or rarely solitary flowers. Calyx closed at anthesis, 

circumscissile, the top falling away like a cap or calyptra. Petals none. Stamens 



MYRTACEAE 31 

numerous, in several series; filaments filiform; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. 

Ovary 2-3-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity. Fruit a 1-few-seeded berry, crowned 

by the basal part of the calyx. Seeds subglobose, the radicle long, the cotyledons 

large. [Greek, referring to the cap-like lid of the calyx.] About 75 species, of 

tropical and subtropical America. Type species: Calyptranthes Chytraculia (L.) 

Sw. 

Inflorescence paniculate or cymose; leaves 3-8 cm. long. 
Leaves acuminate. 

Fruit 4-5 mm. in diameter. 1. C. pallens. 

Fruit 6-7 mm. in diameter. 2. C. Sintemsn. 
Leaves acute or obtuse. 

Leaves oblong-obovate. 3. C. thomasiana. 

Leaves elliptic to ovate. 4. C. portoricensis. 

Flowers solitary, sessile; leaves 2.5 cm. long or less. 5. C. Krugii. 

Flowers and fruit unknown; leaves obovate, 2.5 cm. long or less. 6. C. Kiaerskovn. 

1. Calyptranthes pallens (Poir.) Griseb. Kar. 67. 1857. 

Eugenia pallens Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 122. 1813. 
Calyptranthes Chytraculia ovalis Berg, Linnaea 27: 27. 1855. 
Calyptranthes Chytraculia zuzygium Berg, Linnaea 27: 28. 1855. 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 10 m., with a trunk sometimes 
1.5 dm. in diameter, usually smaller and sometimes shrubby, the bark thin and 
light gray, the young twigs pubescent, soon becoming glabrous. Leaves elliptic 
to oblong-elliptic, 3-8 cm. long, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 
shining above, the petioles 5-12 mm. long; panicles as long as the leaves or longer, 
pubescent, many-flowered, the flowers sessile or nearly so, about 3 mm. broad; 
fruit subglobose or oval, 4-5 mm. in diameter. [C. Chytraculia of West and of 
Krebs, not of Swartz.] 

Base of limestone cliffs, Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Cayman Islands; Guadeloupe. White Stopper. 

2. Calyptranthes Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 250. 1889. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the slender brownish 
twigs and the petioles sparingly appressed-pubescent. Leaves elliptic, charta- 
ceous, 5-9 cm. long, flat, the numerous lateral veins slender, the upper surface 
bright green and faintly shining, the under surface pale and dull, sometimes 
slightly pubescent, the apex abruptly bluntly acuminate, the base narrowed or 
obtuse, the petioles 3-8 mm. long; panicles axillary, several-many-flowered, 
mostly shorter than the leaves, slender-peduncled, glabrous or nearly so ; flower- 
buds about 3 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 6-7 mm. in diameter. [C. Chytraculia 
of Bello, not of Swartz.] 

Forests at lower and middle elevations in moist districts of Porto Rico: — Hispaniola. 

LlMONCILLO DE MONTE. 

3. Calyptranthes thomasiana Berg, Linnaea 27: 26. 1855. 

Chytraculia thomasiana Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 258. 1891. 

A shrub, 3 m. high or a small tree, the twigs, young leaves and panicles 
strigose, the branches glabrous. Leaves subobovate-oblong, rigidly coriaceous, 
2—4.5 cm. long, impressed-punctate on both sides, shining and obsoletely veined 
above, dull and very indistinctly veined beneath, the apex narrowed and obtuse, 
the base cuneate, the petioles about 4 mm. long; inflorescence subaxillary, the 
cymes trichotomous ; flower-buds obovoid, apiculate, 3 mm. long; petals 4, small, 
spatulate. 

Signal Hill and Bolongo, St. Thomas. Endemic. Known to us only from de- 
scriptions. 



32 MYRTACEAE 

4. Calyptranthes portoricensis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 11. 1924. 

A tree or shrub, the twigs and inflorescence densely brown-pubescent. 
Leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, coriaceous, glabrous above, pubescent beneath 
when young, 3-7 cm. long, very obscurely punctate, the apex rounded or acutish, 
the base obtuse, the midvein prominent beneath, the lateral venation obscure; 
peduncles rather stout, 7 cm. long or shorter; panicles several-flowered, the 
flowers subglomerate, nearly sessile; calyx densely brown-pubescent, about 2 mm. 
long, obovoid, rounded; fruit finely pubescent, globose, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Vicinity of Maricao, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

5. Calyptranthes Krugii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 248. 1889. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to about 6 m. high, much branched, the branches 
forked, the short young twigs tomentose. Leaves obovate, small, coriaceous, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long, pubescent when young, glabrous when mature, dark green and 
obsoletely veined above, light green and rather strongly pinnately veined beneath, 
the apex obtuse or rounded, the base cuneate or narrowed, the stout pubescent 
petioles 2 mm. long or less; flowers solitary and sessile or nearly so in the axils; 
flower-buds about 4 mm. long; calyx pubescent. 

Forests at middle and higher altitudes in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. 

6. Calyptranthes Kiaerskovii Krug & Urban; Urban Symb. Ant. l: 42. 1898. 

Calyptranthes obovata Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 600. 1895. Not 

Kiaersk. 
Glabrous; branches dichotomously forked. Leaves obovate, 2.5 cm. long 
or less, 1-2 cm. wide, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, minutely punctate, the apex 
obtuse or rounded, the base cuneate or narrowed, shining above, pale beneath, 
the venation rather prominent on the upper surface, somewhat reticulated, the 
petioles 1-2.5 mm. long. 

Tortola (Eggers 3217). Endemic. Known only from its foliage. 

Calyptranthes paniculata Grosourdy, recorded by the author as Porto 
Rican in 1864, called Limoncillo, has not been identified by subsequent botanists. 

7. GOMIDESIA Berg, Linnaea 27: 6. 1854. 

Trees or shrubs with opposite leaves, the flowers mostly in axillary or terminal 
panicles. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5. Stamens many in several series; filaments 
distinct; anthers 4-celled, two anther-sacs higher than the other two. Ovary 
2-5-celled; style filiform; stigma small, simple. Berry 1-4-seeded, crowned by 
the calyx-lobes. Radicle elongated; cotyledons foliaceous. [Commemorates 
Dr. Gomides, a Brazilian physician.] Perhaps 40 species, of tropical America, 
mostly Brazilian. Type species: Myrcia spectabilis DC. (?). 

1. Gomidesia Lindeniana Berg, Linnaea 29: 208. 1858. 

Myrcia Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 257. 1890. 

A tree, 4-10 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the twigs, inflorescence and under 
leaf-surfaces densely brown-tomentose. Leaves oblong to elliptic, coriaceous, 
glabrous and dark green above, 6-12 cm. long, strongly pinnately veined, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the stout petioles 8 mm. long or less; 
panicles axillary and terminal, mostly somewhat shorter than the leaves, many- 



MYRTACEAE 



33 



flowered; flowers fragrant, nearly sessile; bractlets ovate, about 4 mm. long; 
calyx-lobes about 1.5 mm. long; petals white, suborbicular, about 3 mm. long; 
fruit subglobose, red, turning black, tomentose, about 8 mm. in diameter. 



Forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico:- 
Montserrat; Brazil. Cieneguillo. 



-Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts; 



8. EUGENIA L. Sp. PL 470. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees, with usually glabrous foliage. Leaves opposite, punctate, 
commonly leathery, pinnately-veined, the flowers mostly axillary, solitary, or in 
umbel-like, raceme-like or congested clusters. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5 f 
white. Stamens numerous; filaments filiform, distinct and in several series, or 
aggregated into 4 groups and slightly united. Ovary sessile, 2-3-celled. Ovules 
several in each cavity. Berries crowned by the calyx-lobes. Seeds often 1-4. 
Embryo with thick cotyledons and a short radicle. [Named in honor of Prince 
Eugene of Savoy (1663-1736), a patron of botany and horticulture.] About 600 
species, of tropical distribution. The Spanish name Hoya menuda and the 
English name Stopper are applied to many of the species. Type species: 
Eugenia uniflora L. 



A. Flowers axillary to linear bracts mostly below the leaves, 

long-peduncled, mostly solitary. 
Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, the base obtuse or rounded ; 

fruit grooved. 
Leaves oblong, the base narrowed; fruit not grooved. 

B. Inflorescence racemose, panicled, glomerate, or solitary. 
1. Flowers pedicelled. 

a. Flowers small; calyx-lobes 5 mm. long or less; pedicels 

slender. 
♦Inflorescence racemose or racemose-paniculate. 
Leaves 5-16 cm. long; fruit 10-15 mm. in di- 
ameter. 
Fruit smooth; pedicels 4-10 mm. long. 
Fruit verrucose; pedicels only 1 mm. long. 
Leaves 7.5 cm. long or less; fruit 6-8 mm. in 
diameter. 
**Inflorescence short-racemose, timbellate or glomer- 
ate, or pedicels sometimes solitary, 
flnflorescence glomerate or short-racemose; 
flowers short-pedicelled. 
{Leaves obovate to oblong-lanceolate, rounded 

or obtuse at the apex. 
{{Leaves ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, acute, 
obtusish or acuminate. 
Leaves 1-5 cm. long; fruit 3-5 mm. in 
diameter. 
Leaves dark green above, pale beneath, 

very short-petioled. 
Leaves about equally green on both 
sides, manifestly petioled. 
Twigs and inflorescence puberulent. 
Twigs and inflorescence tomentose. 
Leaves 4-9 cm. long, manifestly petioled; 
fruit 7-10 mm. in diameter, 
ttlnflorescence umbellate, or flowers solitary; 
flowers slender pedicelled. 
Fruit 4-9 mm. in diameter ; leaves 2-7 cm. long. 
Twigs glabrous. 

Leaves shining, strongly veined. 
Leaves dull, faintly veined. 
Twigs pubescent; fruit black. 
Fruit 10-15 mm. in diameter; leaves larger. 

b. Flowers large; calyx-lobes 7-10 mm. long; pedicels 

stout. 
Leaves elliptic to obovate, narrowed at base, short- 
petioled. 
Leaves orbicular, subcordate, sessile. 



1. E. uniflora. 

2. E. ligustrina. 



3. E. aeruginea. 

4. E. Eggersii. 

5. E. lancea. 



b. E. buxifolia. 



7. E. monticola. 

8. E. Underwoodii. 

9. E. boqueronensis. 

10. E. axillaris. 



11. E. confusa. 

12. E. rhombea. 

13. E. procera. 

14. E. pseudopsidium. 



15. E. Stahlii. 

16. E. borinquensis. 



34 MYRTACEAE 

2. Flowers sessile, or essentially sessile. 

a. Leaves rounded or obtuse at the apex. 
Calyx-lobes only about 1-2 mm. long; fruit small. 

Leaves rounded or cordate at the base. 

Leaves 2-3.5 cm. long, rounded, pale beneath. 17. E. cordata. 
Leaves 4-6 cm. long, obtuse, bright green on 

both sides. 18. E. Stewardsonii. 

Leaves narrowed at the base. 19. E. Sintenisii. 

Calyx-lobes 5-6 mm. long; fruit up to 2 cm. in 

diameter. 20. E. sessiliflora. 

b. Leaves long-acuminate. 21. E. floribunda. 

C. Species not grouped, incompletely known 22. E. serrasuela. 

23. E. Bellonis. 

24. E. (?) corozalensis. 

25. E. (?) xerophytica. 

1. Eugenia uniflora L. Sp. PI. 470. 1753. 

Eugenia Michelii Lam. Encycl. 3: 205. 1789. 

A shrub, or small tree up to 5 m. high, with slender branches. Leaves ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate, dark green and shining above, paler beneath, bluntly acute 
or acuminate at the apex, rounded at the base, dotted, thin in texture, 2.5-6 cm. 
long; pedicels solitary or few together, very slender, glabrous, about 2.5 cm. long, 
bracted at the base and 2-bracteolate near the summit; calyx-lobes linear-oblong, 
obtusish; petals about twice as long as the calyx-lobes; fruit subglobose, longi- 
tudinally furrowed, 8—10 mm. in diameter, bright red, pleasantly acid, edible. 

Spontaneous after planting for its fruit, St. Croix; St. Thomas: — widely planted in 
tropical regions. Native of tropical America. Surinam Cherry. Cerezo de Cayena. 

2. Eugenia ligustrina (Sw.) Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 962. 1800. 

Myrtus ligustrina Sw. Prodr. 78. 1788. 
Myrtus cerasina Vahl, Symb. 2: 57. 1791. 
Stenocalyx ligustrinus Berg, Linnaea 27: 312. 1856. 
Myrtus bracteiflora Sesse & Mog. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 124. 1894. 

A shrub, or a small tree 5-8 m. high, glabrous throughout, the twigs very 
slender. Leaves oblong to narrowly elliptic, subcoriaceous, shining, 2-5 cm. 
long, dark green above, pale beneath, the apex obtuse or acutish, the base nar- 
rowed, the petioles 2-5 mm. long; peduncles nearly filiform, 2-3 cm. long, mostly 
solitary in the axils of linear bracts below the leaves; calyx-lobes about 5 mm. 
long; petals 8-12 mm. long; fruit globose, not grooved, punctate, about 8 mm. in 
diameter. [Eugenia buxifolia of Bello, not of Willdenow.] 

Woodlands, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, mostly in the southern dry districts; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. 
Martin to Trinidad; Brazil. Palo de mxjlta. Privet Stopper. Birch-berry. 

3. Eugenia aeruginea DC. Prodr. 3: 2S3. 1828. 

Eugenia domingensis Berg, Linnaea 27: 296. 1856. 

Eugenia calyculata Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 271. 1881. 

A tree, up to 20 m. high with a trunk up to 6 dm. in diameter, the young 
twigs, leaves and inflorescence pubescent, the bark whitish. Leaves elliptic to 
ovate-elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous, 6-11 cm. long, glabrous or nearly 
so when mature, shining, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the 
slender petioles 5-12 mm. long; flowers in axillary or lateral simple or compound 
racemes shorter than the leaves; pedicels 4-10 mm. long; bractlets 2, obtusish, 
connate at base, about 1 mm. long; outer calyx-lobes about 2 mm. long; petals 
suborbicular, about 4 mm. long; fruit oval, or subglobose, purple, 10-15 mm. 
long. [E. tetrasperma of Stahl, not of Bello ; ? Myrtus Cumini of Sess6 & Mogino, 
not of Linnaeus.] 

Thickets and woodlands at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico: — Cuba; His- 
paniola; Dominica; Martinique; St. Vincent; Trinidad; doubtfully recorded from Jamaica. 
The light brown wood is hard, strong and heavy. Guasavara. 



MYRTACEAE 35 

4. Eugenia Eggersii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 268. 1890. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 20 m. high, the young twigs, leaves and in- 
florescence appressed-pubescent, the mature foliage glabrous. Twigs slender, 
terete; leaves oblong to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, subchartaceous, 5-16 cm. 
long, the apex acuminate, acute or rarely obtuse, the base narrowed or obtuse, the 
petioles 4—11 mm. long; flowers in short axillary racemes; pedicels very short, 
about 1 mm. long; bractlets acute, 1-2 mm. long; calyx-lobes verrucose-glandular, 
rounded, the outer 2-2.5 mm. long; petals oval, about 6 mm. long; fruit globular, 
verrucose, 10-13 mm. in diameter. 

Forests at higher elevations in the central and eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. Guasavara. 

5. Eugenia lancea Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 123. 1813. 

Myrtus lancea Spreng. Syst. 2: 482. 1825. 

Eugenia virgultosa DC. Prodr. 3: 280. 1S28. 

Eugenia ludibunda Bert. ; DC. Prodr. 3: 280. 1828. 

Eugenia biflora ludibunda Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 630. 1895. 

Eugenia biflora lancea Krug & Urban, loc. cit. 631. 1895. 

Myrcia (?) thomasiana DC. Prodr. 3: 244. 1828. 

A much-branched shrub, or a small tree 4-6 m. high, the slender twigs, 
petioles and inflorescence puberulent. Leaves oval, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 
rarely obovate-oval, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 2-7.5 cm. long, the apex 
bluntly acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 3-12 mm. 
long; flowers in axillary racemes mostly shorter than the leaves; bractlets about 
1 mm. long; pedicels 3-12 mm. long; calyx-lobes broad, about 2 mm. long; petals 
orbicular-obovate, 3-4.5 mm. long; fruit globose, 6-8 mm. in diameter. [E. por- 
toricensis of Stahl, not of de Candolle; E. glabrata of Berg and of Eggers, not of 
de Candolle; Myrtus virgultosa of Vahl, not of Swartz; Eugenia pallens of 
Eggers.] 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico, mostly in moist districts; Culebra; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Hispaniola; St. Martin. Recorded from 
Jamaica, perhaps erroneously. Pitangtteera. Black Rod-wood. 

6. Eugenia buxifolia (Sw.) Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 960. 1800. 

Myrtus buxifolia Sw. Prodr. 78. 1788. 

Eugenia foetida Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 129. 1813. 

A small tree, becoming about 6 m. high, with a trunk up to 3 dm. in diameter, 
usually smaller, often shrubby, the bark reddish-brown, scaly, the slender twigs 
sparingly pubescent or glabrous. Leaves obovate, oblanceolate or nearly oblong, 
glabrous, 2-4 cm. long, rounded or obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, 
short-petioled, dark green above, pale green beneath; inflorescence axillary or 
lateral, 1-few-flowered ; pedicels pubescent, very short; calyx 4-lobed, the lobes 
obtuse; petals oblong, 2-3 mm. long; fruit oval to subglobose, black, 5-7 mm. in 
diameter. 

Coastal woods and thickets, Porto Rico, in the dry southwestern districts; Mona; 
Muertos; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Krebs and to Eggers) :— Florida; 
Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. Anguilla. Spanish Stopper. 

7. Eugenia monticola (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 275. 1828. 

Myrtus monticola Sw. Prodr. 78. 1788. 

Eugenia flavovirens Berg, Linnaea 27: 184. 1856. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 10 m. high, the branches often virgate, the 
numerous, very slender twigs and the petioles puberulent. Leaves commonly 
crowded and appearing distichous, glabrous or nearly so, lanceolate to ovate, 



36 MYRTACEAE 

subcoriaceous, dark green above, pale beneath, 1.5-4 cm. long, the apex mostly 
bluntly acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 1-2.5 mm. long; 
inflorescence glomerate in the axils, several-many-flowered; pedicels 1-5 mm. 
long; bractlets very small; calyx-lobes 1-1.5 mm. long; petals about 2 mm. 
long; fruit globose, black when mature, about 5 mm. in diameter. [E. foetida of 
West, not of Poiret; E. Poiretii of Berg, not of de Candolle.] 

Thickets and woodlands, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist and 
dry districts; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad. Bmui. Slang berry. Bed 
Rod-wood. Black Cherry. 

Eugenia monticola latifolia Krug & Urban, similar to E. monticola but 
with leaves up to 8 cm. long, was recorded by Urban as found in St. Croix. 

8. Eugenia Underwoodii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 10. 1924. 

A shrub, 2.5-3 m. high, much branched, the very slender gray terete twigs 
puberulent when young, the inflorescence pubescent. Leaves elliptic or elliptic- 
lanceolate, chartaceous, 2-5 cm. long, slightly paler green beneath than above 
somewhat shining, delicately veined and scarcely reticulated, rather coarsely 
punctate, flat, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, the puberulent petioles 
1.5-2.5 mm. long; flowers in small short-peduncled racemes near the ends of the 
twigs; pedicels 2-3 mm. long; bractlets about 1 mm. long; calyx-tube campanulate, 
glabrate, about 1.5 mm. long, the lobes a little shorter, puberulent, ciliate, obtuse; 
petals nearly 2 mm. long; fruit unknown. 

Yauco, Porto Bico. Endemic. 

9. Eugenia boqueronensis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 10. 1924. 

A tree, about 8 m. high, the slender short twigs gray, densely tomentose when 
young. Leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate, coriaceous, 2-3.5 cm. long, shining, nearly 
equally green on both sides, coarsely blackish-punctate, finely pinnately veined 
and scarcely reticulated, pubescent on the midvein beneath when young, glabrous 
or very nearly so when mature, the apex abruptly and bluntly acuminate, the 
base narrowed, the stout pubescent petioles 2-3 mm. long; racemes few-flowered, 
about 1 cm. long, borne in the uppermost axils, densely tomentose; pedicels about 
3 mm. long ; bractlets oblong, shorter than the pedicels ; calyx-lobes broad, rounded 
or obtuse, about 1.5 mm. long; petals rounded, not longer than the calyx-lobes; 
fruit unknown. 

Base of limestone hill, Salinas de Boqueron, Porto Bico. Endemic. 

10. Eugenia axillaris (Sw.) Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 970. 1800. 

Myrtus axillaris Sw. Prodr. 78. 1788. 

Psidiaslrum dubium Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 272. 1881. 

A shrub or tree, sometimes reaching a height of 12 m., with a maximum 
trunk diameter of about 3 dm., the bark shallowly fissured, the branchlets terete, 
glabrous. Leaves elliptic-ovate to ovate-lanceolate or nearly elliptic, unpleas- 
antly odorous, glabrous, chartaceous, 4-9 cm. long, re volute-margined, paler 
beneath than above and black-dotted, the petioles 2-5 mm. long, margined; 
racemes short, axillary; pedicels short, pubescent; calyx-lobes 4, rounded; corolla 
3-4 mm. broad; petals 4, surpassing the calyx-lobes, glandular-punctate; fruit 
depressed-globose, 7-10 mm. in diameter, black, smooth, glandular-punctate, 
sweet, often deformed and enlarged. [E. flavovirens of Stahl, not of Berg.] 

Thickets and woodlands at lower and middle elevations, Porto Bico; Mona; Muertos; 
Desecheo; Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; Ba- 
hamas; Jamaica; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Guadeloupe and 
Marie Galante. Wattle. Krxjm berry. 



MYRTACEAE 37 

11. Eugenia confusa DC. Prodr. 3: 279. 1828. 

Eugenia Krugii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 259. 1890. 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 18 m., with a trunk up to 5 dm. 
in diameter, usually much smaller, the bark scaly, the slender twigs glabrous. 
Leaves ovate to lanceolate, coriaceous, glabrous, 3-6 cm. long, long-acuminate 
at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base, dark green and shining above, dull 
green beneath, pinnately many- veined, the slender petioles 5-10 mm. long; 
flowers umbellate or solitary in the axils, on filiform pedicels 2-3 times as long 
as the petioles; calyx-lobes broadly ovate, 1.5—2 mm. long; petals ovate, about 
twice as long as the calyx-lobes; fruit subglobose, orange to scarlet, 5-6 mm. in 
diameter. 

Forest, Monte Alegrillo, near Marlcao: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Guade- 
loupe; Dominica. Recorded from the Virgin Islands, apparently erroneously. Ciene- 

GUILLO. IRONWOOD. 

12. Eugenia rhombea (Berg) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19 : 644. 1895. 

Eugenia foetida rhombea Berg, Linnaea 27: 212. 1856. 
Eugenia foetida parvifolia Berg, Linnaea 27: 212. 1856. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 m. high with a trunk up to 3 dm. in diameter, or 
shrubby, the twigs slender, the smooth bark gray, the foliage glabrous. Leaves 
ovate to elliptic or rhombic-ovate, rather thin, inconspicuously veined, 3-6 cm. 
long, bluntly acuminate or acute at the apex, obtuse or narrowed at the base, 
short-petioled ; flowers in sessile axillary umbels, often appearing on twigs from 
Tvhich the leaves have fallen, the slender glabrous pedicels 8-15 mm. long; calyx- 
tube shorter than the 4 rounded lobes; petals ovate, about 5 mm. long, about 
twice as long as the calyx-lobes; fruit depressed-globose, orange, red or nearly 
black, 0.8-1.5 cm. in diameter. [Eugenia pallens of Eggers; E. Poiretti of Mills- 
paugh, not of de Candolle.] 

Coastal thickets in the southwestern districts of Porto Rico; Desecheo, Muertos; 
Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Berg): — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Saba; St. Martin; St. Eustatius; Antigua; Guadeloupe. Red Stopper. 

13. Eugenia procera (Sw.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 129. 1813. 

Myrtus procera Sw. Prodr. 77. 1788. 

Myrtus brachystemon DC. Prodr. 3: 240. 1828. 

A shrub, or a tree 4-10 m. high, the young twigs slender, pubescent. Leaves 
ovate or oblong-ovate, chartaceous, 6 cm. long or less, glabrous, finely reticulate- 
veined, the apex bluntly acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 2-4 mm. long; 
flowers in sessile axillary umbels ; pedicels very slender, puberulent, 6-15 mm. long ; 
calyx- lobes thin, rounded, about 1 mm. long: petals about 3 mm. long; fruit sub- 
globose, black, viscid, about 5 mm. in diameter. [Myrtus cerasina of Eggers, not 
of Vahl.] 

Woods and thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, mostly in dry parts 
of the southern districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; St. Martin to Martinique; Trinidad and Curacao. Rock Myrtle. 

14. Eugenia pseudopsidium Jacq. Enum. 23. 1760. 

Myrtus Willdenovii Spreng. Syst. 2: 486. 1825. 
Eugenia portoriccnsis DC. Prodr. 3: 266. 1828. 
Eugenia thomasiana Berg, Linnaea 27: 183. 1856. 
Stenocalyx portoricensis Berg, Linnaea 29: 246. 1858. 

Eugenia pseudopsidium portoricensis Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 647. 
1894. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 12 m. high, the young slender twigs minutely 
strigose or glabrous. Leaves ovate to elliptic, subchartaceous, glabrous, shining, 



38 MYRTACEAE 

4-13 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 
3-8 mm. long; flowers few or solitary in the axils, or also terminal; pedicels very 
slender, 1-2.5 cm. long; calyx-lobes 2-4.5 mm. long, oblong, obtuse; petals 3-7 mm. 
long; fruit subglobose, red, smooth, 10-15 mm. in diameter. [Myrtus parviflora 
of Sesse & Mocino, not of Sprengel.] 

Woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, mostly in 
moist districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — Hispaniola; Mont- 
serrat; Guadeloupe; Martinique. Qtjiebra hacha. Petangueira. Bastard Guava, 
Christmas Cherry. Wild Guava. 

15. Eugenia Stahlii (Kiaersk.) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 650. 1895. 

Myrtus Stahlii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 286. 1890. 

A tree, up to about 20 m. in height, glabrous throughout, the twigs rather 
stout, subterete. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-obovate, coriaceous, 5-10 cm. long, 
the apex rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed or cuneate, the stout petioles 
5-7 mm. long, the lateral venation slender; inflorescence lateral or axillary; 
flowers subcorymbose or solitary; pedicels stout, 2-3 cm. long; bracts 2-3 mm. 
long; calyx-lobes 4, suborbicular, coriaceous, glandular- verrucose, the inner 
ones 7-9 mm. long, nearly twice as long as the outer; petals suborbicular, 10-15 
mm. long; fruit subglobose, glandular- verrucose, about 2 cm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests at middle and higher elevations, Porto Rico. Endemic. Guaya- 
bota. 

16. Eugenia borinquensis Britton. 

Myrtus Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 284. 1890. 

Eugenia Sintenisii Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 650. 1896. Not 
Kiaersk. 1890. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to about 7 m. high, or perhaps higher, glabrous 
throughout, the branches forking, the twigs straight, stiff, short, flattened under 
the internodes. Leaves orbicular, stiff, coriaceous, 4—10 cm. broad, strongly 
pinnately veined and reticulated, subcordate, rounded, the stout petioles only 
1 or 2 mm. long; flowers few or solitary, axillary; peduncles about 2 cm. long; 
outer calyx-lobes rounded, about 4 mm. long; petals white, purplish mottled, 
obovate, about 15 mm. long; fruit oval or subglobose, about 2 cm. in diameter, 
reddish green. 

Forests at higher elevations in the eastern moiui tains of Porto Rico; it forms char- 
acteristic thickets near the summit of El Yunque, its broad, light green leaves very con- 
spicuous. Endemic. 

17. Eugenia cordata (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 3: 272. 1828. 

Myrtus cordata Sw. Prodr. 78. 1788. 
? Myrtus ramiflorus Vahl, in West St. Croix 290. 1795. 
Tricera cordifolia Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 339. 1805. 
Buxus cordifolia Spreng. Syst. 3: 847. 1826. 
Myrciaria (?) stirpiflora Berg, Linnaea 30: 702. 1860. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 5 m. high, the slender young twigs puberulent, 
otherwise glabrous. Leases short-ovate, sessile, or nearly so, subcoriaceous, 
crowded, 2-3.5 cm. long, shining above, pale and dull beneath; the apex rounded, 
the base rounded to subcordate; flowers sessile, in small lateral or axillary clusters, 
mostly below the leaves; larger calyx-lobes broad, rounded, about 1 mm. long; 
petals suborbicular, about 2 mm. long; fruit subglobose to oval, greenish, about 
7 mm. long. [E. lateriflora of Eggers, not of Vahl.] 

Hillsides, Culebra; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; St. Crcix. Endemic. Lath- 

BERRy 



MYRTACEAE 39 

18. Eugenia Stewardsonii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 11. 1924. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, glabrous throughout, the slender twigs gray. Leaves 
ovate, subchartaceous, very nearly sessile, 4-6 cm. long, bright green and shining 
on both sides, the venation rather prominent, coarsely reticulated, the apex obtuse 
or rounded, the base rounded or subcordate, the stout petioles about 1 mm. long; 
flowers sessile, in lateral clusters below the leaves; larger calyx-lobes obtuse, 
about 2 mm . long; fruit subglobose or depressed-globose, 5-7 mm. in diameter. 

Mountain forests and summits, Central Cordillera of Pcrto Rico Type from the 
summit, of Monte Torrecillo (Britton, Cowell and Stewardson Brown, 5603). Included by 
Urban in Eugenia cordata (Sw.) DC. 

19. Eugenia Sintenisii Kiaersk. Bot. Tids. 17: 263. 1890. 

Eugenia cordata Sintenisii Krug & Urban ; Urban Bot. Jahrb. 19: 656. 1894. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to about 5 m. tall, glabrous throughout. Leaves 
oval to obovate, subchartaceous, 4-8 cm. long, the apex obtuse or rounded, the 
base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 1-3 mm. long; flowers sessile in clusters 
below the leaves or also axillary ; calyx-lobes abou 1 1 mm. long ; petals suborbicular, 
about 2 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 4-5 mm. in diameter. 

Forests at higher elevations, central and western districts of Porto Rico; Tortola; 
St. Eustatius to St. Vincent and Bequia; doubtfully recorded from Hispanicla. Recorded 
from St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. Jan. Murta. 

20. Eugenia sessiliflora Vahl, Symb. 3: 64. 1794. 

Eugenia lateriflora Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 961. 1800. 
Myrtus sessiliflora Spreng. Syst. 2: 479. 1825. 

A shrub or small tree, glabrous throughout, the rather stout branches pale 
gray. Leaves oval or oval-orbicular, coriaceous, 4-6 cm. long, re volute-margined, 
the apex rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed or obtuse, the venation rather 
prominent on both sides, the stout petioles 1.5-4 mm. long; flowers sessile, 
about 12 mm. broad, in lateral clusters below the leaves; larger calyx-lobes 4-6 
mm. long, rounded, black-glandular; petals a little longer; fruit globose, rose- 
colored, about 2 cm. in diameter. 

Hillsides, St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Eggers); Tortola. Endemic. 

21. Eugenia floribunda West; Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 960. 1800. 

Myrciaria floribunda Berg, Linnaea 27: 330. 1856. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 10 m. with a trunk diameter of 
1-3 dm., glabrous throughout, the twigs very slender, the bark separating in thin 
scales. Leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, subcharta- 
ceous, 4-7 cm. long, flat, delicately veined, the apex long-acuminate, the base 
narrowed or obtuse, the slender petioles 2-4 mm. long; flowers sessile, in small 
axillary and lateral clusters; calyx-lobes rounded, 1-2 mm. long; petals sub- 
orbicular, 1.5-2 mm. long; fruit globose, red or yellow, aromatic, 8-10 mm. in 
diameter. [Eugenia disticha of Bello (and of Krebs ?), not of de Candolle.] 

Woodlands, near Cayey, Lares and Quebradillas, Porto Rico; Vieques; St.. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin; St. Eustatius; St. Kitts; 
Martinique; northern South America. The fruit yields an excellent jam and was formerly 
used in the Virgin Islands in making guava-berry rum. Murta. Guava-berry. 

22. Eugenia serrasuela Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 652. 1895. 

A tree, the bark chinked, the branches cylindric, glabrous. Leaves ovate- 
oblong, coriaceous, pellucid-punctate, up to 13 cm. long and 6 cm. wide, shining 
above, the apex bluntly acuminate, the margin recurved, the petioles 5-6 mm. 



40 MYRTACEAE 

long, the venation conspicuous; flowers subsessile, 5-parted, clustered at the ends 
of the branches; calyx-lobes ovate; ovary semiglobose, woolly; fruit globose, 
pubescent, costate, 2.5 cm. in diameter; seed solitary. [E. costata of Bello and of 
Stahl, not of Camb.] 

Near Anones, Porto Rico, according to Bello. The species is known to us from 
description only, and specimens were, apparently, studied only by Bello, prior to 1881, 
and none collected since. Serrasuela. 

Barren specimens from a tree 20 m. high, in the Barrio de Maizales, Sierra de Naguabo 
(Britton and Cowell, 2202), may possibly belong to this species. 

23. Eugenia (?) Bellonis Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 611. 1895. 

A low shrub, 0.5-3.5 dm. high, much branched and spreading, the twigs 
glabrous, or sparingly pilose, subquadrangular, dark purple. Leaves subchar- 
taceous, very small, 1.5 cm. long or less, various in shape, ovate, elliptic, oblong 
or linear-lanceolate, the apex and base rounded or acute, the venation reticulated, 
the midvein prominent above, the petioles 2.5 mm. long or less. 

Rocky hills near Guanica, Porto Rico; collected only by Sintenis, its flowers and 
fruit unknown. 

24. Eugenia (?) corozalensis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 11. 1924. 

A tree, about 6 m. high, the rather slender subterete glabrous, forking twigs 
slightly enlarged below the internodes. Leaves oval-orbicular, chartaceous, 
glabrous, sessile, 4-7 cm. long, green on both sides, densely punctate, the apex 
rounded, the base cordate, the venation slender, loosely reticulated; flowers and 
fruit unknown. 

Limestone hill, Corozal, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

25. Eugenia (?) xerophytica Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 51: 11. 1924. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to about 4 m. high, much branched, the slender 
terete twigs and the leaves glabrous. Leaves suborbicular or some of them a 
little broader than long, coriaceous, glabrous, shining above, yellow-green and 
reticulate-veined on both sides, 1.5-5 cm. long, the apex obtuse, rounded or short- 
tipped; the base subcordate or rounded, the stout petioles 2-4 mm. long; flowers 
and fruit unknown. 

Limestone rocks, El Tuque, near Ponce, Porto Rico: — Muertos. Endemic. 

An incomplete specimen of a plant of this family, with slender glabrous 
twigs, suborbicular glabrous petioled leaves about 2 cm. broad, and axillary, 
slender-peduncled fruits about 8 mm. in diameter, collected at Guanica, Sept. 12, 
1913 (Stevens and Hess, 8109) may represent another Eugenia. 

Eugenia aromatica Grosourdy, recorded as having the Porto Rico name 
Palo de Clavo, has not been identified by subsequent botanists. 

Eugenia micrantha Vahl is a plant listed by West from St. Croix, without 
description, and not otherwise known. (Not E. micrantha DC.) 

Eugenia emarginata Vahl was also recorded by West from St. Croix, 
without description. (Not E. emarginata DC.) 

Eugenia pedunculata Raeusch, of St. Croix, has not been identified by 
recent botanists. 



MYRTACEAE 41 

Eugenia paniculata Bello, described as Porto Rican by Bello and by Stahl, 
has not been identified by recent botanists. Urban suggested relationship with 
E. Eggersii Kiaersk. 

Eugenia lineata DC, a species of Santo Domingo, was recorded by Krebs 
as found in St. Thomas, evidently in error. 

Eugenia Dombeyana DC, Peruvian, sent by the Bureau of Plant Industry 
to the Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, in 1923, had formed a vigorous 
plant 6 dm. high in February, 1924; it is a shrub or small tree, with oblong leaves 
canescent beneath. 

9. JAMBOS Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 564. 1763. 

Trees, with coriaceous, pinnately veined, punctate opposite leaves, and 
mostly large corymbose or paniculate flowers, terminal, or lateral on the branches. 
Calyx obconic or turbinate, 4-8-lobed. Petals as many as the calyx-lobes. 
Stamens many, much longer than the petals. Ovary sessile, 2-3-celled; ovules 
numerous. Fruit a large berry crowned by the calyx-lobes. Radicle of the 
embryo short, much shorter than the cotyledons. [Malabar name.] Fifty 
species or more, natives of the Old World tropics, the following typical. 

1. Jambos Jambos (L.) Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 80. 1900. 

Eugenia Jambos L. Sp. PI. 470. 1753. 
Jambosa vulgaris DC. Prodr. 3: 286. 1828. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. high, glabrous throughout. Leaves lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 10-20 cm. long, bright green, rather dull, 
pinnately and finely reticulate-veined, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the stout petioles 5-9 mm. long; flowers few, large, corymbose, terminal; pedicels 
stout, about 1 cm. long; calyx-tube turbinate, about 1 cm. long, the lobes broad, 
rounded; petals coarsely punctate, 1-1.5 cm. long; stamens 3-4 cm. long, white; 
fruit 2-4 cm. in diameter. 

Thickets and woodlands, Porto Rico, abundant, especially along streams; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — widely naturalized in the West Indies and in tropical 
continental America. Native of tropical Asia. Poma rosa. Pomme Rose. Rose 
APPLE. 

Jambos malaccensis (L.) DC, Malay Apple, Asiatic, occasionally planted 
for its fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a tall tree, with large obovate 
or oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate petioled leaves, the purple flowers in 
short lateral racemes, the edible crimson turbinate fruit about 7 cm. long. It was 
recorded by Eggers as formerly naturalized in shaded valleys on St. Croix. 
Two fine trees about 12 meters high were seen at Happy Hollow, Porto Rico, in 
1924. [Eugenia malaccensis L.] 

10. ANAMOMIS Griseb. PI. Br. W. I. 240. 1860. 

Evergreen aromatic trees or shrubs, with opposite coriaceous leaves and 
axillary peduncled flowers, in cymes or solitary, when in cymes the central 
flowers sessile or stalked. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5. Stamens many, 
with filiform filaments and short anthers. Ovary 2-celled or 4-celled, about as 
long as the calyx-tube; ovules several in each cavity; style slender or filiform. 
Berry oval or subglobose, 1-several-seeded, crowned by the calyx-lobes. Radicle 



42 MYRTACEAE 

shorter than the cotyledons. [Greek, like Amomis.) About 8 species, natives of 
the West Indies and Florida. Type species: Anamomis fragrans (Sw.) Griseb. 

1. Anamomis fragrans (Sw.) Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 240. 1860. 

Myrtus fragrans Sw. Prodr. 79. 1788. 

Eugenia punctata Vahl in West, St. Croix 289. 1795. 

Eugenia fragrans Willd. Sp. Fl. 2: 964. 1800. 

Anamomis punctata Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 240. 1860. 

Eugenia fragrans fajardensis Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 665. 1895. 

An aromatic shrub or a small tree up to about 10 m. high, the young twigs 
pubescent or glabrate, slender. Leaves elliptic to obovate, coriaceous, 2-5 cm. 
long, strongly punctate, glabrous, shining, the apex obtuse or acutish, the base 
mostly narrowed, the venation delicate, the petioles 4-7 mm. long; peduncles 
as long as the leaves or shorter; cymes commonly bifid, the branches 3-flowered; 
sepals 4, rarely 5, rounded, about 2 mm. long; petals white, rounded, about 2 mm. 
long. [? Myrtus emarginata of Sesse & Mocino, not of Kunth.] 

Coastal thickets, Fajardo, Porto Eico; Mona; Vieques; — Cuba; Hispaniola; — St. 
Croix; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; St. Martin; St. Kitts; Antigua; Guadeloupe. The 
Fajardo plant was described from barren specimens. 

Anamomis umbellilifera (H.B.K.) Britton, Ciruelas, occasionally cul- 
tivated in Porto Rico for its fruits, is a tree, with elliptic nearly sessile leaves 
obtuse at both ends, coriaceous and reticulate-veined, the 5-parted flowers white, 
the stamens very numerous, the berries 1—1.5 cm. in diameter. [Myrtus um- 
bellilifera H.B.K. ; Myrcia (?) umbellilifera DC; Eugenia esculenta Berg; Myr- 
cianthes Krugii Kiaersk.J It is native of Hispaniola. 

Pimenta Pimenta (L.) Cockerell, Allsuce, Pjmenta, Jamaican, occasion- 
ally planted in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a smooth-barked aromatic 
tree, with coriaceous, oblong or elliptic, obtuse leaves 7-17 cm. long, and small, 
4-parted, white flowers in axillary peduncled cymes, the berry-like subglobose 
fruits about 6 mm. long. [Myrtus Pimenta L. ; Pimenta vulgaris Lindl. ; Eugenia 
Pimenta DC] 

Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC, Java Plum, Jambolan, of south- 
western Asia, grown at the Botanical Station, Road Town, Tortola, is a tree 10- 
15 m. high, with evergreen oval, closely veined, slender-petioled leaves 7-15 cm. 
long, not glandular-punctate, the small white flowers in panicled cymes, the petals 
cohering, the edible berries 1-2 cm. long. [Eugenia jambolana Lam.] 

Species of the Australasian genus Eucalyptus, Australian Gums, have been 
planted in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands experimentally for forest and fuel 
purposes and as roadside trees, many of them of rapid growth and attaining 
great height. They have coriaceous entire leaves and rather large axillary 
flowers, the calyx-tube with a lid. Observations and records at the Mayaguez 
Agricultural Experiment Station and at the Forest Station at Rio Piedras show 
that the following species succeed best in Porto Rico ; a number of others have been 
grown. 

Eucalyptus robusta Smith. Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. 

Eucalyptus rostrata Schl. Eucalyptus resinifera Smith. 

Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. Eucalyptus paniculata Smith. 

Eucalyptus tereticornis Smith. 

Myrtus communis L., Myrtle, Sweet Myrtle, European, is a shrub, 
occasionally planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. It has 
oblong to lanceolate, acute aromatic, nearly sessile leaves 6 cm. long or less, the 
slender-peduncled flowers solitary in the axils, the fruit a small black berry. 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 43 

Myrtus salutaria H.B.K., recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas prior 
to 1851, is presumably an error in determination. Urban suggested that the 
record might apply to M. communis, but Krebs has that also in his list. 

Couroupita guianensis Aubl., Cannon-ball Tree, native of Trinidad 
and northern South America, planted occasionally in Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands, belongs to the related Family Lecythidaceae. It is a large tree, 15 
m. high or higher, the gray bark slightly fissured, with large alternate oblong 
leaves, the showy flowers borne on the trunk, with a turbinate calyx and 6 
unequal petals, the stamens in many series. The large globose fruit is woody 
and malodorous. 



Family 6. RHIZOPHORACEAE Lindl. 

Mangrove Family. 

Shrubs or trees, with terete branches and usually glabrous foliage. Leaves 
usually opposite, leathery, with stipules. Flowers perfect, solitary in the 
axils or in spikes, racemes, cymes or panicles. Calyx with 3 or 4 valvate 
sepals. Petals as many as the sepals, 2-cleft or lacerate. Stamens twice or 
four times as many as the petals, or rarely of the same number, inserted at 
the base of a disk; filaments short or elongated; anthers 2-celled, opening 
lengthwise. Ovary inferior, or partly inferior, usually 3-5-celled or rarely 
1-celled; styles united; stigmas sometimes lobed. Ovules 2 or rarely 4 or 
more in each cavity; pendulous. Fruit leathery, crowned with the calyx, 
indehiscent or tardily septicidal. The family consists of about 15 genera, 
containing some 50 species, natives of tropical and subtropical regions. 

Calyx 4-parted; fruit 1-seeded. 1. Rhizophora. 

Calyx campanulate, 4-5-cleft; fruit 3-seeded. 2. Cassipourea. 

1. RHIZOPHORA L. Sp. PI. 443. 1753. 

Evergreen trees, with an astringent bark, and stout pithy twigs. Leaves 
opposite, entire; stipules elongated, interpetiolar, caducous. Flowers cream- 
colored or yellow, 2 or several on forking peduncles. Calyx-tube short, adnate 
to the base of the ovary, the 4 lobes leathery. Petals 4, emarginate, leathery. 
Stamens 4-12, alternate with the petals; filaments short. Ovary 2-celled, half- 
inferior, produced into a fleshy cone. Stigma 2-lobed. Ovules 2 in each cavity. 
Fruit pendulous, 1-celled, leathery. Seed solitary, germinating in the persistent 
fruit, the elongating radicle sometimes reaching the ground before the fruit 
falls. Endosperm wanting. [Greek, root-bearing.] Three known species, the 
following typical, the others natives of the Old World tropics. 

1. Rhizophora Mangle L. Sp. PI. 443. 1753. 

• 

A shrub or tree, reaching a height of 10 m. or more, forming impenetrable 
thickets by the greatly elongating radicles of the embryo, and the numerous 
roots. Leaves 5-15 cm. long, leathery, elliptic or elliptic-obovate, obtuse, with 
a stout midrib; petioles 0.5-1.5 cm. in length; peduncles 1-4 cm. long, 2-3-flow- 
ered; pedicels stout, 5-10 mm. long; bractlets scale-like; calyx-tube fleshy, 
turbinate or campanulate, the lobes 3-5 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, about 1 
cm. long, involute, keeled within, very firm, recurved at maturity; petals pale 
yellow, linear or nearly so, cleft at the tip, involute above the middle, cobwebby 



44 ONAGRACEAE 

along the edges; anthers clustered around the style; fruit 2-3 cm. long, curved, the 
radicle protruding as a narrowly clavate pendent body. 

Coastal swamps, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; 
Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America and tropical 
Africa. The hard and strong brown wood, valued for piling posts, and in boat-building, 
has a specific gravity of about 1.16; the furrowed gray bark is much used in tanning. 
Mangle Colorado. Mangle sapatero. Mangrove. 

2. CASSIPOUREA Aubl. PL Guian 1: 528. 1775. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with opposite petioled leaves, the short interpetiolar 
stipules caducous, the small flowers fascicled or solitary in the axils. Calyx cam- 
panulate, 4-5-lobed, the lobes valvate. Petals 4 or 5, clawed, lacerate. Disk 
cupulate, crenulate. Stamens 10-30; filaments filiform; anthers short. Ovary 
3-4-celled; style filiform; stigma slightly 3^1-lobed. Fruit somewhat fleshy, 
3-4-seeded. Seeds pendulous, arillate. [Guiana name.] About 8 species, of 
tropical America. Type species: Cassipourea guianensis Aubl. 

1. Cassipourea alba Griseb. Goett. Abh. 7: 223. 1857. 

A shrub, or a tree up to about 10 m. in height, the twigs slender. Leaves 
chartaceous, oblong to elliptic, delicately pinnately veined, with the veins anas- 
tomosing, 5-10 cm. long, entire, the apex acute oi acuminate, the base narrowed 
or obtuse, the petioles 5-10 mm. long; pedicels few or solitary in the axils, about 
6 mm. long or less; calyx 4-6 mm. long, mostly 4-lobed; petals white, hairy, about 
twice as long as the calyx; stamens 10-16; style strigose; fruit oblong or subglo- 
bose, greenish, puberulent, 6-10 mm. long. [Legnotis elliplica of Sprengel, not of 
Swartz; Cassipourea eUiptica of Bello and of Stahl, not of Poiret.J 

Thickets, wooded hills and forests, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in 
wet and moist districts: — Guadeloupe to Trinidad. Palo de Gongoli. Palo de toro. 
Palo de oreja. 



Family 7. ONAGRACEAE Dumort. 
Evening-Primrose Family. 

Herbs, or rarely shrubs, with alternate or opposite leaves, no stipules, or 
mere glands in their places, and generally perfect flowers. Calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary, the limb 2-6-lobed (usually 4-lobed). Petals 2-9 
(usually 4), convolute in the bud, rarely none. Stamens usually as many 
or twice as many as the petals. Ovary 1-6-celled (usually 4-celled) ; styles 
united; stigma capitate, discoid or 4-lobed; ovules generally anatropous. 
Fruit a capsule or small nut. Endosperm very little or none. Forty genera 
and about 350 species of wide geographic distribution, most abundant in 
America. 

Stamens 4. 1. Isnardia. 

Stamens 8-12 in 2 series. 2. Jussiaea. 

1. ISNARDIA L. Sp. PL 120. 1753. 

Succulent herbs. Stems creeping or floating; leaves opposite, relatively few, 
petioled. Flowers axillary, sessile, not yellow. Calyx-segments 4, shorter than 
the tube or slightly longer. Filaments very short. Ovary very short; styles 
often almost wanting. Capsule obovoid or turbinate, straight. [In honor of 
Antoine Dante lsnard, a French botanist, and a member of the Academy of 



ONAGRACEAE 45 

Sciences, died 1724.] About 4 species in North America, Mexico and the West 
Indies. Type species: Isnardia palustris L. 

1. Isnardia palustris L. Sp. PI. 120. 1753. 

Stems branching, 1-5 dm. long; leaves oval, ovate or spatulate, 12-25 mm. 
long, narrowed into slender petioles; flowers solitary, about 2 mm. broad; bractlets 
at base of the calyx usually none; calyx-lobes triangular, acute, petals small, 
reddish, or often wanting; capsule 4-sided, slightly longer than wide, about 3 mm. 
high, slightly exceeding the calyx-lobes. 

Clearing in wet woods, Sardinera, near Dorado, Porto Rico, 1922: — north temperate 
zone, extending south in America to Mexico; Bermuda; Hispaniola. Marsh Pursiane. 

2. JUSSIAEA L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, some species woody, with alternate, mostly entire leaves 
and solitary axillary flowers, the petals usually yellow. Calyx-tube cylindric or 
prismatic, not prolonged beyond the ovary, the limb 4-6-parted, its lobes per- 
sistent. Petals 4-6, mostly longer than the calyx-lobes. Stamens 8-12, in 2 
series. Ovary 4-6-celled. Capsule narrowly cylindric, prismatic or clavate, 
ribbed, the pericarp deteriorating. Seeds numerous and minute. [In honor of 
Bernard de Jussieu, 1699-1777, eminent French botanist and physician.] About 
50 species, of tropical distribution, mostly American, known as Primrose Willow 
and Yerba de clavo. Type species: Jussiaea repens L. 

Seeds in one row in each cavity of the capsule. 

Plant creeping, rooting at the nodes. 1. J. repens. 

Plant erect or ascending. 2. J. leptocarpa. 

Seeds in several rows in each cavity of the capsule. 
Capsule short, obpyramidal or tetragonal. 

Capsule tetragonal, linear, sessile or nearly so; plant glabrous, 

slender. 3. J. erecta. 

Capsule obpyramidal, stalked ; plant stout, hirsute. 4. J. peruviana. 

Capsule subcylindric, elongated. 5. J. angmtifolia. 

1. Jussiaea repens L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753. 

Jussiaea Swartziana DC. Prodr. 3: 51. 1828. 

Glabrous, aquatic or uliginous; stem rooting at the lower nodes, floating or 
ascending, little branched or simple, 2-10 dm. long. Leaves petioled, oval to 
oblong or spatulate, 2-8 cm. long, the apex obtuse, acutish or rounded, the base 
narrowed; peduncles slender, 0.5-3 cm. long; calyx-lobes 5, lanceolate, acute, 
shorter than the petals; petals obovate, 6-10 mm. long; capsule subcylindric, 
narrowed below, 1.5-3 cm. long, the seeds in one row in each cavity. 

In shallow water, along borders of lakes and streams, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; continental warm-temperate and tropical America and Old World tropics. 

2. Jussiaea leptocarpa Nutt. Gen. l: 279. 1818. 

Jussiaea variabilis Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 174. 1818. 
Jussiaea pilosa H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 6: 101. 1823. 
Jussiaea affinis DC. Prodr. 3: 53. 1828. 

Bushy, erect or ascending, branched, 3-20 dm. high. Leaves oblong to 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, short-petioled or sessile, 2-10 cm. long, the apex 
blunt or acute, the base narrowed; flowers short-peduncled or sessile; calyx- 
lobes 4-8, lanceolate, acuminate, about 6 mm. long; petals obovate, little longer 
than the calyx-lobes; capsule subcylindric, narrowed below, 2-3 cm. long, the 



46 ONAGRACEAE 

seeds in one row in each cavity. [? J. pubescens L. ; J. Swartziana of Bello, not 
of de Candolle; J. palustris of Stahl, not of Meyer. j 

Marshes and ditches, Porto Rico, at lower elevations: — southeastern United States; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad; continental tropical America; 
tropical Africa. All Porto Rico specimens seen are glabrous, but many from other 
regions are pilose. 

3. Jussiaea erecta L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753. 

Jussiaea acuminata Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 745. 1800. 

Jussiaea Plumeriana Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 267. 1881. 

Glabrous, erect, slender and with slender ascending branches, 5-15 dm. 
high. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, short-petioled, 2-8 cm. long, the 
apex acuminate, the base narrowed; flowers sessile; calyx-lobes 4, lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-4 mm. long; petals spatulate, about as long as the calyx- 
lobes; capsule somewhat angled, splitting, 1.5-2 cm. long; seeds in several rows. 

Wet grassy situations at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix (according 
to West); St. Thomas (according to Krebs); Tor tola: — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; His- 
paniola; Antigua to Trinidad; continental tropical America; tropical Africa. Yerba de 
Jicotea. 

4. Jussiaea peruviana L. Sp. Pi. 388. 1753. 

Oenothera hirta L. Syst. ed. 10, 998. 1759. 
Jussiaea hirta Vahl, Eclog. 2: 31. 1798. 

Hirsute-pubescent, stout, erect, branched, 2.5 m. high or less. Leaves oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, short-petioled, 5-10 cm. long, strongly veined, pubescent 
on both sides, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed or cuneate; flowers pedun- 
cled, large and showy, the peduncles rather stout, villous, 1-4 cm. long; calyx- 
lobes 4, ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 8-12 mm. long; petals obovate, longer than 
the calyx-lobes; capsule tetragonal, obpyramidal, pubescent, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; 
seeds in several rows in each cavity. 

Wet or moist open situations, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — Florida; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

5. Jussiaea angustifolia Lam. Encycl. 3: 331. 1789. 

? Jussiaea octavalvis Sw. Obs. 142. 1791. 

Jussiaea octonervia Lam. Encycl. 3: 332. 1789. 

Jussiaea octofila DC. Prodr. 3: 57. 1828. 

Jussiaea suffruticosa angustifolia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 251. 1891. 

Jussiaea suffruticosa Si?itenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 469. 1910. 

Jussiaea suffruticosa ligustrifolia Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 54. 1S79. 

Erect, 6-10 dm. high, somewhat branched, more or less pubescent, at least 
above. Leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate, entire, short-petioled, 2.5-10 cm. 
long, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base; peduncles mostly not longer than 
the petioles; calyx-lobes 4, rarely 5, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acu- 
minate, 6-12 mm. long; petals obovate, bright yellow, mostly 2-3 times as long 
as the calyx-lobes; capsule 3-6 cm. long, subcylindric, tapering to the base; seeds 
in several rows in each cavity. [J. suffruticosa of de Candolle and subsequent 
authors, not of Linnaeus; J. acuminata of Stahl and perhaps of Krebs, not of 
Swartz; J. linifolia of Cook and Collins.] 

Wet or moist open situations, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — southeastern United States; West Indies; 
continental tropical America and Old World tropics. 

Jussiaea dodecandra DC, a species of northern South America, was 
recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, presumably in error. 



ARALIACEAE 47 

Order 25. AMMIALES. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, almost always with petaliferous flowers. Calyx- 
segments and petals usually 5. Stamens 4 or 5. Ovary inferior, adnate to 
the calyx, compound; ovules 1 in each cavity. 

Fruit a berry or drupe. Fam. 1 . Araliaceae . 

Fruit dry when mature, splitting into two mericarps. Fam. 2. Ammiaceae. 

Family 1. ARALIACEAE Vent, 
Ginseng Family. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate or verticillate (rarely opposite) 
leaves, and small flowers in umbels, heads, or panicles. Calyx-tube adnate 
to the ovary. Petals usually 5, sometimes cohering together, inserted on 
the margin of the calyx. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them (rarely more), inserted on the epigynous disk; anthers introrse. Ovary 
inferior, 1-several-celled; styles as many as the cavities of the ovary; ovules 
1 in each cavity, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit fleshy. Seeds flattened, or 
somewhat 3-angled, the testa thin; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo small, 
near the hilum; cotyledons ovate to oblong. About 52 genera and 450 
species, widely distributed, the Porto Rico and Virgin Island species trees. 

Leaves simple; styles 5 or 6, connate. 1. Dendropanax. 

Leaves digitately compound; styles 2, distinct. 2. Didymopanax. 

1. DENDROPANAX Dene. & PI. Rev. Hort. 4 3 : 107. 1854. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with simple, entire, or in a few species lobed, 
mostly pinnately veined leaves, the umbels racemose, panicled, subumbellate or 
solitary. Calyx 5-toothed or nearly truncate. Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5, 
the anthers ovate or oblong. Ovary 5-celled; styles connate. Fruit globose or 
ovoid, usually 5-grooved, the exocarp fleshy. [Greek, tree-Panax.] About 20 
species, natives of warm and tropical regions of America and Asia. Type 
species: Aralia arbor ea L. 

Umbels racemose, their peduncles ebracteolate, or 1-2-bracteolate. 1. D. arboreum. 
Umbels subumbellate, their peduncles 3-4-bracteolate at about the 

middle. 2. D. laurifolium. 

1. Dendropanax arboreum (L.) Dene. & PI. Rev. Hort. 4 3 : 107. 1854. 

Aralia arborea L. Syst. ed. 10, 967. 1759. 

Hedera arborea Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 518. 1797. 

Sciadophyllum Jacquini Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 306. 1860. 

Gilibertia arborea E. March.; Durand & Pittier, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 30: 281. 

1891. 

A tree, 8-20 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the twigs rather stout. Leaves 
ovate to elliptic or some of them obovate, subchartaceous, entire, 8-20 cm. long, 
loosely reticulate-veined and green on both sides, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base narrowed, obtuse or rounded, the slender unequal petioles 2-10 cm. 
long; inflorescence a raceme of peduncled umbels often as long as the leaves; 
peduncles slender, naked, or with 1 or 2 bractlets, 1-3 cm. long; umbels 20 or 
fewer, several-many-flowered, 1.5-2 cm. broad when in flower; calyx about 2 mm. 
broad, rather sharply 5-toothed; petals white, about 1.5 mm. long; fruit black, 
subglobose, grooved, 6-8 mm. in diameter. [Scidophyllum capilatum of Eggers, 
not of Grisebach.] 



48 ARALIACEAE 

Forests and wooded hills, Porto Rico, mostly at middle and higher elevations in 
wet or moist districts; St. Thomas; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Vincent; 
Trinidad; Margarita; continental tropical America. The light yellow wood is hard, 
heavy, strong and tough. MuSteca. Palo cachtjmba. Vibona. 

2. Dendropanax laurifolium (E. March.) Dene. & PL; R. C. Schneider, Bull. 
Torr. Club 36: 644. 1909. 

Gilibertia laurifolia E. March.; Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 203. 1899. 

A tree, up to 20 m. in height, with rather stout gray twigs. Leaves obovate 
to oblong or elliptic, chartaceous, entire or slightly undulate, 8-22 cm. long, 
densely reticulate-veined and green on both sides, the apex short-acuminate, the 
base rounded, obtuse or narrowed, the slender unequal petioles 1-12 cm. long; 
umbels subumbellate, many-flowered; peduncles 4 cm. long or shorter, with a 
whorl of 3 or 4 bractlets at or above the middle; calyx-limb undulate; petals 
yellowish or greenish white, about 1.5 mm. long; fruit subglobose or globose- 
ovoid, 5-6 mm. in diameter. [Sciadophyllum capitalum of Bello and of Stahl, 
not of Grisebach, Oreopanax capitatum of Cook and Collins.] 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. The wood is heavy, strong and tough. Palo de Gangultn. Palo de vaca. 

2. DIDYMOPANAX Dene. & PL Rev. Hort. 4 3 : 109. 1854. 

Trees, with digitately compound petioled leaves, the twigs, under leaf- 
surfaces and inflorescence finely stellate-puberulent or tomentulose, the flowers 
in panicled umbels. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5, with 
short filaments and ovate anthers. Ovary 2-celled; styles 2, distinct. Fruit 
compressed, didymous, the exocarp slightly fleshy. [Greek, didymous-Panax.} 
About 20 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Panax Morototoni 
Aubl. 

1. Didymopanax Morototoni (Aubl.) Dene. & PL Rev. Hort. IV. 3: 109. 1854. 

Panax Morototoni Aubl. PL Guian 2: 949. 1775. 

Panax speciosum Willd. Sp. PL 4: 1126. 1806. 

Didymopanax chrysophyllum Dene. & PL Rev. Hort. IV. 3: 109. 1854. 

A tree, up to 25 m. in height, the bark smooth, the pith of branches large, the 
straight trunk annulate, branched above. Leaves clustered at the ends of the 
branches; petioles stout, terete, 3-6 dm. long; leaflets 7-10, their petioles 3-10 
cm. long; blades elliptic, oblong or oblong-obovate, 2-4 dm. long, acuminate, 
strongly pinnately few-veined, often subcordate, those of young plants mem- 
branous, pubescent, sometimes serrulate, those of mature tree chartaceous, 
glabrous above, densely pale-tomentulose beneath, entire or repand; panicles 
compound, 2-6 dm. long, tomentulose when young, the umbels very numerous; 
pedicels 2-6 mm. long, calyx about 2 mm. long; petals white, about 2 mm. long; 
fruit glaucous, 6-7 mm. broad, 4-5 mm. long, about 2 mm. thick. 

Mountain forests of Porto Rico; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Guade- 
loupe; Trinidad; northern South America. The hard and heavy nearly white wood is 
used in construction; it is fine-grained and brittle. Leaves of juvenile trees have been 
referred by Urban to Didymopanax micans (H. & B.) Krug and Urban [Aralia micans H. 
& B.J, originally from Colombia. Llagrume. 

Polyscias Guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey, Gallego, of the South Sea islands, 
planted for its ornamental foliage in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a 
small tree or shrub up to about 5 m. high, the leaves pinnate, the leaflets various, 
ovate in outline, dentate or pinnatifid, often white-margined. [Aralia Guilfoylei 
Bull.] 



AMMIACEAE 49 

Polyscias filicifolia (Moore) Bailey, also of the South Sea islands and 
grown for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has leaves very diverse 
on individual plants, some of the leaflets ovate and dentate, others pinnatifld into 
linear lobes or segments. [Aralia filicifolia Moore.] 

Hedera Helix L., European Ivy, European, seen in Mr. Fairchild's garden, 
Louisenhoj, St. Thomas, in 1922, is an evergreen vine, climbing on trees or walls 
by aerial roots, the dark green, thick leaves variously lobed, the yellow-green 
flowers in peduncled umbels. 

Family 2. AMMIACEAE Presl. 
Carrot Family. 

Herbs, with alternate compound or sometimes simple leaves, the petioles 
often dilated at the base. Stipules none, or rarely present and minute. 
Flowers small, generally in compound or simple umbels, rarely in heads or 
capitate clusters, often polygamous. Umbels and umbellets commonly 
involucrate or involucellate. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its margin 
truncate or 5-toothed, the teeth seldom conspicuous. Petals 5, inserted on 
the margin of the calyx, usually with an inflexed tip, often emarginate or 
2-lobed, those of the outer flowers sometimes larger than those of the inner. 
Stamens 5, inserted on the epigynous disk; filaments filiform; anthers 
versa tile.^ Ovary inferior, 2-celled; styles 2, filiform, persistent, often borne 
on a conic or depressed stylopodium; ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous, 
anatropous. Fruit dry, composed of 2 carpels (mericarps), which generally 
separate from each other at maturity along the plane of their contiguous 
faces (the commissure). Fruit either flattened laterally (at right angles to 
the commissure), or dorsally (parallel to the commissure), or nearly terete 
(not flattened). Carpels after parting from each other supported on the 
summit of a slender axis (the carpophore), each with 5 primary ribs in their 
pericarps (rarely ribless), and in some genera with 4 additional secondary 
ones, the ribs or some of them often winged. Pericarp membranous or 
corky-thickened, usually containing oil-tubes between the ribs, or under the 
ribs and on the commissural side, sometimes irregularly scattered, sometimes 
none. Seeds 1 in each carpel, usually adnate to the pericarp; seed-coat 
thin; endosperm cartilaginous; embryo small, placed near the hilum; coty- 
ledons ovate, oblong or linear. About 170 genera and 1600 species, of wide 
distribution. The mature fruit is necessary for the certain determination of 
most of the genera and many of the species. 

Leaves simple. 
. A dichotomously branched herb, with oblanceolate or spatulate- 

oblanceolate leaves, serrate with bristle-tipped teeth. 1. Eryngium. 

Herbs with creeping stems, rooting at the nodes; leaves ovate to 
orbicular, without bristle-tipped teeth; flowers umbellate. 
Fruit without secondary ribs or reticulations; leaves 1 at a node. 2. Hydrocotyle. 
Fruit with secondary ribs and reticulations; leaves several at 

the nodes. 3. Centella. 

Leaves compound or dlsseted. 

Umbels sessile along the stem; the umbellets stalked; flowers 

white. 4. Cyclospermum. 

Umbels distinctly stalked, terminal; flowers yellow. 5. Anethum. 

1. ERYNGIUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 232. 1753. 

Herbs, with spiny-toothed lobed dentate or sometimes dissected, rarely entire, 
leaves, and bracted heads or spikes of small white or blue flowers subtended by 
bracelets. Calyx-teeth rigid, pungent, or acute. Petals erect. Disk expanded. 



50 AMMIACEAE 

Fruit scaly or tuberculate, somewhat flattened laterally. Carpels nearly terete, 
their ribs obsolete or none, the oil-tubes usually 5. [Greek, a kind of thistle.] 
About 150 species, of wide distribution. Type species: Eryngium maritimum L. 



1. Eryngium foetidum L. Sp. PL 232. 1753. 

A diffuse, dichotomously branched, glabrous, ill-smelling herb. Basal leaves 
spatulate-oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 5-18 cm. long, 1.5-5 cm. broad, 
sheathing at the base, serrate with bristle-tipped teeth: involucral leaves much 
longer than the flower heads, usually deeply spinescent-serrate ; flower heads 
cylindric-ovoid, 0.5-1.3 cm. long, 4-5 mm. thick, long-peduncled; flowers white. 

"Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; St. Thomas (according to Eggers): — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

CUIANTRO DEL MONTE. FlT-WEED. 



2. HYDROCOTYLE [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 234. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, prostrate and commonly rooting at the joints, with pal- 
mately lobed or veined, often peltate leaves, the bases of the petioles with 2 scale- 
like stipules, and small white flowers in umbels opposite the leaves. Bracts of 
the involucre few, or none. Calyx-teeth minute. Petals entire. Disk flat. 
Fruit laterally compressed, orbicular or broader than high. Carpels with 5 
primary ribs, the lateral ones usually curved; no large oil-tubes but an oil-bearing 
layer of tissue beneath the epidermis. [Greek, water-cup.] About 75 species, of 
wide distribution. Type species: Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. The plants are known 
as Yerba de cuarto and Marsh Pennywort. 

Leaf-blade peltate, glabrous or with scattered hairs on both sides. 
Umbel simple (rarely producing a second umbel) ; fruit notched at 
at the base. 
Delicate herb with filiform stems; umbel few-flowered, the 

pedicels very short; fruit not strongly ribbed. 1. //. pusilla. 

More robust; umbel many-flowered, the pedicels often 1 cm. 

or more long; fruit strongly ribbed. 2. H. umbellata. 

Umbels proliferous; fruit rounded or truncate at the base. 3. H. verticillata. 

Leaf-blades not peltate, villous on both sides; inflorescence spicate. 4. H. hirsuta. 

1. Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich. Ann. Sci. Phys. 4: 167. 1820. 

A rather delicate herb, with slender often filiform stems. Leaf-blades 
orbicular, peltate, 0.5-1.6 cm. broad, glabrous or with scattered hairs on both 
surfaces, crenate; petioles 1-3 cm. long, slender, often pilose; peduncles filiform, 
as long as or shorter than the petioles; umbel few-flowered; fruit sessile or nearly 
so, 1 mm. long, 1.2-1.5 mm. broad, notched at the base. 

Wet mossy banks at middle and higher elevations, Porto Rico: — Hispaniola; South 
America. 

2. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Sp. PL 234. 1753. 

A glabrous herb. Leaf-blades orbicular, peltate, 1.5-5 cm. long; umbel 
simple, rarely producing a second umbel; verticels usually many-flowered; 
peduncles often as long as the leaves; fruit about 1.8-2 mm. long, 2-2.7 mm. 
broad, notched at the base and apex. 

Wet open grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico: — eastern and southern United 
States; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; continental tropical America; tropical 
Africa. 



AMMIACEAE 51 

3. Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Diss. Hydrocot. 5. 1798. 

Hydrocotyle interrupta Muhl. Cat. 10. 1813. 

Hydrocotyle verticillata longipedunculata Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 268. 
1879. 

A glabrous herb. Leaf-blades orbicular, peltate, 1-7 cm. broad, crenate or 
crenate-lobed, long-petioled ; umbels proliferous, 2-5 cm. long; verticels 2-several- 
flowered; peduncles as long as the petioles or longer; pedicels usually less than 
3 mm. long; fruit about 2 mm. long, 3-4 mm. broad, rounded or truncate at each 
end. 

Moist soil and river-flats, abundant along the Coamo River: — eastern and southern 
United States; Bermuda; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; continental 
tropical America; south Africa. 

4. Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. Prodr. 54. 1788. 

Hydrocotyle spicata Lam. Encycl. 3: 153. 1789. 

Hydrocotyle hirsuta spicata Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 282. 1879. 

Hydrocotyle hirsuta leptostachya Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 282. 1879. 

Stems slender, glabrous or nearly so, 0.5-3 dm. or more long. Petioles 
villous, 1-10 cm. long; leaf-blades suborbicular or reniform, 1-3 cm. broad, 
crenate, rather deeply cordate, villous on both sides, densely so beneath; spikes 
peduncled, interrupted, usually longer than the leaves, the peduncles and rachls 
villous; fruits sessile, glabrous, emarginate at base and apex, about 1.5 mm. broad. 

Wet or moist banks and rocks, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — 
Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola; Curacao; Brazil. 

3. CENTELLA L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1393. 1763. 

Perennial herbs (some African species shrubby), ours with prostrate stems 
rooting and sending up tufts of petioled leaves at the nodes, together with 1-3 
long-rayed umbellets of small white flowers, the true umbel sessile. Petiole- 
bases sheathing. Bracts of the involucels 2-4, mostly prominent. Calyx-teeth 
none. Disk flat, or slightly concave. Styles filiform. Fruit somewhat flattened 
laterally, rather prominently ribbed, the ribs mostly anastomosing; oil-tubes 
none. [Latin, diminutive of centrum, a prickle.] About 20 species, of wide dis- 
tribution, abundant in South Africa. Type species: Centella villosa L. 

1. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 287. 1879. 

Hydrocotyle asiatica L. Sp. PI. 234. 1753. 
Hydrocotyle repanda Pers. Syn. 1: 302. 1805. 
Centella repanda Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 859. 1903. 

Stem 2-15 cm. or more long. Petioles 0.3-3 dm. long, sometimes pubescent; 
blades ovate to orbicular-ovate, rather thick, rounded at the apex, broadly cordate 
or nearly truncate at the base, not peltate, 2-7 cm. long, repand-dentate ; pedicels 
much shorter than the leaves, 1-7 cm. long; umbellets capitate, 2-4-flowered, 
subtended by 2 ovate bracts; flowers nearly sessile; fruit 4-5 mm. broad, about 
3 mm. high, prominently ribbed and reticulated. 

Wet or moist grassy situations, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — 
southeastern United States; Bermuda; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guade- 
loupe; Martinique; Trinidad; continental tropical America; Old World tropics and sub- 
tropics. Yerba de clavo. 

4. CYCLOSPERMUM Lag. Amen. Nat. I 2 : 101. 1821. 

Herbs, with decompound or dissected leaves and compound umbels of small 
white flowers mostly opposite the leaves. Involucre and involucels wanting in 



52 AMMIACEAE 

the following species. Calyx-teeth very small or obsolete. Petals entire. 
Stylopodium depressed. Style short. Fruit ovate or oblong, laterally com- 
pressed. Carpels with 5 filiform ribs, the oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on 
the commissural side. [Greek, wheel-seed.] A few tropical or subtropical species, 
the following typical. 

1. Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague, Journ. Bot. 61: 131. 1923. 

Pimpinella leptophylla Pers. Syn. 1: 324. 1805. 
Sison Ammi Jacq. Hort. Vind. 2: 95. 1773. Not L. 1753. 
Apium Ammi Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. II 1 : 341. 1879. 
Helosciadium Ammi Britton, Fl. Bermuda 279. 1918. 

Slender, glabrous, much-branched, 0.7-6 dm. high. Leaves ternately 
pinnatisected, the ultimate segments narrow, often incised; umbels 1-4 cm. 
broad, opposite the leaves, sessile, the umbellets filiform-stalked; fruit ovate, 
glabrous, about 2 mm. long, the ribs equal and prominent. 

Roadside ditches, between Guayama and Cayey at about 750 m. elevation: — 
southern United States; Bermuda; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadaloupe; 
Martinique; Barbados; Mexico to Paraguay. Introduced as a weed into the Old World 
and Australia. Marsh Parsley. 

5. ANETHUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Erect, mostly annual, glabrous herbs, with decompound leaves and small 
yellow flowers in many-rayed compound umbels. Involucre and involucels 
none, or of very few bracts. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals suborbicular. Sty- 
lopodium small, conic. Fruit elliptic or ovate, flat, margined ; carpel-ribs slender ; 
oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. [Greek, like anise.] A few European and 
Asiatic species, the following typical. 

1. Anethum graveolens L. Sp. PL 263. 1753. 

Stem terete, simple or branched, slender, 3-9 dm. high. Leaves tripinnately 
dissected into nearly filiform segments, the petiole somewhat sheathing; umbel 
15 cm. wide or less; involucre and involucels none; rays slender, 3-7 cm. long; 
umbellets several-many-flowered; petals bright yellow; fruit ovate-elliptic, 
4—5.2 mm. long, distinctly margined. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
Tortola: — widely grown in gardens for flavoring, in temperate and tropical regions. 
Native of Europe. Hlnojo. Dillweed. 

Apium Petroselinum L., Parsley, European, cultivated in Porto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands, is a glabrous, biennial herb, 3-9 dm. high, with bipinnate 
leaves, the small segments linear to obovate, the small yellow flowers in compound 
umbels, the small ovate glabrous fruit prominently ribbed, with solitary oil- 
tubes in the intervals. [Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. ; Wydleria portoricensis DC] 

Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft, Apio, Arracacha, South American, 
grown in Porto Rico at middle elevations, is a tall herb with large often bipinnate 
leaves, the segments coarsely toothed; the tuberous roots used for food. [A. 
esculenta DC] 

Foeniculum Foeniculum (L.) Karsten, Fennel, European, formerly 
grown as a drug in the Virgin Islands, is perennial, 6-12 dm. high, glabrous, the 
decompound leaves dissected into filiform segments; the yellow flowers are in 



AMMIACEAE 



53 



compound umbels without an involucre or involucels; the fruit is linear, nearly- 
terete, ribbed, about 6 mm. long, with solitary oil-tubes between the ribs. 
[Anethum Foeniculum L. ; Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn.j 

Celeri graveolens (L.) Britton, Celery, European, is occasionally grown as 
a vegetable in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands and persistent for a time after 
cultivation but not naturalized. It has thick-stalked pinnate leaves with 3 or 5 
thin, ovate, toothed or incised segments; its small flowers are white, in compound 
umbels; the oval fruit is scarcely 1 mm. long. [Avium graveolens L. ; Peucedanum 
graveolens Benth.] 

Coriandrum sativum L., Culanteo, Coriander, native of the Mediter- 
ranean region, grown for flavoring in Porto Rico gardens, is an herb 2-6 dm. tall, 
the lower cauline and basal leaves with coarsely toothed incised or lobed segments, 
the upper leaves with narrowly linear segments, the rather large white flowers 
in compound umbels; the fruit is globose or ovoid-globose, 3-4 mm. in diameter. 

Daucus Carota L., Carrot, European, occasionally grown for food in the 
Virgin Islands and in Porto Rico, is biennial, forming the first season a deep conic 
root and a tuft of decompound leaves with toothed or incised segments, sub- 
sequently sending up a stem 5-8 dm. high, bearing a few similar leaves and a 
compound umbel of white flowers; the fruit is about 6 mm. long, bearing barbed 
prickles in rows. 

Cerefolium Cerefolium (L.) Britton, Garden Chervil, European, some- 
times grown in Virgin Island gardens, is an annual herb, 4-6 dm. high, with ter- 
nately decompound leaves and compound umbels of small white flowers, the 
linear, glabrous and ribless fruit is about 6 mm. long. [Anthriscus Cerefolium 
Hoffm.] 

Pimpinella Anisum L., Anise, was recorded by Eggers as cultivated on 
St. Croix, but it does not appear to have become established. 



Series 2. GAMOPETALAE. 

Petals partly or wholly united, rarely separate or wanting. 

The coherence of the petals is sometimes slight or they are quite 
separate, as in some Asclepiadaceae, Oleaceae and Cucurbitaceae. 
From this condition the coherence varies through all stages to the 
tubular or funnelform corallas of some Convolvulaceae, Capri- 
foliaceae and Carduaceae. 



1 OVARY SUPERIOR. 

Stamens free from the corolla or adnate merely to its base. 
Stamens borne on the corolla, as many as its lobes and op- 
posite them, or twice as many, or more. 
Herbs, shrubs or trees; ovary 1-celled. 
Shrubs or trees; ovary several-celled. 
Stamens borne on the corolla, as many as its lobes or fewer, 
and alternate with them (in Forestiera of the Oleaceae 
there is no corolla). 
Corolla not scarious, nerved. 

Ovaries 2, distinct (except in some Loganiaceae, and 
in Gentianaceae in which the ovary is compound 
with 2 cavities or rarely more, or with 1 cavity and 
2 placentae); flowers regular; stamens mostly ad- 
nate to only the lower part of the corolla; leaves 
mostly opposite. 
Ovary 1 (compound in Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae, 
mostly deeply 4-lobed around the style) ; flowers 



Order 1. Ericales. 



Order 2. 
Order 3. 



Pruvitjlales. 
Ebenales. 



Order. 4 Gentianai.es. 



54 ERICACEAE 

regular or irregular ; stamens mostly adnate to the 
middle of the corolla-tube or beyond; leaves oppo- 
site or alternate. Order 5. Polemontales. 
Corolla scarious, nerveless. Order 6. Plantaginales. 

2. OVARY INFERIOR. 
Anthers distinct. Order 7. Rubiales. 

Anthers united (except in Ambrosiaceae) . Order 8. Campanulales. 

Order 1. ERICALES. 

Undershrubs, shrubs, trees, or herbs. Leaves alternate, opposite or 
whorled. Flowers perfect, regular or nearly so, complete or rarely incom- 
plete. Sepals distinct or partly united. Petals distinct or united. Stamens 
as many or twice as many as the petals or corolla-lobes. Ovary of several 
united carpels. 

Ovary superior; fruit capsular. Fam. 1. Ericaceae. 

Ovary inferior; fruit a berry. Fam. 2. Vaccinaceae. 

Family 1. ERICACEAE DC. 

Heath Family. 

Perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees, with simple estipulate leaves. Flowers 
perfect. Calyx of 4-7 nearly distinct or partly united sepals. Corolla of 
4-7 distinct or partly united petals. Filaments free from the corolla, or 
adnate only to its base. Ovary superior, 2-7-carpellary; ovules usually 
numerous, anatropous. Fruit a capsule. Seeds numerous or rarely few. 
About 60 genera and 1100 species, of wide geographic distribution. 

1. XOLISMA Raf. Am. Mo. Mag. 4: 193. 1819. 
[Lyonia Nutt. Gen. 1: 266. 1818. Not Ell. 1817.] 

Shrubs, or small trees, with terete twigs, alternate short-petioled leaves, 
and small, mostly white flowers in clusters. Calyx 4-8-lobed. Corolla globose, 
or urceolate, pubescent, 4-8-toothed, the teeth recurved. Stamens 8-16, in- 
cluded; filaments flat, incurved, pubescent ; anthers attached to the filaments near 
their bases, truncate, the sacs opening by terminal pores. Disk 8-10-lobed. 
Ovary 4-8-celled; style columnar; stigma truncate; ovules numerous, pendulous. 
Capsule 4-8-valved, its apex intruded. Seeds elongated, the testa membranous, 
loose, reticulated. [Name unexplained.] About 27 species, natives of eastern 
North America, the West Indies and Mexico. 

Leaves green above, glaucous beneath. 1. X. rubiginosa. 

Leaves green on both sides. 2. X. Slahlii. 

1. Xolisma rubiginosa (Pers.) Small, N. A. Fl. 29: 68. 1914. 

Andromeda rubiginosa Pers. Syn. 1: 481. 1805. 
Lyonia rubiginosa G. Don, Gen. Syst. 3: 841. 1834. 

A much-branched shrub, with puberulent twigs. Leaves elliptic to oval, 
or obovate, 2.5-5 cm. long, 1.3-2.5 cm. broad, obtuse or rounded at the apex, 
often acute at the base, lustrous and reticulate above, dull, glaucous and not 
reticulate beneath, undulate or obscurely crenulate, short-petioled; inflorescence 
few-flowered; pedicels short; calyx about 4 mm. wide, the lobes 5-7, suborbicular 
or somewhat orbicular-reniform ; corolla 6-7 mm. long, the lobes acute, much 



VACCINIACEAE 55 

shorter than the tube ; capsule ovoid, 5 mm. long. [Lyonia jamaicensis of Eggers, 
not of D. Don; Andromeda fasciculata of Krebs.] 

Bolongo, St. Thomas. Endemic. 

2. Xolisma Stahlii (Urban) Small, N. A. PI. 29: 71. 1914. 

Lyonia Stahlii Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 453. 1908. 

A shrub with scurfy twigs. Leaves ovate to elliptic or obovate, 3-6 cm. 
long, 1.5-1.7 cm. broad, obtuse or rounded at the apex, acute at the base, bright- 
green, crenulate, obscurely reticulate-veined and somewhat lustrous above, dull 
beneath, short-petioled ; inflorescence raceme-like, few-flowered; pedicels 5-11 
mm. long; calyx about 3.8 mm. wide, the lobes 5, deltoid or ovate-deltoid; corolla 
about 5 mm. long, the lobes much shorter than the tube; capsule ovoid, 5-6 mm. 
long. 

On Monte Helechal, near Bayamon, Porto Rico, at 500 m. elevation, collected only 
by Stahl. Endemic. 



Family 2. VACCINIACEAE Lindl. 

Huckleberry Family. 

Shrubs, or small trees, with alternate leaves, and perfect regular flowers, 
the pedicels commonly bracted. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, the limb 
4-5-lobed or 4-5-cleft. Corolla 4-5-lobed, or rarely divided into separate 
petals, deciduous. Stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes, epigynous, 
or inserted at the base of the corolla; filaments mostly short; anthers dorsally 
attached, 2-celled, the connective entire or 2-awned. Ovary inferior, 2-10- 
celled, crowned by the epigynous disk; style filiform; ovules anatropous. 
Fruit a fleshy berry in our genera, globose; cells 1-several-seeded. Seeds 
compressed; tests bony; endosperm fleshy; embryo central; radicle near the 
hilum. About 20 genera and 300 species, of wide distribution. 

Tubular part of the anther about as long as the lower part; flowers 

racemose corymbose or fascicled. 1. Thibaudia. 

Tubular part of the anther much longer than the lower part; flowers 

fascicled or solitary. 2. Ceratostema. 

1. THIBAUDIA Pavon; H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 268. 1819. 

Shrubs or woody vines, with broad entire short-petioled leaves, and large 
flowers in terminal or axillary racemes or corymbs. Calyx urceolate or subcam- 
panulate, terete, its short limb 5-toothed or 5-lobed. Corolla tubular, terete, 
with 5 short lobes. Stamens 10, all about equally long; filaments short; anthers 
linear, elongated, the tubular part about as long as the lower part. Ovary 5- 
celled; style filiform; stigma capitellate. Fruit a many-seeded berry. [Named 
for Thibaud de Chauvalon, a French botanist.] About 20 species, natives of 
tropical America, most abundant in the Andes. Type species: Thibaudia flori- 
bunda H.B.K. 

1. Thibaudia Krugii Urban & Hoerold; Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 454. 1908. 

A glabrous woody vine, 3-4 m. long, or shrub-like. Leaves ovate, coriaceous, 
5-11 cm. long, 7-nerved, strongly reticulate-veined beneath, the apex short- 
acuminate, the base rounded or obtuse, the stout petioles 4-7 mm. long; in- 
florescence axillary or subterminal, corymbose, several-many-flowered; pedicels 



56 MYRSINACEAE 

rather stout, about 10 mm. long; bracts very small, caducous; calyx-limb short, 
5-toothed ; berry 5-6 mm. in diameter. 

Forests and summits of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. The 
corolla of this species is unknown. 

2. CERATOSTEMA Juss.; Gmelin, Syst. 2: 676. 1791. 

Shrubs or vines with coriaceous, entire or obscurely denticulate leaves, and 
large axillary fascicled or solitary flowers. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla tubular, 
with 5 short lobes. Stamens 10; filaments short; anthers linear, elongated, the 
tubular part much longer than the lower part. Ovary 5-celled; style filiform; 
stigma capitellate. Fruit a many-seeded berry. [Greek, horned stamens.] 
About 25 species of tropical America, most abundant in the Andes. Type species : 
Ceratostema peruvia lum Gmelin. 

1. Ceratostema portoricensis (Urban) Hoerold, Bot. Jahrb. 42: 276. 1909. 

Thibaudia portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 376. 1899. 

A shrub, or a woody vine up to about 4 m. long, the twigs slender, short- 
pilose. Leaves suborbicular or ovate-orbicular, 8-20 mm. long, pale beneath, 
entire, rigid, brittle, the apex rounded, obtuse or acute, the base rounded, the 
midve'in impressed above, prominent beneath, the lateral venation obsolete, the 
petioles 1-3 mm. long; flowers solitary in the axils on a peduncle 12 mm. long or 
shorter; calyx about 5 mm. long, narrowly campanulate, its limb with 5 broad 
teeth; corolla urceolate-cylindric, light rose-colored, about 16 mm. long, with 
5 broad teeth; stamens nearly as long as the corolla, the tubular portion of the 
anther 2-3 times as long as the lower part; style white. 

On the summits of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

Order 2. PRIMULALES. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Corolla usually present, gamopetalous. Calyx 

mostly free from the ovary. Stamens borne on the corolla, as many as its 

lobes, or twice as many, or more. 

Style l; shrubs and trees; fruit drupaceous or baccate. myrsinaceae 

Staminodes none; fruit 1-seeded. Fam. 1. myrsinaceae. 

C ^ral b -manf-se S e t ded n0deS * ' ' Fam. 2. Theopurastaceae. 

Styles ITherbsTS an achene or utricle. Fam. 3. Plumbaginaceae. 

Family 1. MYRSINACEAE Lindl. 
Myrsine Family. 

Trees or shrubs, usually glabrous, the leaves mostly alternate, punctate 
or lineolate, estipulate, the small regular flowers variously clustered. Calyx 
inferior, persistent, 4-6-parted. Corolla mostly rotate or salverform, rarely 
tubular or of separate petals. Stamens as many as the corolla-segments and 
opposite them; filaments usually short, distinct or sometimes united; anthers 
longitudinally dehiscent; staminodes none. Ovary superior, 1-celled; style 
short or long; stigma various; ovules few, usually immersed in the central 
placenta. Fruit small, baccate, 1-seeded, sometimes nearly dry. Seed 
subglobose, the testa thin, the endosperm fleshy or horny. About 20 genera 
and over 450 species, mostly tropical in distribution. 



MYRSINACEAE 57 

1. Flowers paniculate or racemose. 

Ovules several or many; corolla contorted; style elongated. 1. Icacorea. 

Ovules few; style sbort or none or rarely elongated. 

Style elongated; corolla-lobes valvate. 2. Parathesis. 

Style short or wanting. 
Anthers dorsiflxed. 

Flowers dioecious; filaments slender; corolla-lobes 

imbricated. 3. Petesioides. 

Flowers perfect; filaments short; anthers long; corolla- 
lobes contorted. 4. Stylogyne. 
Anthers basifixed; filaments very short. 5. Grammadenia. 

2. Flowers in small lateral fascicles, subumbellate. 6. Bapanea. 

1. ICACOREA Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: Suppl. 1. 1775. 

Shrubs or trees, with alternate, mostly entire leaves and perfect or polygamo- 
dioecious white or pink flowers in cymes or panicles. Calyx campanulate, 4-5- 
parted. Corolla nearly rotate, usually 5-parted, the segments spreading or re- 
flexed, contorted. Stamens usually 5; filaments short or slender, borne at the 
top of the short corolla-tube ; anthers acute or acuminate. Ovary globose ; stigma 
discoid or truncate; ovules several. Berry little fleshy. [Guiana name.] Over 
200 species, of tropical and subtropical regions, the Porto Rico ones called Mame- 
yueix). Type species: Icacorea guianensis Aubl. 

Leaves up to 22 cm. long, strongly reticulate- veined; sepals ciliate. 1. I. glauciflora. 
Leaves 5-11 cm. long, delicately veined; sepals scarcely ciliate. 2. I. guadalupensis. 
Species incompletely known. 3. I. (?) luquillensis. 

1. Icacorea glauciflora (Urban) Britton. 

Ardisia glauciflora Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 382. 1899. 

A tree, 4-8 m. high, the stout twigs tomentulose. Leaves elliptic to oblong- 
obovate, thick-coriaceous, 10-22 cm. long, glabrous, prominently reticulate- 
veined above, the apex obtuse, the base obtuse or narrowed, the stout petioles 
1 cm. long or less ; panicles terminal, densely many-flowered, tomentulose, shorter 
than the leaves; pedicels stout, 8-14 mm. long; sepals ovate, rounded, ciliate; 
corolla deeply 5-lobed, glaucescent, glabrous, about 12 mm. broad; young fruit 
subglobose; style slender. 

Forests of the higher Porto Rico mountains. Endemic. The nearly white, hard 
and heavy wood is prized for furniture. A small tree of the forest on Mt. Alegrillo, with 
narrowly obovate leaves, may represent another species. 

2. Icacorea guadalupensis (Duch.) Britton; P. Wilson, Bull. N. Y. Bot. 

Gard. 8:401. 1917. 

? Ardisia obovata Hamilt. Prodr. 26. 1825. 

Ardisia coriacea A. DC. Prodr. 8: 122. 1844. Not Sw. 1788. 

Ardisia guadalupensis Duch.; Griseb. Goett. Abh. 7: 237. 1857. 

A glabrous shrub 1-3 m. high, or a tree up to 15 m. high, the stout twigs 
light gray. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-obovate, coriaceous, 10-15 cm. long, obtuse 
or acutish at the apex, narrowed or cuneate at the base, paler green beneath than 
above, delicately veined, the stout petioles 7-12 mm. long; panicles terminal, 
densely many-flowered, 10-15 cm. long; pedicels 2-4 mm. long, rather stout; 
calyx about 2 mm. long, its 5 segments oblong, obtuse, punctate; corolla white, 
rotate, its 5 segments ovate or ovate-elliptic, obtuse, symmetrical, more or less 
punctate or lineolate; fruit subglobose or depressed-globose, black when mature, 
6-8 mm. in diameter, tipped by the short style. 

Woodlands, forests, thickets and river banks, Porto Rico, at lower and middle 
elevations; doubtfully recorded from the summit of Monte Yunque; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Bahamas; Saba to St. Lucia. Its wood is 
light reddish brown, hard and heavy. Badtjla. 



58 MYRSINACEAE 

3. Icacorea (?) luquillensis Britton, sp. nov. 

A shrub, about 2.5 m. high, glabrous or very nearly so throughout, the twigs 
rather stout. Leaves obovate, coriaceous, entire, rather obscurely reticulate- 
veined with the midvein prominent on both sides, 5-9 cm. long, the apex rounded, 
the base narrowed, the petioles 6-12 mm. long; panicle many-flowered, somewhat 
shorter than the leaves; fruiting pedicels 4-7 mm. long; sepals ovate, rounded, 
ciliolate, 1.5 mm. long; fruit globose, about 4 mm. in diameter; style somewhat 
shorter than the fruit; corolla unknown. 

Forest, Catalina-Yunque Trail, Sierra de Luquillo at 1000 m. altitude {Britton and 
Bruner 762Jf, Feb. 23-26, 1923). 

Ardisia maculata of Bello, not of Poitier, has not been identified by sub- 
sequent botanists; no description of it was published. 

2. PARATHESIS [A. DC] Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 2: 645. 

1876. 

Trees or shrubs, with puberulent or tomentulose twigs and small perfect, 
5-parted flowers in terminal or axillary panicles. Calyx very small, the sepals 
connate at the base. Corolla rotate, pubescent, its lobes valvate. Stamens 
borne at the throat of the corolla; filaments filiform; anthers sagittate-lanceolate, 
dorsifixed. Ovary globose; ovules few; style filiform; stigma very small. Fruit 
1-seeded, globose. [Greek, referring to the valvate corolla-lobes.] A few species, 
natives of western tropical continental America and the West Indies, the following 
typical. 

1. Parathesis serrulata (Sw.) Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 403. 1901. 

Ardisia serrulata Sw. Prodr. 48. 1788. 

Ardisia crenulata Vent. Choix des Plantes 5. 1803. 

A shrub, 2-3 m. high, rarely a small tree, the young twigs and inflorescence 
densely lepidote-tomentulose. Leaves oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, mem- 
branous, crenulate or entire, 7-16 cm. long, tomentulose, the base cuneate, the 
petioles 1-3 cm. long; panicles terminal, many-flowered; pedicels 1-4 mm. long; 
flowers pink, 6-8 mm. broad ; corolla deeply cleft, tomentulose ; filaments glabrous ; 
style pilose above; fruit black, fleshy, subglobose, 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Wooded lulls and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, mostly at middle or 
higher elevations: — Hispaniola; Mexico to Venezuela. Rasca-garganta. Seca-gar- 
ganta. 

3. PETESIOIDES Jacq. Sel. Am. 17. 1763. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with entire or sometimes serrate leaves, and 
small dioecious 4- or 5-parted flowers in terminal or axillary racemes or panicles. 
Sepals distinct, or partly connate in the pistillate flowers. Corolla of the sta- 
minate flower tubular, its lobes mostly short, imbricated; corolla of the pistillate 
flowers tubular or short, irregularly cleft. Stamens of the staminate flowers with 
slender filaments, the anthers dorsally attached, recurved; pistillate flowers with 
reduced staminodia. Ovary subglobose; style short or slender; ovules few; fruit 
globose or subglobose, 1-seeded. [Greek, resembling Pelesia.] About 20 species, 
of the West Indies. Type species: Petesioides laurifolium Jacq. 

Leaves serrate; inflorescence erect. 1. P. yunquense. 

Leaves entire or indistinctly crenulate near the apex; inflorescence 

pendulous. 2. P. pendulum. 



MYRSINACEAE 59 

1. Petesioides yunquense (Urban) Britton. 

Ardisia yunquensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 383. 1899. 
Wallenia yunquensis Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 413. 1901. 

A shrub, about 3 m. high. Leaves clustered at the ends of twigs or some of 
them scattered, subcoriaceous, oblong to oblong-obovate, reticulate-veined, 7-15 
cm. long, serrate above the middle, the apex acute, the base narrowed, the 
petioles 5-8 mm. long; racemes appearing terminal, erect, few-several-flowered, 
7 cm. long or less; pedicels filiform, 5-9 mm. long; sepals about 2 mm. long; 
corolla pale violet, cylindric, 5-7 mm. long; filaments very short. 

Summit of Monte Yunque. Endemic. 



2. Petesioides pendulum (Urban) Britton. 

Ardisia pendula Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 383. 1899. 

Ardisia purpurascens Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 384. 1899. 

Ardisia purpurascens corymbifera Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 384. 1899. 

Wallenia pendula Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 413. 1901. 

Wallenia purpurascens Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 412. 1901. 

Wallenia purpurascens corymbifera Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 413. 1901. 

A shrub, 2-3 m. high, or sometimes forming a tree up to 10 m. high, the 
leaves mostly clustered at the ends of the stout twigs. Leaves obovate to oblong- 
obovate, subcoriaceous, reticulate-veined, 7-25 cm. long, entire, or obscurely 
crenulate toward the acute or obtuse apex, the base narrowed or subcuneate, the 
petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; racemes pendulous, slender, many-flowered, 2 dm. long 
or less; pedicels 1-2.5 mm. long; sepals obtuse or acutish, about 2 mm. long; 
corolla greenish-white, 3-4 mm. long; fruit globose or depressed-globose, about 
5 mm. in diameter. 

Forests and wooded hills in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. Jaca- 
NILLO. 



4. STYLOGYNE A. DC. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 16: 91. 1841. 

Trees or shrubs, mostly glabrous, with broad alternate petioled leaves and 
small, 5-parted, perfect or rarely dioecious flowers in lateral, axillary or terminal 
panicles or compound corymbs. Sepals distinct, or nearly so. Corolla deeply 
parted, its lobes dextrorsely contorted. Filaments short; anthers elongated, 
dorsally inserted. Ovary globose or ovoid; style short or slender; ovules few. 
Fruit subglobose, 1-seeded, crustaceous. [Greek, referring to the style.] A few 
species, natives of tropical America. Type species : Stylogyne Mdrtiana A. DC. 



1. Stylogyne lateriflora (Sw.) Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 418. 1901. 

Ardisia lateriflora Sw. Prodr. 48. 1788. 

Ardisia caribaea Miquel, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 10: 289. 1856. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, glabrous throughout. Leaves elliptic or elliptic- 
obovate, subcoriaceous, 7-15 cm. long, entire, pinnately veined, the apex obtuse 
or acute, the base obtuse or narrowed, the petioles 4-9 mm. long; panicles axillary 
or lateral, many-flowered, shorter than the leaves; pedicels slender, 4-8 mm. 
long; flowers white, about 8 mm. broad; sepals about 2 mm. long; anthers nearly 
as long as the petals; style slender; fruit globose, 4-5 mm. in diameter. 

Sierra de Luquillc, in forest near Banadero, at 600 m. altitude, collected only by 
Eggers (according to Mez) ; St. Thomas (according to Eggers) : — Guadeloupe to Trinidad. 
Not seen by us from within the limits of this flora; perhaps erroneously recorded. 



60 MYRSINACEAE 

5. GRAMMADENIA Benth. PI. Hartw. 218. 1839. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees, with small entire, sometimes glandular-lineate 
leaves, the perfect or rarely dioecious, small 5-parted flowers subumbellate, corym- 
bose or racemose. Sepals connate at the base. Corolla- lobes imbricated, spread- 
ing, the stamens borne at their bases. Filaments very short or none; anthers 
short, rounded or emarginate. Ovary globose; style short; stigma truncate; 
ovules 2-4. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, crustaceous, 1-seeded. [Greek, linear 
glands.] About 10 species, natives of West Indian and South American mountain 
regions. Type species. Grammadenia marginata Benth. 

1. Grammadenia Sintenisii (Urban) Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 425. 1901. 

Ardisia Sintenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 381. 1899. 

A shrub, or a small tree 4-5 m. high, with slender but rather stiff branches. 
Leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, rather thin, 4—8 cm. long, faintly pin- 
nately veined, the apex bluntly short-acuminate or obtuse, the base subcuneate, 
the petioles 4-6 mm. long; inflorescence terminal, slender- peduncled, subumbel- 
late, few-flowered, shorter than the leaves; pedicels Aliform, 5-15 mm. long; 
flowers greenish-white, 5-7 mm. broad; sepals narrowly elliptic, obtuse; corolla- 
lobes rounded; fruit ellipsoid, apiculate, about 8 mm. long. 

Forests and summits of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

6. RAPANEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 121. 1775. 

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate coriaceous or subcoriaceous leaves, and 
small bracted polygamo-dioecious flowers, in lateral or axillary fascicles. Calyx 
mostly 4-5-cleft, persistent. Corolla 4-5-parted, or rarely of 4 or 5 petals, the 
segments spreading or recurved. Stamens borne on the bases of the corolla- 
segments; filaments short; anthers obtuse. Ovary globose or ovoid; style short 
or slender; stigma various; ovules few or many. Fruit a globose, nearly dry 
small 1-seeded berry. [Guiana name.] Over 80 species, mostly of tropical 
regions. Type species: Rapanea guianensis Aubl. 

Twigs glabrous; leaves elliptic to obovate, the apex rounded. 1. R. guianensis. 

Twigs tomentulose; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or 

acuminate. 2. R.ferruginea. 

1. Rapanea guianensis Aubl. PI. Guian. l: 121. 1775. 

Myrsine floribunda R. Br. Prodr. 533., 1810. 

Myrsine baccala A. DC. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 16: 86. 1841. 

Myrsine guianensis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 402. 1891. 

A shrub, or small tree up to 6 m. high, the trunk sometimes 1.5 dm. in di- 
ameter, the foliage glabrous, the bark smooth and gray. Leaves mostly clustered 
near the ends of the rather slender twigs, short-petioled, obovate or oblong, 4-10 
cm. long, obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, bright green and somewhat 
shining above, dull green beneath, the raidvein prominent, the lateral veins faint; 
flowers green, about 4 mm. broad, nearly sessile on the twigs below the leaves; 
sepals ovate, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla-lobes oblong, glandular-ciliate, 2-3 
times as long as the sepals, somewhat unequal; fruit globose, black when mature, 
about 5 mm. in diameter. [Myrsine coriacea of Bello, not of R. Brown.] 

Thickets and woodlands at lower elevations, northern and western districts of 
Porto Rico; Tortola: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; St. 
Vincent; Grenada; Trinidad; continental tropical America. Badula. 



THEOPHRASTACEAE 61 

2. Rapanea ferruginea (R. & P.) Mez in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 429. 1901. 

Caballeria ferruginea R. & P. Syst. 250. 1788. 
Myrsine floribunda R. Br. Prodr. 533. 1810. 
Myrsine ferruginea Spreng. Syst. 1: 664. 1825. 
Myrsine Berterii A. DC. Trans. Linn. Soc. 17: 109. 1834. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, the twigs rather densely tomentulose. Leaves alter- 
nate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5—8 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base narrowed, the upper surface bright green, nearly or quite glabrous and 
minutely tuberculate, the under side tomentulose, at least on the prominent 
midrib, the lateral venation obsolete; petioles slender, tomentulose, 8-15 mm. 
long; flowers green, nearly sessile, 2-3 mm. broad, in small axillary or lateral 
clusters; sepals ovate, united to about the middle; corolla-lobes acutish; fruit 
globose, black or bluish, about 4 mm. in diameter. [Myrsine laeta of Grisebach, 
not of A. de Candolle; Myrsine coriacea of Stahl, not of R. Brown.] 

Wooded hills, thickets, forests and forest borders, Porto Rico, in wet or moist 
districts, ascending to the higher elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Gre- 
nada; continental tropical America. Arrayan. 

Family 2. THEOPHRASTACEAE D. Don. 

Theophrasta Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with evergreen coriaceous estipulate leaves, and regular, 
perfect or polygamo-dioecious flowers in axillary or terminal clusters, or 
solitary. Calyx inferior, mostly 5-parted, the segments obtuse, imbricated. 
Corolla gamopetalous, rotate-campanulate or cylindric-campanulate, mostly 
5-lobed, the lobes imbricated. Stamens 5, rarely 4, borne near the base of 
the corolla-tube; filaments subulate or flattened; anthers mostly extrorse. 
Staminodia 5. Ovary superior, 1-celled; style short or slender; stigma capi- 
tate or discoid; ovules numerous. Fruit coriaceous or fleshy, indehiscent, 
few-several-seeded. Five genera and about 50 species, of tropical distri- 
bution. 

1. JACQUINIA L.; Jacq. Enum. 2, 15. 1760. 

Evergreen shrubs or small trees, with opposite or verticillate coriaceous 
leaves, and small perfect white or yellow, racemed, corymbed or panicled flowers. 
Sepals 5, imbricated. Corolla salverform or short-campanulate, 5-lobed, the 
lobes imbricated in the bud, spreading at anthesis. Staminodia 5, borne on the 
corolla-tube. Stamens 5, borne on the base of the corolla-tube. Ovary 5- 
carpellary; style short; ovules usually many. Fruit ovoid or globose, coriaceous. 
Seeds compressed, with cartilaginous endosperm. [Commemorates Nicholas 
Joseph von Jacquin, 1727-1817, distinguished Austrian botanist.] About 25 
species, of tropical America. Type species: Jacquinia ruscifolia Jacq. 

Leaves spinulose-tipped. 1. J. umbellata. 

Leaves not spinulose-tipped. 

Sepals cinolate. 2. J. revoluta. 

Sepals eciliate. 

Inflorescence few-flowered; pedicels reflexed; leaves 2-4 cm. long. 3. J. Berterii. 
Inflorescence racemose, several-many-flowered; pedicels not 

reflexed; leaves 4-10 cm. long. 4. J. Barbasco. 

1. Jacquinia umbellata DC. Prodr. 8: 150. 1844. 

A shrub, 3 m. high or less, the numerous, slender but stiff twigs puberulent. 
Leaves rigid, glabrous, elliptic to oblong, 2-4 cm. long, faintly 3-nerved and 
pinnately veined, the apex acute and spinulose-tipped, the base narrowed or 



62 THEOPHRASTACEAE 

cuneate, the petioles 1-3 mm. long; inflorescence terminal, subumbellate, 2-5- 
flowered; pedicels 3-8 mm. long; sepals nearly orbicular, entire, about 2.5 mm. 
long; corolla orange or orange-purple, about 5 mm. long, its lobes rounded; fruit 
ellipsoid or obovoid, 8-12 mm. long, orange. [/. macrocarpa of Sprengel, not of 
Cavanilles; J. aristata of Grisebach, not of Jacquin; J. aurantiana of Bertero, not 
of Aiton.] 

Hillsides and thickets, southern and western districts of Porto Rico at lower and 
middle elevations. Races differ in the size and width of leaves. Endemic. Chirriador. 



2. Jacquinia revoluta Jacq. Fragm. 64. 1809. 

A small tree, about 7 m. high or less, or shrubby, the slender twigs finely 
lepidote. Leaves obovate, coriaceous, faintly veined, punctate-lepidote, 3-6 cm. 
long, the apex rounded, emarginate or niucronulate, the base narrowed, the 
petioles 1-2 mm. long; inflorescence terminal, racemose, few-several-flowered; 
pedicels 8-10 mm. long; flowers fragrant ; sepals ciliolate or nearly naked, rounded, 
about 2 mm. long; corolla white, about 6 mm. long; fruit orange, globose, about 
6 mm. in diameter. 

Upper slopes of Sage Mountain, Tortola {Fishlock 75) : — St. Martin; Antigua; Guade- 
loupe; Martinique; Trinidad; Venezuela. A barren specimen, collected at Guayanilla, 
Porto Rico (Stevens 9072), may be referable to this species. 



3. Jacquinia Berterii Spreng. Syst. 1: 668. 1825. 

Jacquinia Berterii portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. l! 377. 1899. 
Jacquinia Berterii retusa Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 378. 1899. 

A much-branched shrub, 1-3 m. high, or tree up to about 7 m. high, the bark 
whitish, the young twigs scurfy-lepidote. Leaves various in form, oblong to 
obovate or oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, 2-4 cm. long, rounded, retuse or acute 
at the apex, cuneate at the base, usually inconspicuously veined, the petioles 1-2 
mm. long; inflorescence terminal or in the uppermost axils, 1-6-flowered, much 
shorter than the leaves; pedicels 5-8 mm. long, thickened upwardly, refiexed; 
sepals nearly orbicular, 1.5-2 mm. long, glabrous; corolla about 3 mm. long, its 
lobes refiexed; fruit ovoid to subglobose, orange or yellow, 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Rocky hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, in the dry southwestern districts near the 
coast; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Anegada: — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Anguilla; St. Martin; Guadeloupe. 



4. Jacquinia Barbasco (Loefl.) Mez, Pflanzr. 15: 32. 1903. 

Chrysophyllum Barbasco Loefl. Iter. 204, 277. 1758. 

Jacquinia armillaris Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

Jacquinia arborea Vahl, Eclog. 1: 26. 1796. 

Jacquinia armillaris arborea Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 397. 1861. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high, or a small tree up to about 5 m. high, the rather stout 
twigs finely lepidote. Leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, coriaceous and some- 
what fleshy, light green, mostly clustered, 4-10 cm. long, the mid vein rather 
prominent beneath, the lateral venation obscure, both surfaces lepidote-puncti- 
culate, the apex rounded or emarginate, the base narrowed or subcuneate, the 
petioles 3-6 mm. long; racemes terminal, several-many-flowered, 4-12 cm. long; 
flowers fragrant; pedicels 8-18 mm. long, ascending, rather stout; sepals nearly 
orbicular, glabrous, 2-3 mm. long; corolla white, about 6 mm. long, its lobes 
rounded; fruit globose, S-12 mm. in diameter. 

Coastal woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; Vieques; Culebra; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Jamaica; Cuba; His- 
paniola; St. Martin to Tobago; Curacao; Bonaire. Azucares. Barbasco. 



PLUMBAGINACEAE 63 

Family 3. PLUMBAGINACEAE Lindl. 

Plumbago Family. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs, with basal or alternate leaves, and perfect 
and regular clustered flowers. Calyx inferior, 4-5-toothed, sometimes plait- 
ed at the sinuses, the tube 5-15-ribbed. Corolla of 4 or 5 hypogynous 
clawed segments connate at the base, or united into a tube. Stamens 4 or 5, 
opposite the corolla-segments, hypogynous; anthers 2-celled, attached by 
their backs to the filaments, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Disk none. 
Ovary superior, 1-celled; ovule solitary, anatropous, pendulous; styles 5. 
Fruit a utricle or achene, enclosed by the calyx, rarely a dehiscent capsule. 
Seed solitary; testa membranous; endosperm mealy, or none; embryo 
straight; cotyledons entire. About 10 genera and 350 species, of wide dis- 
tribution, many in saline situations. 

1. PLUMBAGO L. Sp. PI. 151. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, shrubs or vines, with alternate, often clasping leaves, the 

purple blue red or white flowers in bracted spikes. Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed, 

glandular, with 4 or 5 erect lobes. Petals 4 or 5, their claws united into a tube, 

their blades entire, spreading, the corolla thin, salverform. Stamens 5, distinct, 

the filaments dilated at the base, the anthers linear. Styles filiform, stigmatic 

on the inner side, partly united. Fruit capsular. [Latin, leadwort.] About a 

dozen species, natives of southern Europe and west central Asia and tropical 
America. Type species: Plumbago europaea L. 

1. Plumbago scandens L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 215. 1762. 

A perennial woody herb, the branches often elongated and vine-like, glabrous, 
sometimes 1 m. long. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, membranous, glabrous, 
3-10 cm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, the petioles 

1 cm. long or less; spikes slender, peduncled, several-many-flowered, 5-12 cm. 
long; bracts lanceolate, acuminate, persistent, about 5 mm. long; calyx about 1 
cm. long, beset with long-stalked glands; corolla white, its filiform tube about 

2 cm. long, its obovate mucronate spreading lobes 5-7 mm. long. 

Banks, woods, thickets and waste grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. 
Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America. Hi- 

GUILLO. MELADILLO. WHITE PLUMBAGO. 

Plumbago capensis Thunb., Isabel segunda, Blister-leaf, Blue 
Plumbago, South African, grown for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Island 
gardens, is a slender leafy half-climbing shrub 1-2 m. long, with oblong to spatu- 
late leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long, and large blue flowers in terminal puberulent spikes, 
the narrowly cylindric, glandular calyx-tube is about 12 mm. long, the slender 
glabrous corolla-tube about 4 cm. long; the corolla limb about 2.5 cm. broad. 

Plumbago rosea L., Red Plumbago, Asiatic, grown for ornament in Porto 
Rico and Virgin Island gardens, resembles P. capensis, but is glabrous, its 
leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, the scarlet flowers in elongated spikes, the 
corolla-tube about 2 cm. long. 

Plumbago zeylanica L. was formerly grown on St. Croix, according to 
West. 



64 



SAPOTACEAE 



Dodecatheon Meadia L., Shooting Star, North American, of the Family 
Primulaceae, listed by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, may have been grown 
there from seed. 



Order 3. EBENALES. 

Shrubs or trees, with alternate simple leaves, the flowers mostly regular. 
Calyx free from the ovary (inferior) or more or less adnate to it. Corolla 
gamopetalous or sometimes polypetalous. Stamens borne on the tube or 
base of the corolla, as many as its lobes, and opposite them, or more nu- 
merous. 



Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. 
Stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes, or more. 
Styles 2-8, flowers mostly monoecious or dioecious. 
Style 1, simple or lobed; flowers mostly perfect. 
Stamens in several series. 
Stamens in but 1 series. 



Fam. 1. SAPOTACEAE. 
Fam. 2. Ebenaceae. 



Fam. 3. 
Fam. 4. 



Symplocaceae. 
Sttracaceae. 



Family 1. SAPOTACEAE Reichenb. 

Sapodilla Family. 

Shrubs or trees, the sap often milky, the leaves mostly alternate, entire, 
estipulate, often finely veined, the perfect or rarely polygamous flowers 
clustered. Sepals 4-12, imbricated. Corolla lobed, often appendaged 
between the lobes. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, often alternating 
with staminodia; filaments distinct. Ovary sessile, 4-12-celled; styles 
united; ovules solitary in each cavity, anatropous. Fruit a berry, often 
large. Seeds shining, smooth; embryo straight. About 35 genera, com- 
prising over 400 species, mostly of tropical distribution. 



B. 



Corolla-lobes unappendaged. 

a. Flowers with both fertile stamens and staminodia. 

Staminodia petal-like, broad. 

Sepals 6; hilum shorter than the seed. 
Sepals 5; hilum as long as the seed. 
Staminodia filament-like or scale-like. 
Staminodia scale-like. 
Staminodia filament-Uke. 

Sepals 4 or 5 in 1 series or 2. 

Sepals about 10, imbricated in several series. 

b. Stamens all fertile; staminodia none. 
Corolla-lobes with an appendage on both sides at base. 
Sepals 5. 

Seeds with copious endosperm. 
Seeds without endosperm. 
Sepals 6 or 8. 



1. Sapula. 

2. Micropholis. 

3. Sideroxylon. 

4. Lucuma. 

5. Achras. 

6. Chrysophyllum. 



7. Dipholis. 

8. Bumelia. 

9. Manilkara. 



1. SAPOTA [Plum.] Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 7. 1759. 

A spreading evergreen tree, with alternate coriaceous, oblong to elliptic 
leaves, and rather large, peduncled, mostly 6-parted, whitish flowers solitary in 
the axils, the sap milky. Sepals in 2 series. Corolla nearly urceolate, scarcely 
longer than the calyx; anthers sagittate; staminodia little shorter than the 
corolla-lobes. Ovary 10-12-celled; ovules ascending; style slender, exserted; 
stigma small. Fruit a large, rough-skinned berry. Seeds black, shining, the 
endosperm fleshy. [Aboriginal West Indian name.] A monotypic genus. 



SAPOTACEAE 65 

1. Sapota Achras Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 1. 176S. 

Achras Zapota L. Syst. ed. 10, 988. 1759. Not A. Zapota L. Sp. PI. 1190. 
1753 

A tree, up to about 15 m. high, the bark dark brown, the twigs rather stout, 
the petioles, peduncles and calyx brownish pubescent. Leaves mainly clustered 
at the ends of the twigs, 5-12 cm. long, the lateral veins nearly transverse, 
delicate, close together, the apex obtuse, the base mostly narrowed, the slender 
petioles 5-20 mm. long; peduncles about as long as the petioles; sepals 8-10 mm. 
long; corolla-lobes about half as long as the tube; staminodia longer than the 
stamens; fruit globose or ovoid, 3-8 cm. in diameter, rough, brown, the flesh 
sweet, brownish, milky; seeds usually several, flattened, about 2 cm. long, with 
a white scar on the inner edge. 

Hillsides and woodlands at lower elevations, Porto Rico, perhaps not indigenous, 
much planted for its fruit and for shade; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — West Indies; 
continental tropical America. The very heavy light red wood is hard and durable, used 
for furniture and in cabinet work. The fruit is one of the most important of tropical 
regions. Nispebo. Sapodilla. MespIiE. Naseberry. 

2. MICROPHOLIS [Griseb.] Pierre, Sapot. 37. 1891. 

Evergreen trees, with hard and heavy wood, coriaceous leaves and small 
axillaryor lateral flowers. Sepals usually 5, imbricated. Corolla mostly 5-lo bed. 
Staminodia mostly small, broad, rarely narrow. Stamens borne on the throat 
of the corolla. Disk hispid or villous. Ovary mostly 5-celled; style short; 
ovules anatropous. Fruit a 1-seeded berry. Seed oblong, narrowed at both 
ends, shining, the hilum long, the cotyledons striate, the endosperm thick. 
[Greek, referring to the small staminodia. J About 40 species, natives of tropical 
America, those of Porto Rico known as Caimitillo. Type species: Chryso- 
phyllum rugosum Griseb. 

Leaves glabrous and shining on both sides, at least when old. 1. M. garcinifolia. 
Leaves tomentulose beneath, glabrous above. 

Fruit about 2 cm. long; seed curved. 2. M . curvata. 

Fruit 3-5 cm. long; seed straight. 3. M. chrysophylloides. 

1. Micropholis garcinifolia Pierre, Sapot. 38. 1891. 

Micropholis Urbani Pierre, Sapot. 38. 1891. 

A tree, up to about 20 m. in height, the twigs glabrous, striate. Leaves 
elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 4-8 cm. long, or those of shoots larger, glabrous when 
mature, silky beneath when young, the apex obtuse, emarginate or acute, the 
base obtuse or narrowed, the stout petioles 3-8 mm. long, the numerous nearly 
straight veins rather prominent on both sides ; flowers 1-3 in the axils ; pedicels 
2-8 mm. long; sepals 3-4.5 mm. long, tomentose; corolla about 3 mm. long; 
fruit 2.5-4 cm. long, seed about 1.6 cm. long. 

Forests at high elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

2. Micropholis curvata (Pierre) Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 124. 1904. 

Micropholis curvata Pierre, Sapot. 39. 1891. 

A tree, 10-20 m. high, the young twigs puberulent. Leaves elliptic to 
elliptic-obovate, 2-7 cm. long, the apex rounded, acute or short-acuminate, the 
base narrowed or obtuse, glabrous and shining above, densely puberulent 
beneath, the lateral venation not prominent, the petioles 7 mm. long or less; 
pedicels 1-5, about as long as the petioles; sepals about 3 mm. long; fruit ellip- 
soid, tomentulose, 2-3 cm. long; seed curved. 

Forests of the western mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 



66 SAPOTACEAE 

3. Micropholis chrysophylloides Pierre, Sapot. 38. 1891. 

Micropholis portoricensis Pierre, Sapot. 38. 1891. 
Micropholis Balata Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 120. 1904. 
Micropholis portoricensis mesuifolia Pierre; Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 124. 
1904. 

A tree, recorded as attaining a maximum height of about 25 m., the twigs 
golden-tomentose. Leaves elliptic to obovate, 4-8 cm. long, glabrous above, 
tomentulose beneath, the apex obtuse, acute, short-acuminate or sometimes 
emarginate, the base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 5-9 mm. long; pedicels 
3-8, about as long as the petioles or shorter; sepals about 3 mm. long; corolla 
about as long as the sepals, its lobes shorter than the tube; fruit oblong, 3-5 cm. 
long; seed straight. 

Forests of the central and western mountains of Porto Rico: — Montserrat; Guade- 
loupe; Antigua; Dominica; St. Lucia; St. Vincent. 

3. SIDEROXYLON L. Sp. PI. 192. 1753. 

Unarmed, hard-wooded, evergreen trees or shrubs, with alternate coria- 
ceous, slender-petioled leaves, and small, 5-parted, greenish-yellow or white 
flowers in dense axillary or lateral fascicles. Sepals mostly obtuse, imbricated. 
Corolla nearly rotate, its lobes obtuse, not appendaged. Stamens borne near 
the middle or top of the corolla-tube, included, opposite the lobes; filaments 
slender; anthers extrorse; staminodia entire or toothed, alternating with the 
filaments. Ovary 5-celled or sometimes 2-3-celled ; ovules ascending; style short 
or slender. Berry ovoid or subglobose, usually 1-seeded. Seed with a crusta- 
ceous testa and cartilaginous endosperm. [Greek, referring to the hard wood.] 
About 75 species, natives of warm and tropical regions. Type species : Sidero- 
xylon inerme L. 

Leaves mostly obtuse or rounded; fruit yellow. 1. S. foetidissimum. 

Leaves acute or acuminate; fruit red or brown. 2. S. portoricense. 

1. Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

Sideroxylon mastichodendron Jacq. Coll. 2: 253. 1788. 
Sideroxylon pellidum Spreng. Syst. 1: 666. 1825. 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 25 m., with a trunk up to 
1.5 m. in diameter, the bark splitting into scale-like plates, the twigs rather 
slender, glabrous. Leaves oblong to oblong-ovate or oval, 5-15 cm. long, spar- 
ingly pubescent when young, becoming glabrous, mostly rounded at the apex, 
or those of shoots acute or acuminate, rounded or narrowed at the base, lustrous, 
the slender petioles 2-7 cm. long; fascicles several-many-flowered, shorter than 
the petioles; pedicels 4-10 mm. long; sepals nearly orbicular, obtuse, glabrous, 
about 2 mm. long; corolla greenish-yellow, about 7 mm. broad, its lobes oblong; 
obtuse; staminodia lanceolate, acuminate, 1 mm. long; berry drupe-like, yellow, 
oval, 2-2.5 cm. long, glabrous, acid. 

Woodlands, hillsides and river-valleys, Porto Rico, at lower elevations in dry and 
moist districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Saba to Barbados; recorded from Bonaire. Its reddish or yellowish wood 
is hard, very strong and durable, with a specific gravity a little over 1.00. Tortugo 
amarillo. 'Mastic-bully. Erroneously called Ausubo. 

2. Sideroxylon portoricense Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 134. 1904. 

A large tree, sometimes 30 m. high, the young twigs brown-pilose, soon 
glabrous. Leaves oblong-elliptic, 7-20 cm. long, narrowed at both ends, finely 
reticulate- veined, the base subcuneate, the petioles 2-3 cm. long; fruiting pedicels 



SAPOTACEAE 67 

7-8 mm. long; sepals suborbicular, about 2.5 mm. broad; berry ovoid, about 2 
cm. long, narrowed and truncate above, brown or red ; seeds ovate, brown. 

Mountain forests, western and central districts of Porto Rico; Hispaniola. Tab- 
lonctllo. 

4. LUCUMA Molina, Sagg. Chile 186. 17S2. 

Trees, or some species shrubs, the leaves mostly coriaceous, the small flowers 
in axillary or lateral glomerules, or solitary. Calyx-segments or sepals usually 
4 or 5, strongly imbricated. Corolla urn-shaped, the tube short, the 4, 5 or 6 
lobes imbricated. Stamens 4, 5 or 6, borne on the corolla-tube opposite its lobes, 
the filaments short or slender. Staminodia linear or filamentous, borne at the 
sinuses of the corolla. Ovary 2-6-celled, mostly villous; style subulate or conic. 
Fruit a berry, the pericarp fleshy or thin. Seeds 1-5. [Peruvian name.] Fifty 
species or more, mostly of tropical America, a few Australasian. Type species: 
Lucuma bifera Molina. 

l. Lucuma multiflora A. DC. Prodr. 8: 168. 1844. 

Vitellaria multiflora Radlk. Sitz. Acad. Muench. 12: 326. 1882. 
Achras Acana Sesse" & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 84. 1894. 
Lucuma Urbani Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 103. 1904. 
Lucuma Stahliana Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 104. 1904. 

A tree, becoming very tall, up to 30 m. high, the young twigs pubescent. 
Leaves oblong to elliptic-obovate, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 8-30 cm. long, 
pinnately veined, glabrous when mature, the apex obtuse, acute or acuminate, 
the base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 1-4 cm. long; pedicels 2-8 together in 
the axils, or sometimes solitary, 10-20 mm. long; outer sepals about 6 mm. long, 
rounded, puberulent; corolla 7-10 mm. long, white, its rounded lobes papillose; 
fruit ovoid or obovoid, 3.5-5 cm. long, 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded. 

Forests and woodlands, Porto Rico, in moist or wet districts, at lower and middle 
elevations; St. Croix; St.. Thomas: — Saba to Trinidad. The hard, strong and durable 
wood is valued for furniture and used in construction. Jacana. 

Lucuma macrocarpa Hubcr, Brazilian, was experimentally grown at the 
St. Croix Agricultural Experiment Station in 1923. 

5. ACHRAS L. Sp. PI. 1190. 1753. 

A tree, with broad chartaceous leaves clustered near the ends of the twigs, 
and small white flowers in sessile lateral clusters below the leaves. Sepals about 
10, densely imbricated in 3 or 4 series. Corolla 5-cleft, the silky lobes somewhat 
longer than the tube. Staminodia 5, often antheriferous. Stamens 5, opposite 
the corolla-lobes, the filaments subulate, the anthers cordate. Ovary 5-celled; 
disc Aillous; style conic. Fruit an oblong large 1-seeded berry. [Greek, name 
of a wild pear-tree.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Achras Zapota L. Sp. Pi. 1190. 1753. 

Sideroxylon sapota Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

Achras mammosa L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 469. 1762. 

Lucuma mammosa A. DC. Prodr. 8: 169. 1844. Not Gaertn. f. 

Calocarpum mammosum Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 98. 1904. 

Calocarpum mammosum ovoideum Pierre, loc. cit. 99. 1904. 

A tree, 10-15 m. high, the twigs stout, pubescent or villous. Leaves obovate 
or obovate-elliptic, strongly pinnately veined, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, glabrous, or 



68 SAPOTACEAE 

puberulent beneath, the apex acute, abruptly acuminate, obtuse or rounded, the 
base cuneate, the rather stout petioles 2-4 cm. long, often pubescent; flowers 
usually densely clustered on the twigs, nearly sessile; sepals rounded, silky, about 
3 mm. long; corolla about 10 mm. long; fruit rugose, about 15 cm. long. 

Woodlands and hillsides at lower elevations, Porto Rico, planted for Its fruit and for 
shade, perhaps not indigenous: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad; 
continental tropical America. Mamey sapote. 

6. CHRYSOPHYLLUM L. Sp. PI. 192. 1753. 

Unarmed evergreen trees, with alternate coriaceous leaves, and small, mostly 

5-parted flowers, in axillary or lateral fascicles, the sap milky. Sepals nearly 

alike. Corolla-lobes unappendaged. Stamens included; staminodia none. 

Ovary pubescent; style short. Fruit a large or small, drupe-like berry. Seeds 

with a hard, often shining testa and fleshy endosperm. [Greek, referring to the 

lustrous pubescence on the under side of the leaves of some species.] Sixty 

species or more, mostly of tropical America. Type species: Chrysophyllum 

Cainito L. 

Fruit 5-8 cm. in diameter, several-seeded; leaves golden-silky beneath. 1. C. Cainito. 
Fruit 2 cm. in diameter or less, 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded. 

Leaves permanently golden-silky or brownish-silky beneath. 
Leaves acute or short-acuminate. 

Ovary 7-9-celled; fruit 2-3 cm. long. 2. C. tricolor. 

Ovary 5-celled; fruit 1-2 cm. long. 3. C. oliviforme. 

Leaves bluntly long-acuminate. 4. C. Eggersii. 

Leaves finely pubescent or glabrate beneath. 

Ovary 5-celled; fruit pointed, leaves very nearly glabrous. 5. C. pauciflorum. 

Ovary 7-8-celled; fruit rounded; leaves silvery-silky beneath 

or glabrate. 6. C. argenleum. 

1. Chrysophyllum Cainito L. Sp. PI. 192. 1753. 

Chrysophyllum portoricense A. DC. Prodr. 8: 157. 1844. 

A tree, 10-20 m. high, the trunk up to 6 dm. in diameter, the twigs golden- 
silky. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, 5-15 cm. long, golden- 
silky beneath, the apex abruptly acute or obtuse, the base obtuse or narrowed, 
the venation widely spreading, the petioles 1.5-3 cm. long; flowers purplish-white, 
usually numerous in the fascicles; pedicels about 10 mm. long; sepals about 1.5 
mm. long; corolla 3.5-5.5 mm. long, 5-7-lobed, the lobes about as long as the 
tube; ovary tomentose, 6-11-celled; stamens shorter than the corolla-lobes; 
fruit globose to ellipsoid, 5-8 cm. in diameter, greenish or purple, several-seeded. 

Forests and hillsides, Porto Rico, planted for shade and for its fruit, and spontaneous 
after planting; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Trinidad; 
continental tropical America. The red-brown wood is hard, heavy, strong, tough and 
durable, used in construction. Its edible fruit is highly esteemed. Caimito. Star- 
apple. Catnit. 

2. Chrysophyllum bicolor Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 2: 15. 1811. 

A tree, up to about 15 m. in height, the twigs golden-silky. Leaves elliptic, 
chartaceous, 5-7 cm. long, or those of young trees larger, rather dark green above, 
golden-silky or becoming silvery beneath, the apex bluntly short-acuminate, the 
base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 7-12 mm. long ; fascicles few-several-flowered ; 
pedicels 7-12 mm. long; sepals about 1.5 mm. long; corolla 4.5 mm. long, its 
lobes shorter than the tube; ovary 7-9-celled; fruit oblong or subglobose, 2-3 cm. 
long, 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded. [C. oliviforme of Stahl, not of Linnaeus.] 

"Woodlands, northern districts of Porto Rico and near Hato Grande; St. Thomas: — 
Hispaniola. Caimitillo. Lechesillo. 



SAPOTACEAE 69 

3. Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Syst. ed. 10, 937. 1759. 

Chrysophyllum microphyllum Jacq. Sel. Amer. Pict. 30. 1780. 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenum Sw. Prodr. 49. 1788. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 10 m., with a trunk up to 3 dm. 
in diameter, the bark fissured, the young twigs brownish-pubescent. Leaves 
oblong to ovate, 3-10 cm. long, acutish or short-acuminate at the apex, rounded 
or narrowed at the base, green, glabrous and shining above, densely reddish or 
brownish-pubescent beneath, the petioles 8-12 mm. long; fascicles few-flowered; 
pedicels 5-10 mm. long; sepals silky, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla white, 4-6 mm. 
wide; filaments very short; ovary 5-celled; berry oval, 1-2 cm. long, purple, 
usually 1 -seeded. 

Plains and hillsides, northern and western districts of Porto Rico: — Florida; Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. The light brown wood is hard and strong, its specific 
gravity about 0.94. Teta de burra. Satin-leaf. 

4. Chrysophyllum Eggersii Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 155. 1904. 

A tree, 8 m. high or higher, the slender young twigs brown-silky. Leaves 
elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous, 6-12 cm. long, finely brown-silky or 
becoming glabrate, the apex bluntly acuminate, the base rounded or narrowed, 
the petioles 7-10 mm. long; fascicles few-several-flowered; pedicels about as 
long as the petioles or shorter; calyx about 1.5 mm. long; corolla about 5 mm. long, 
the lobes about as long as the tube or shorter; ovary 5-8-celled; fruit unknown. 
[C. microphyllum of Eggers, not of Jacquin; (?) C. oliviforme monopyrenum of 
Eggers.l 

Woods and hillsides, St. Thomas; St. Jan; St. Croix. Endemic. Wild Cainit. 

5. Chrysophyllum pauciflorum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 2: 44. 1793. 

Chrysophyllum pauciflorum Krugii Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 159. 1904. 

A tree, up to about 8 m. high, the gray bark rough, splitting into oblong, 
scales, the slender, nearly glabrous, branches drooping. Leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late to ovate-elliptic, chartaceous, 4-10 cm. long, nearly glabrous, the apex acute 
or short-acuminate, the base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 3-8 mm. long; 
flowers in axillary fascicles of 2-6, or solitary; pedicels 3-12 mm. long; calyx 1.5-2 
mm. long; corolla about 4 mm. long, its lobes shorter than the tube; fruit oblong, 
1-2 cm. long, sharply pointed. [Chrysophyllum Krugii of Cook and Collins.] 

Hillsides at lower elevations in the dry southern districts of Porto Rico; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan. Endemic. Caimito de Perro. 

6. Chrysophyllum argenteum Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

Chrysophyllum glabrum Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

A tree, sometimes 20 m. high, usually lower, the twigs, petioles and under 
leaf-surfaces appressed silvery-pubescent or glabrate. Leaves elliptic to oblong, 
subchartaceous, 5-10 cm. long, the apex acute or short-acuminate, the base obtuse, 
narrowed or rounded, the petioles 8-12 mm. long; fascicles few-several-flowered, 
or some flowers solitary; pedicels shorter than the petioles; calyx about 2 mm. 
long; corolla 3-4 mm. long, its short lobes rounded; fruit ellipsoid or subglobose, 
8-14 mm. long, rounded. 

Woodlands, forests and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in wet or 
moist districts; St. Thomas; Tortola: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad. Its wood is 
similar to that of the Star-apple. Caimito verde. 

7. DIPHOLIS A. DC. Prodr. 8: 188. 1844. 

Evergreen, unarmed shrubs or trees, with alternate leaves, and small, 
mostly 5-parted, greenish, often fragrant flowers in axillary or lateral fascicles. 



70 SAPOTACEAE 

Sepals ovate to nearly orbicular, imbricated. Corolla rotate or funnelform, Its 
lobes with 2 appendages at each sinus. Stamens borne on the corolla-tube, 
opposite the lobes, exserted, the filaments filiform, the anthers extrorse; stami- 
nodia 5, often petaloid, alternating with the stamens. Ovary glabrous, 5-celled; 
ovules ascending; style slender. Fruit an ovoid, subglobose or oblong berry, 
usually 1-seeded. Seed with a coriaceous testa, and fleshy endosperm. [Greek, 
referring to the appendages of the corolla.] About 10 species, natives of the 
West Indian region. Type species: Achras salicifolia L. 

Fruit about 2 cm. long. 1. D. Bellonis. 

Fruit 6-10 mm. long. . «.-.',...,„ 

Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, acute or acuminate. 2. D. salicifolia. 

Leaves obovate, rounded or obtuse. 3. D. Sintenisiana. 



1. Dipholis Bellonis Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 137. 1904. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, 8-12 cm. long, 2.5-4 cm. wide, the apex acuminate, 
the base acute, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; fruiting pedicels 10-15 mm. long; fruit 
obovoid, about 2 cm. long, 1 cm. in diameter, violet-black. [Dipholis montana of 
Bello, not of Grisebach.] 

Near Furnias, Porto Rico, according to Bello. Varital; Tabloncillo. Known 
to us only from description by Urban. 



2. Dipholis salicifolia (L.) A. DC. Prodr. 8: 188. 1844. 

Achras salicifolia L. Sp. PI. ed. 2: 470. 1762. 
Bumelia salicifolia Sw. Prodr. 50. 1788. 

A slender tree, reaching a maximum height of about 16 m., with a trunk up 
to 5 dm. in diameter, the bark scaly, the slender young twigs appressed-pubescent. 
Leaves subcoriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblanceolate, slender-petioled, 6-12 cm. 
long, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, somewhat silky- 
pubescent when young, soon glabrous, dark green and shining above, dull green 
beneath; flower-clusters mostly shorter than the petioles; pedicels 2-3 mm. long; 
sepals silky-pubescent, 1.5 mm. long, ovate or oblong, obtuse ; corolla about 4 mm. 
broad, its lobes oval, obtuse, about as long as the tube, the appendages about 
one-half as long ; staminodia ovate, irregularly toothed ; berry ovoid or subglobose, 
black, 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Woodlands, hillsides and arroyos, Porto Rico, at lower elevations in dry and moist 
districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; West Indies south 
to Barbados; Yucatan. The red-brown wood is hard and strong, with a specific gravity 
of 0.93. Almendron. Bustic. 



3. Dipholis Sintenisiana Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 139. 1904. 

A tree, recorded as reaching a maximum height of about 20 m., usually 
smaller, the bark smooth, the foliage dense, the slender twigs glabrous, or, when 
young, puberulent. Leaves obovate, or oblong-obovate, 2-6 cm. long, or those 
of shoots larger, subcoriaceous, faintly veined, the apex rounded, the base nar- 
rowed or cuneate, the petioles 2-4 mm. long; flowers 2-6 together in the axils on 
pedicels 3-5 mm. long; sepals rounded, about 2.5 mm. long; corolla about 4 mm. 
long; fruit oblong, green, about 10 mm. long. 

Mountain forests, western and central districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. Espe- 
juelo. 



SAPOTACEAE 71 

A tree, found on Mona Island, in foliage only, is, perhaps, of this genus 
(Britton, Cowell and Hess 1699). 

8. BUMELIA Sw. Prodi. 49. 1788. 

Shrubs or trees, the branches often spinescent, the wood very hard. Leaves 
sometimes clustered at the nodes. Flowers small, pedicelled, green or white, 
fascicled in the axils. Calyx deeply 5-parted, the sepals unequal. Corolla 5- 
lobed, with a pair of lobe-like appendages at each sinus, its tube short. Stamens 
5, inserted near the base of the corolla-tube; anthers sagittate. Staminodia 5, 
petaloid. Ovary 5-celled; style filiform. Berry small, the pericarp fleshy, 
enclosing a single erect seed. Seed shining, the hilum at the base. [Greek, ox 
(large) ash.] About 35 species, natives of America. Type species: Bumelia 
retitsa Sw. 

Usually unarmed; pedicels 3-6 mm. long, glabrous. 1. B. obovata. 

Twigs armed with spines; pedicels about 1 mm. long. 2. B. Krugii. 

1. Bumelia obovata (Lam.) A. DC. Prodr. 8: 191. 1844. 

Sideroxylon obovatum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 2: 42. 1793. 
Bumelia cuneata Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 496. 1797. 

Bumelia obovata portoricensis Pierre & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 142. 
1904. 

A tree, 5-20 m. high, or shrubby, usually unarmed, the twigs slender, the 
foliage dense. Leaves obovate, oblanceolate or suborbicular, coriaceous, gla- 
brous, 2-4 cm. long, the apex rounded, obtuse or emarginate, the base cuneate 
or sometimes obtuse, the venation delicate, inconspicuous, the petioles 2-5 mm. 
long; flowers few in the fascicles or solitary; pedicels about as long as the petioles 
or a little longer; calyx 1-1.5 mm. long; corolla about 3 mm. long, white; fruit 
subglobose or oval, green, about 6 mm. long. [? B. retusa of Krebs.] 

Woodlands, thickets and hillsides at lower elevations near the southern coast of 
Porto Rico, and recorded from near Adjuntas; Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas: St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Jamaica; Hispaniola; St. Martin to St. Lucia; 
Curacao. The tree of Anegada has narrowly obovate or oblanceolate leaves. Break 
BILL. 

2. Bumelia Krugii Pierre in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 146. 1904. 

A much-branched shrub or a small tree 5-6 m. high, the twigs puberulent, 
armed with slender spines as long as the leaves or shorter. Leaves obovate to 
oblong, or suborbicular, coriaceous, 5-25 mm. long, puberulent or glabrate, the 
apex rounded, the base cuneate or obtuse, the petioles very short; fascicles few- 
flowered; pedicels pubescent, about 1 mm. long; sepals 1.5-2 mm. long; corolla 
about 3 mm. long; fruit unknown. 

Coastal thickets and hillsides near the coast, southwestern dry districts of Porto 
Rico; Vieques. Endemic. 

Bumelia nigra Stahl, Estud. 6: 56. 1888. Not Sw. 1788. 

This is described as a tree with leaves silky-pubescent beneath and a globose 
or ovoid fruit about 3 cm. in diameter, containing 5 seeds or fewer. It has not 
been identified by recent botanists. 

Bumelia crenulata Spreng., erroneously described as from Porto Rico, is 
Ilex decidua Walt, of the southeastern United States. 












72 SAPOTACEAE 

Bumelia reclinata Vent., of the southeastern United States, was listed by 
Krebs from St. Thomas, evidently in error. 

9. MANILKARA [Rheede] Dubard, Ann. Mus. Col. Marseille III, 3: 6. 1915. 

Evergreen milky trees, with coriaceous leaves, and lateral, axillary or ter- 
minal flowers. Sepals 6-12, in 2 series. Corolla 18-24-lobed, its tube short. 
Stamens borne on the corolla-tube, the filaments short, the anthers lanceolate; 
staminodia petal-like, toothed or lacerate. Ovary hirsute, 6-12-celled. Epicarp 
of the berry usually crustaceous. Seeds 1 to 8, oblique, compressed. About 40 
species, mostly tropical in distribution. Type species: Mimusops Kauki L. 

Fruit 2-3 cm. long, 1-seeded; corolla 5-6 mm. long. 1. M. nitida. 

Fruit 4-7 cm. long, 3-8-seeded; corolla 12-14 mm. long. 2. M. duphcata. 

1. Manilkara nitida (Sesse & Moc.) Dubard, Ann. Mus. Col. Marseille III. 3: 

18. 1915. 

Achras nitida Sessg & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 85. 1894. 
Mimusops nitida Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 167. 1904. 

A tree, up to 15 m. high or higher, the twigs rather stout, pubescent or 
puberulent when young. Leaves elliptic to obovate, 8-20 cm. long, glabrous 
or very nearly so when mature, the apex obtuse, rounded, emarginate or abruptly 
short-acuminate, the base narrowed, cuneate, or obtuse, the midvein prominent 
beneath, the lateral veins numerous and slender, the stout petioles 1-4 cm. 
long; flowers in axillary fascicles; pedicels 1.5-2.5 cm. long; sepals about 6 mm. 
long; corolla about 6 mm. long, white, deeply about 18-lobed; staminodes den- 
ticulate; berry 2-3 cm. long, smooth, 1-seeded. [Sapota Sideroxylon of Bello, 
not of Grisebach; Mimusops Riedleana of Cook and Collins.] 

Wooded hills and forests, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in wet or moist 
districts; St. Jan; Tor tola. Endemic. The dark brown wood is hard, strong and durable 
with specific gravity of about 0.93. Acana. BULLET-WOOD. 

2. Manilkara duplicata (Sesse & Moc.) Dubard, Ann. Mus. Col. Marseille 

III. 3: 14. 1915. 

Achras duplicata SessS & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 85. 1894. 
Mimusops duplicata Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 169. 1904. 

A tree, up to about 20 m. in height, the young twigs pubescent. Leaves 
oblong to obovate, clustered near the ends of the twigs, 7-14 cm. long, silvery- 
puberulent beneath, shining above, the apex obtuse, acute or emarginate, the 
base narrowed, cuneate or rounded, the petioles 1-2 cm. long, the midvein 
prominent beneath, the lateral veins numerous and slender; flowers few in the 
fascicles or solitary; pedicels 2-3.5 cm. long; sepals 10-1 1 mm. long; corolla white, 
12-14 mm. long, its tube about 4 mm. long; staminodes about 6 mm. long; berry 
4-7 cm. long, depressed-globose, rugulose, 3-8-seeded. [Mimusops globosa of 
Grisebach, in part, not of Gaertner; Sapota Sideroxylon of Bello, in part, not of 
Grisebach ; Mimusops Pleeana of Cook and Collins.] 

Coastal thickets and river-banks in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico; Vieques. 
Endemic. The wood resembles that of the preceding species. Sapota de costa. 
Mameyuelo. 

Mimusops Elengi L., Spanish Cherry, East Indian, planted on St. 
Thomas, is a tree 10 m. high or higher, with elliptic acuminate leaves, 7-9 cm. 
long, axillary white flowers, the corolla many-lobed, the yellow ovoid fruit about 
2 cm. long, 1-seeded. 



EBENACEAE 73 

Family 2. EBENACEAE Vent. 
Ebony Family. 

Trees or shrubs with very hard wood, entire estipulate leaves, and 
dioecious polygamous, or rarely perfect, regular flowers, solitary or cymose 
in the axils. Calyx inferior, 3-7-lobed, commonly accrescent and persistent. 
Corolla gamopetalous, deciduous, 3-7-lobed, the lobes usually convolute 
in the bud. Stamens 2-3 times as many as the lobes of the corolla in the 
sterile flowers, and inserted on its tube, usually some imperfect ones in the 
pistillate flowers; anthers introrse, erect. Disk none. Ovary superior, 
several-celled; in the staminate flowers rudimentary or none; ovules 1-3 in 
each cavity, suspended; styles 2-8, distinct, or united below; stigmas ter- 
minal, sometimes 2-parted. Fruit a berry. Seeds oblong, the testa bony; 
endosperm copious, cartilaginous; embryo small, cotyledons large, foliaceous. 
About 6 genera and 275 species, mostly tropical. 

Flowers 3-parted. 1. Maba. 

Flowers 4-6-parted. 2. Diospyros. 

1. MABA Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 121. 1776. 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate petioled leaves, and dioecious (rarely mo- 
noecious) axillary, solitary flowers or the staminate ones in small clusters. Calyx 
campanulate or tubular-campanulate, accrescent and persistent in fruit. Corolla 
campanulate or tubular. Staminate flowers with few or several stamens, the 
filaments separate or connate, the anthers oblong, or linear, the ovary rudi- 
mentary. Pistillate flowers with a usually 3-celled or 6-celled ovary, and 3 styles 
or a 3-cleft style, sometimes with staminodia. Fruit baccate, somewhat fleshy, 
or dry. Seeds 1-6, the endosperm commonly ruminated. [Tonga Islands name.] 
Sixty species or more, natives of tropical regions. Type species : Maba elliptica 
Forst. 

1. Maba Sintenisii Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 327. 1892. 

A tree about 10 m. high, the twigs and leaves glabrous. Leaves oblong or 
narrowly elliptic, coriaceous, 9-16 cm. long, pinnately and finely reticulate- 
veined, the apex obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles 5-7 mm. long; fruiting 
calyx triangular, spreading, its lobes triangular, acute, about 15 mm. wide; 
fruit globose, brown, about 3 cm. in diameter, 4-6-celled. The flowers of this 
tree are unknown. 

Mountain forests, vicinity of Lares, Porto Rico. Endemic. Guatabota-Nispero. 
Tabeiba. The wood is dark brown, hard, heavy and strong. 

Maba caribaea (A. DC.) Hieron., of Cuba and Hispaniola, with obovate 
rounded or emarginate leaves, was recorded by Eggers from Vieques, but we have 
been unable to verify this record. 

2. DIOSPYROS L. Sp. PI. 1057. 1753. 

Trees with alternate petioled leaves, the dioecious flowers lateral, cymose, 
racemose or solitary, the pistillate commonly solitary, the staminate usually 
clustered. Calyx 4-6-cleft. Corolla 4-6-lobed. Stamens 8-20 in the sterile 
flowers. Styles 2-6 in the pistillate flowers; ovary globose or ovoid, its cavities 
twice as many as the styles. Berry large, pulpy, containing 4-12 flat hard seeds. 



74 SYMPLOCACEAE 

[Greek, Zeus' wheat.] About 160 species, widely distributed in temperate and 
tropical regions. Type species: Diospyros Lotus L. 

1/ Diospyros ebenaster Retz. Obs. 5: 31. 1789. 

Diospyros revoluta Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 5: 435. 1804. 

A tree, 10 m. high or higher, the bark nearly black, the young twigs puberu- 
lent. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-obovate, subcoriaceous, 6-15 cm. long, glabrous, 
shining, pinnately veined, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed, the 
rather stout petioles 5-12 mm. long; peduncles 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers white, 
fragrant; fruiting calyx 4-lobed, about 3 cm. broad; fruit globose, smooth, about 
3 cm. in diameter. 

Mountains near Toa-alta, Porto Rico, collected only by Stahl: — Montserrat; 
Guadeloupe; Dominica; Mexico; Brazil; Malaya. The heart wood is nearly black. 

GUAYABOTA. 

Diospyros discolor Willd., Mabolo, native of the Philippine Islandsi 
planted in Porto Rico and recorded as formerly spontaneous at Algarroba near 
Mayaguez, is a narrow tree up to 20 m. in height with leathery oblong, sharply 
acute leaves 2-3 dm. long, shining above, the small flowers clustered, the velvety 
globose fruit about 8 cm. in diameter. 

Family 3. SYMPLOCACEAE Miers. 
Sweet-leaf Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with entire or dentate leaves, and regular white or yellow 
perfect flowers in lateral or axillary clusters. Calyx-tube completely or 
partly adnate to the ovary, its limb 5-lobed. Corolla 5-parted, sometimes 
nearly to the base, the segments imbricated. Disk none. Stamens numer- 
ous in several series; filaments usually slightly united in clusters at the base 
of each corolla-segment; anthers innate, laterally dehiscent. Ovary 2-5- 
celled; ovules commonly 2 in each cavity, pendulous; style and stigma one. 
Fruit a small mostly nearly dry drupe, usually with 1 oblong seed; embryo 
straight ; endosperm fleshy. Only the following genus, comprising about 200 
species, most abundant in South America. 

1. SYMPLOCOS Jacq. Enum. 5, 24. 1760. 

Characters of the family. [Greek, connected, referring to the stamens.] 
Type species: Symplocos martinicensis JaCq. 

The wood of the Porto Rico species is described as nearly white, hard, mod- 
erately heavy, and strong. 

Twigs and petioles hirsute; filaments united at base. 

Twigs and petioles densely hirsute; corolla about 4 mm. long. 1. S. lanata. 
Twigs and petioles sparingly hirsute; corolla about 3 mm. long. 2. S. rmcranlha. 
Twigs and petioles glabrous or rmbenilent; filaments connate. 

Inflorescence much longer than the petioles, paniculate, many- 
flowered. 3. S. polyantha. 
Inflorescence little longer than the petioles, compact, few-several ... 
flowered. 4 - s - martinicensis. 

1. Symplocos lanata Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 335. 1892. 

A tree about 10 m. high, the young shoots and petioles densely hirsute with 
reddish hairs. Leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 4-7 cm. long, hirsute beneath, 
glabrous and indistinctly reticulate-veined above, the apex obtuse or short- 
acuminate, the base obtuse, the petioles 2-5 mm. long; inflorescence glomerate, 



STYRACACEAE 75 

sessile, few-flowered or flowers solitary ; calyx tomentose, its lobes ovate-lanceolate, 
about 3 mm. long; corolla white, about 4 mm. long, its 5 or 6 lobes suborbicular; 
filaments united at the base, shorter than the corolla; ovary 2-celled. 

Mountain forests near Adjuntas and Pefiuelas, Porto Rice. Endemic. Nispero 
Cimarron. 

2. Symplocos micrantha Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 336. 1892. 

A tree, 7-10 m. high or higher, the young shoots and petioles more or less 
pilose or hirsute. Leaves elliptic to oval, 4-9 cm. long, short-hirsute beneath, 
glabrous above, the apex mostly short-acuminate, the base obtuse or rounded, 
the petioles 5-10 mm. long; inflorescence sessile, glomerate; calyx tomentose, 
its ovate lobes about 2 mm. long; corolla white, nearly 3 mm. long, its lobes 
orbicular; filaments united below; ovary 2-celled; fruit oblong, 8-10 mm. long. 

Mountain forests. Sierra de Luquillo and near Aibonito, Porto Rico. Endemic. 
Closely related to the preceding species. 

3. Symplocos polyantha Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 333. 1892. 

A tree or shrub with short-pubescent young twigs. Lea\es elliptic, oval or 
oval-obovate, subchartaceous, glabrous, 6-12 cm. long, the apex bluntly short- 
acuminate, the base subcuneate, the petioles 5-10 mm. long; inflorescence pan- 
iculate, short-pilose, many-flowered, 4-6 cm. long; flowers fragrant; pedicels 
very short; calyx glabrous, its suborbicular lobes 1.5-2 mm. broad; corolla about 
12 mm. long, its lobes oblong-obovate; filaments connate; ovary 3-5-celled. 

Woods, El Solerante, Sierra de Luquillo, at 600 m. altitude, collected only by Eggers. 
Endemic. Palo de cabra. 

4. Symplocos martinicensis Jacq. Enum. 24. 1760. 

Symplocos latifolia Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 334. 1892. 

A tree, 5-15 m. high, the young twigs puberulent or glabrous. Leaves oval 
to obovate, 6-12 cm. long, chartaceous, glabrous, the apex rather bluntly short- 
acuminate, subcuneate, at the base, the petioles 7-15 mm. long; inflorescence 
compact, few-several-flowered, little longer than the petioles; calyx-lobes semi- 
orbicular, about 2 mm. broad; corolla white, 9-15 mm. long, its lobes oblong or 
obovate-oblong; filaments connate; ovary 3-5-celled; fruit oblong, 9-13 mm. 
long, bluish black. [? Hopea tinctoria of Sesse and Mogino, not of Linnaeus.] 

Thickets and wooded hills, northern districts of Porto Rico; St. Thomas; Tortola: — 
Saba to Trinidad. Aceituna blanca. 



Family 4. STYRACACEAE A. DC. 

Storax Family. 

Trees or shrubs, the flowers regular, perfect, or polygamo-dioecious; pu- 
bescence mostly stellate or lepidote. Calyx more or less adnate to the ovary. 
Corolla gamopetalous or polypetalous, the lobes or petals 4-8. Stamens 
twice as many as the lobes of the corolla or petals, or more, inserted on its 
tube or base, arranged in 1 series, the filaments monadelphous or 4-5- 
adelphous. Disk none. Ovary partly superior, 2-5-celled; ovules ana- 
tropous; style slender; stigma simple or 2-5-lobed. Fruit a berry or drupe, 
or often nearly dry, winged in some genera, 1-seeded, or 2-5-celled with a 
seed in each cavity. Endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo usually straight; 
cotyledons flat. About 7 genera and 75 species, mostly tropical. 



76 



OLEACEAE 



1. STYRAX [Tourn.] L. Sp. PL 444. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, with rather large, mostly white, drooping flowers, in 
fascicles or racemes. Calyx persistent, nearly inferior, its tube campanulate, 
adnate to the lower part of the ovary, its limb minutely 5-toothed. Corolla 5- 
parted or 5-divided. Stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes or petals (rarely 
fewer); filaments flat, monadelphous below or rarely separate. Ovary nearly 
superior, mostly 3-celled at the base; ovules se\eral in each cavity, ascending; 
stigma 3-toothed, 3-lobed or capitate. Fruit nearly dry, coriaceous or crusta- 
ceous, commonly only 1-seeded, 3-valved at the summit. [Greek name of Storax.] 
About 70 species, natives of America, Asia and southern Europe. Type species : 
Styrax officinalis L. 

1. Styrax portoricensis Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 337. 1892. 

A tree, up to about 20 m. high, the twigs slender, densely lepidote. Leaves 
oval to elliptic-obovate, chartaceous, 7-12 cm. long, pinnately veined and 
reticulate, glabrous on both sides, or sparingly lepidote on the veins beneath, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the lepidote petioles 6-10 mm. 
long; inflorescence axillary or lateral, lepidote, peduncled, few-flowered; flowering 
pedicels short; bractlets small, deciduous; calyx lepidote, about 4 mm. long; 
corolla-segments silvery within ; fruit ellipsoid, coriaceous, pointed, 2-3 cm. long, 
lepidote, borne on a recurved pedicel 1-1.5 cm. long, the persistent cup-shaped 
calyx about 5 mm. long. 

Forests of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 



Order 4. GENTIANALES. 

Herbs, shrubs, vines or trees. Leaves opposite, or rarely alternate. 
Flowers regular. Corolla gamopetalous, rarely polypetalous, nerved, 
[wanting in Forestiera of the Oleaceae.] Stamens mostly borne on the lower 
part of the corolla when this is present, as many as its lobes or fewer and 
alternate with them. Ovaries 2, distinct, or 1 with 2 cavities (rarely more), 
or 2 placentae. 



a. Stamens (usually 2) fewer than the corolla-lobes, or 
corolla none. 

b. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. 

Stigmas distinct; juice not milky; ovary 1, compound. 
Ovary 2-celled; leaves stipulate, or their bases 

connected by a stipular line. 
Ovary 1 -celled; leaves not stipulate. 

Leaves opposite, rarely verticiUate; corolla- 
lobes convolute or imbricated in the bud. 
Leaves tufted or alternate; corolla-lobes in- 
duplicate-valvate in the bud; our species 
aquatic. 
Stigmas united; juice milky; ovaries usually 2. 

Styles united; stamens distinct; pollen of simple 

grains. 
Styles distinct; stamens mostly monadelphous; 
pollen-grains united into waxy masses. 



Fam. 1. Okeaceae. 

Fam. 2. Loganiaceae. 

Fam. 3. Gentianaceae. 

Fam. 4. Menyanthaceae. 

Fam. 5. Apoctnaceae. 

Fam. 6. Asclepiadaceae. 



Family 1. OLEACEAE Lindl. 

Olive Family. 

Trees or shrubs (a few genera almost herbaceous) with opposite or rarely 
alternate, simple; or pinnate, estipulate leaves and regular 2-4-parted flowers 
in panicles, cymes or fascicles. Calyx inferior, usually small, sometimes 



OLEACEAE 77 

none. Corolla various, or none. Stamens 2-4; filaments separate; anthers 
ovate, oblong or linear, 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 
superior, 2-celled; ovules few in each cavity, anatropous or amphitropous; 
style usually short or none. Fruit a capsule, samara, berry or drupe. En- 
dosperm fleshy, horny or wanting; embryo straight, rather large; radicle 
usually short. About 21 genera and 525 species, of wide distribution in 
temperate and tropical regions. 

Corolla none; fruit a drupe. 1. Forestiera. 
Corolla present. 

Corolla deeply cleft, or petals distinct; fruit a drupe. 

Corolla deeply cleft. 2. Henianthus. 

Petals distinct. 3. Alayepea. 

Ccrolla tubular with a spreading limb; fruit didymous. 4. Jasminum. 

1. FORESTIERA Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 2: 664. 1812. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite deciduous simple leaves, and very small, 
clustered, bracted, incomplete and commonly imperfect flowers axillary or on 
twigs of the previous season. Calyx-tube short, the limb deeply 4-6-lobed. 
Corolla none (rarely of 1 or 2 small petals). Stamens 2 or 4. Ovary 2-celled ; 
stigmas thick, sometimes 2-lobed; ovules 2 in each cavity, pendulous. Drupe 
commonly 1-seeded. Endosperm fleshy. [Commemorates Charles Le Forestier, 
a French physician.] About 10 American species. Type species: Forestiera 
acuminata (Michx.) Poir. • 

Leaves obtuse or acutish, entire. 1. F. segregata. 
Leaves acute or acuminate. 

Leaves 2-5 cm. long, crenulate; twigs puberulent. 2. F. Eggersiana. 

Leaves 6-8 cm. long; twigs glabrous. 3. F. rhamnifolia. 

1. Forestiera segregata (Jacq.) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 339. 1893. 

Myrica segregata Jacq. Coll. 2: 273. 1788. 

Adelia porulosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 224. 1803. 

Forestiera cassinoides Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 2: 665. 1812. 

Forestiera porulosa Jacquini Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 68. 1879. 

Adelia segregata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 410. 1891. 

A shrub, or a small tree up to 7 m. high and a trunk diameter of 1.5 dm., the 
branches slender, glabrous. Leaves rather firm in texture, oblong to lanceolate 
or obovate, 1.5-6 cm. long, obtuse or acutish at the apex, narrowed at the base, 
entire, shining above, pale and reticulate-veined beneath, punctate when dry, 
short-petioled ; flowers yellowish green; drupes oblong to oval, 6-10 mm. long, 
short-pedicelled, purplish, the stone longitudinally ribbed. 

Hillsides and cliffs in the dry southern and southwestern districts of Porto Rico; 
Vieques; St. Croix; Tortola: — Florida; Bermuda; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. Ink-bush. 

2. Forestiera Eggersiana Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 339. 1893. 

A shrub 3 m. high or less, or a tree 5 m. high, the slender young twigs puberu- 
lent. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, chartaceous, 2-5 cm. long, 
crenulate or nearly entire, bright green above, pale beneath, punctate when dry, 
the apex bluntly acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 2-3 mm. 
long; drupe narrowly oblong, 8—12 mm. long. 

Thickets, Culebra; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda. Endemic. 

3. Forestiera rhamnifolia Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 169. 1866. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high or shrubby, the twigs glabrous. Leaves oval or elliptic, 
chartaceous or submembranous, 6-8 cm. long, glabrous, serrulate above or entire, 



78 OLEACEAE 

the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the under side pale green, 
punctate when dry, the upper bright green, the petioles 4-8 mm. long; drupe 
ellipsoid, pointed at both ends, 8-10 mm. long. [Dry petes laevigata of Millspaugh.] 

Bluffs of Salt River, St. Croix: — Jamaica; Cuba; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Grenada. 

2. HAENIANTHUS Griseb. PL Br. W. I. 405. 1861. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite entire coriaceous or chartaceous leaves, the 
flowers in panicles. Calyx 4-toothed. Corolla deeply 4-cleft, the tube short, 
the segments linear, fleshy, cylindric, or laterally flattened. Stamens 2. Ovary 
2-celled; style short; stigma slightly emarginate; ovules 2 in each cavity, ana- 
tropous. Fruit an ovoid or subglobose drupe, 1-seeded. Seed with a thin 
testa, cartilaginous endosperm and flat cotyledons. [Greek, taken from Chio- 
nanthu8.] Three known West Indian species. Type species: Chionanthus 
incrassatus Sw. 

1. Haenianthus obovatus Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 342. 1892. 

A branching shrub, 3>-5 m. high, or a small tree about 6 m. high, the twigs 
and leaves glabrous. Leaves obovate, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 4-7 cm. 
long, the apex obtuse, the base, cuneate, the slender petioles 1-2 cm. long; 
panicles terminal, several-many-flowered; pedicels 3-6 mm. long; calyx about I 
mm. long; corolla-segments white, 5-6 mm. long; drupe about 2 cm. long. 

Endemic on the summits of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 

3. MAYEPEA Aubl. PL Guian. 1: 81. 1775. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite entire leaves, the rather large, mostly white, 
bracteolate flowers usually panicled. Calyx small, 4-cleft or 4-toothed. Petals 
4, distinct or very nearly so, narrow. Stamens 2, rarely 4, borne at the bases of 
the petals; filaments short; anthers ovate to linear. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in 
each cavity; style short; stigma oblong to globose. Fruit a small oblong drupe, 
with thin flesh and hard endocarp. [Guiana name.] About 50 species, natives 
of tropical regions. Type species: Mayepea guianensis Aubl. 

Calvx glabrous or the margin ciliate; panicles terminal or also axil- 

lary. 1. M. domingensis. 

Calyx pilose or tomentulose; panicles axillary. 

Leaves chartaceous, 8-15 cm. long; panicles large, much longer 

than the petioles. J ^2. M. canbaea. 

Leaves coriaceous, 7 cm. long or less; panicles short, dense, about 

twice as long as the petioles. 3. M. axilliflora. 

1. Mayepea domingensis (Lam.) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 344. 1892. 

Chionanthus domingensis Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 30. 1791. 

Linociera latifolia Vahl, Enum. 1: 46. 1804. 

Linociera domingensis Knobl. Bot. Centr. 61: 87. 1895. 

A tree, 10-18 m. high, the trunk up to about 7 dm. in diameter, the bark 
smooth and gray, the slender twigs glabrous or nearly so. Leaves oval or elliptic- 
lanceolate, chartaceous, glabrous, slender-petioled, 15 cm. long or less, the apex 
acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 2-3 cm. long; panicles stalked, ter- 
minal or also axillary, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, as long as the leaves or 
shorter, many-flowered; pedicels 2 mm. long or less: calyx glabrous or nearly 
so; petals flat, 15-22 mm. long; drupe oval, 15-20 mm. long. [Linociera com- 



OLEACEAE 79 

pacta of Bello and of Stahl, not of R. Brown; Dry petes glauca of Bello, not of 
Vahl.] 

Wooded hills and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts: — Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola. The wood is light in color and hard. Hueso blanco. Huesillo. 

2. Mayepea caribaea (Jacq.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 411. 1891. 

Chionanthus caribaea Jacq. Coll. 2: 110. 1788. 
Chionanthus compacta Sw. Prodr. 13. 1788. 
Linociera caribaea Knobl. Bot. Centr. 61: 84. 1895. 

A tree, 5-12 m. high, or shrubby, the young twigs aui inflorescence short- 
pilose. Leaves oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, chartaceous, glabrous, 8-15 cm. 
long, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 15 mm. long or less; 
panicles axillary, peduncled, as long as the leaves or shorter, several-flowered, 
the flowers sessile or nearly so; calyx densely pilose; petals flat, white, 8-24 mm. 
long; drupe oval, 15-25 mm. long. 

Hillsides, eastern districts of Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — 
Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; Margarita; Venezuela. Avtspillo. 

3. Mayepea axilliflora (Griseb.) Krug & Urban, Bot. Jahrb. 15: 345. 1892. 

Linociera axilliflora Griseb. Mem. Am. Acad. II. 8: 519. 1862. 

A shrub or small tree, the twigs and inflorescence tomentulose or glabrate. 
Leaves oblong to elliptic, coriaceous, glabrous, 4—7 cm. long, the apex acute or 
obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles only about 6 mm. long; panicles axillary, 
few-several-flowered, compact, about twice as long as the petioles; calyx to- 
mentulose; petals flat, about 7 mm. long; fruit unknown. 

Woodlands, Monte Mariel near Guanica: — Cuba. The generic position of this 
plant is not certainly determined. 

4. JASMINUM L. Sp. PI. 7. 1753. 

Shrubs or woody vines, with mostly opposite, simple or compound leaves, and 
large, clustered or solitary flowers. Calyx lobed or parted. Corolla salverform, 
its tube cylindric, its limb lobed or parted, the lobes imbricated. Stamens 2, 
included ; filaments short ; anthers laterally dehiscent. Ovary 2-celled; style very 
slender; stigma capitate or 2-lobed; ovules mostly 2 in each cavity. Fruit 
didymous, fleshy. Seeds without endosperm. [Ancient name, of Arabic origin.] 
About 100 species, natives of the Old World. Type species: Jasminum officinale 
L. 

Leaves simple; shrubs. 

Calyx-lobes glabrate; corolla-lobes obtuse. 1. J. Sambac. 

Calyx-lobes densely pilose; corolla-lobes acute. 2. J. pubescens. 
Leaves compound. 

Leaves 3-foliolate; vine. 3. J. azoricum. 

Leaves pinnate; vine-like shrub. 4. J. grandiflorum. 

1. Jasminum Sambac (L.) Soland.; Ait. Hort. Kew 1: 8. 1789. 

Nyclanthes Sambac L. Sp. PI. 6. 1753. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, the young shoots sparingly pubescent. Leaves 
simple, ovate to elliptic, membranous, deciduous, 3-7 cm. long, acute, obtuse, or 
short-acuminate at the apex, rounded or obtuse at the base, glabrous and finely 
reticulate- veined on both sides, the pubescent petioles 3-6 mm. long; cymes 
peduncled, terminal, few-several-flowered, pubescent; pedicels 6-12 mm. long; 
calyx-segments numerous, linear, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, about 1 cm. 



80 OLEACEAE 

long; corolla white, fragrant, its tube somewhat longer than the calyx, its limb 
about 2 cm. wide, the lobes obtuse. [Jasminum quinqueflorum Heyne.] 

Spontaneous after planting in Porto Rico; St. Croix: — widely planted for ornament 
in the West Indies, the flowers often double. Native of the East Indies. Jasmin 

OLOROSO. DlA MELA. ARABIAN JASMINE. 

2. Jasminum pubescens (Retz.) Willd. Sp. PI. l: 37. 1798. 

Nyctanthes pubescens Retz. Obs. 5: 9. 1789. 

A shrub 1-2 m. high, with elongated densely tomentose branches. Leaves 
simple, rather thin, ovate, 3-7 cm. long, glabrate above, pubescent beneath, the 
apex acute, the base cordate or subtruncate, the densely pubescent petioles 4-6 
mm. long; cymes sessile or nearly so, dense, few-several-flowered; flowers white, 
nearly sessile; calyx-segments numerous, linear, densely pilose, about 1 cm. long; 
corolla-tube about twice as long as the calyx, the limb 2-2.5 mm. wide, its lobes 
acute. [? Jasminum hirsutum of Krebs.] 

Spontaneous after planting; locally naturalized along roads and in fields, Porto Rico; 
Vieaues; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — widely planted for ornament in the West Indies. 
Native of southeastern Asia. Jasmin de papel. Hairy Jasmine. 

3. Jasminum azoricum L. Sp. PL 7. 1753. 

A slender vine, up to 4 m. long or longer, the slender terete twigs, the petioles 
and inflorescence-branches tomentose, the branches glabrous. Leaves 3-foliolate ; 
leaflets ovate, glabrate, broad, 3-6 cm. long, the apex acute or obtuse, the base 
subtruncate or narrowed, the terminal one long-stalked, the lateral ones short- 
stalked, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; cymes loosely several-flowered; flowers short- 
pedicelled ; calyx only about 3 mm. long, its teeth very short ; corolla white, its 
slender tube about 2 cm. long, its oblong acute lobes about 1 cm. long. 

River-thickets, vicinity of Coamo Springs; escaped from cultivation- — widely dis- 
tributed through cultivation in the West Indies; planted for ornament in Porto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands. Native of the Azores and Canary Islands. 

4. Jasminum grandiflorum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 9. 1762. 

A nearly glabrous vine-like shrub, the slender weak branches 3-4 m. long. 
Leaves pinnate, short-petioled, 6-15 cm. long; leaflets 5 or 7, elliptic or ovate, 
1-2.5 cm. long, short-stalked, the lateral ones mostly obtuse and mucronate, the 
terminal one acute or acuminate ; cymes peduncled, corymb-like, several-flowered; 
pedicels very slender, 1-2.5 cm. long; calyx-tube short, the 4 or 5 filiform lobes 
about 1 cm. long or less; corolla-tube about 2.5 cm. long, the limb about 2 cm. 
broad, the oblong lobes obtuse. [Jasminum officinale of Stahl and of Mills- 
paugh, not of Linnaeus.] 

Occasionally spontaneous after planting in Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — 
widely planted for ornament in the West Indies. Native of southern Asia. Jasmin. 
Royal Jasmine. 

Jasminum officinale L., Poet's Jasmine, Asiatic, cultivated for ornament 
on St. Thomas, is vine-like, the pinnate leaves with acute leaflets, the white flowers 
in loose cymes, the corolla-lobes acute. 

Jasminum humile L., Italian Yellow or Nepatjl Jasmine, Asiatic, 
planted for ornament in the Virgin Islands, is vine-like, glabrous, the pinnate 
leaves with usually 5 ovate or lanceolate acute leaflets, the bright yellow slender- 
pedicelled flowers in terminal cymes, the corolla about 2.5 cm. long, its lobes ob- 
tuse. [Jasminum revolutum Sims.] 

Jasminum arborescens Roxb., East Indian, was included in the list of 
plants of St. Thomas by Krebs; it may have been planted there. 



LOGANIACEAE 81 

Olea europaea L., Olive, European, planted on St. Thomas, is an evergreen 
tree, becoming 20 m. high or higher, with oblong-lanceolate leathery leaves 3-8 
cm. long, dark green above, silvery lepidote beneath; the small white flowers are 
in axillary panicles shorter than the leaves; the well-known fruit is an oblong or 
subglobose drupe. 

Family 2. LOGANIACEAE Dumort. 
Logania Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, vines or some tropical genera trees, with opposite or 
verticillate simple stipulate leaves, or the leaf-bases connected by a stipular 
line or membrane, and regular perfect 4-5-parted flowers. Calyx inferior, 
the tube campanulate, sometimes short or none, the segments imbricated, 
at least in the bud. Corolla gamopetalous, funnelform, campanulate 
or rarely rotate. Stamens inserted on the tube or throat of the corolla; 
anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent; pollen-grains simple. 
Disk usually none. Ovary superior, 2-celled (rarely 3-5-celled); ovules 
anatropous or amphitropous. Fruit a capsule in our species. Embryo 
small, usually straight; endosperm copious; radicle terete or conic. About 30 
genera and 400 species, widely distributed in warm and tropical regions. 

Corolla funnelform or salverform; styles united. 1. Spigelia. 

Corolla urn-shaped; styles soon distinct. 2. Cynoctonum. 

1. SPIGELIA L. Sp. PI. 149. 1753. 

Herbs, with opposite membranous entire, pinnately veined leaves, small 
stipules, or the leaf-bases connected by a stipular line, and red yellow, nearly 
white or purple flowers, in scorpioid cymes or unilateral spikes, or terminal and 
in the forks of the branches. Calyx deeply 5-parted. Corolla 5-lobed, the tube 
finely 15-nerved. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla-tube; anthers 2-lobed at 
the base. Ovules numerous, on peltate placentae; style filiform, jointed near 
the middle; stigma obtuse. Capsule didymous, 2-celled, somewhat flattened 
contrary to the dissepiment, circumscissile, the 2 carpels becoming 2-valved. 
Seeds peltate, not winged. [Named for Adrian von der Spigel, 1558-1625, 
physician.] About 35 species, all American. Type species : Spigelia Anthelmia L. 

l. Spigelia Anthelmia L. Sp. PI. 149. 1753. 

Annual, simple or branched, 5 dm. high or less. Leaves lanceolate, 3-10 cm. 
long, acute or acuminate, pale beneath, finely ciliolate; inflorescence subtended 
by a whorl or pair of lanceolate or ovate bracts larger than the leaves; flowers 
small, in slender unilateral spikes 5-12 cm. long; calyx-lobes narrowly lanceolate, 
about 2 mm. long; corolla purplish white, 5-9 mm. long; capsules 5-6 mm. broad, 
tubercled. 

Fields, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations in moist 
districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America. 

LOMBRICEEA. SPIGELIA. WATERWEED. WORM-GRASS. 

2. CYNOCTONUM J. F. Gmel. Syst. 443. 1791. 

Herbs, our species annual, with opposite entire leaves, and minute stipules, 
or the leaf-bases connected by a stipular line. Flowers small, whitish, in one- 
sided spikes forming cymes. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla urn-shaped, 5-lobed. 
Stamens 5, included; filaments short; anthers cordate. Ovules numerous, on 



82 GENTIANACEAE 

peltate placentae; style short, 2-divided below, united above by the common 
stigma, the divisions becoming separate. Capsule 2-lobed at the summit ; carpels 
divaricate, dehiscent along the inner side. Seeds numerous, small, tuberculate. 
[Greek, dog-killing.] About 5 species, of warm and tropical regions. Type 
species: Cynoctonum sessilifolium Gmel. 

1. Cynoctonum Mitreola (L.) Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 258. 1894. 

Ophiorrhiza Mitreola L. Sp. PL 150. 1753. 
Mitreola petiolata T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 45. 1841. 

Stem glabrous, erect, terete, 3-6 dm. high. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, 
petioled, 2.5-8 cm. long, 6-25 mm. wide, acute at both ends, glabrous; cymes 
terminal and often also in the upper axils, slender-peduncled; flowers about 2 
mm. broad, numerous, sessile or nearly so ; capsule deeply 2-lobed, compressed, 
the lobes at length widely diverging, acute. [Lisianthus chelonioides of Bello, 
not of Linnaeus.] 

Wet open grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations: — southeastern United States; 
West Indies; Mexico. Mitrewort. 

Buddleia Davidi Franchet, Chinese, grown in Porto Rico mountain 
gardens under the name Heliotropo, is a shrub about 1 m. high, with opposite 
thin, short-petioled, oblong-lanceolate leaves about 7 cm. long, the lilac flowers 
in terminal narrow panicles. 

Strychnos spinosa Lam., Madagascan, received by the Forest Station at 
Rio Piedras from the Bureau of Plant Industry as seedlings in December, 1921, 
had attained a height of nearly two meters by April, 1923. 

Family 3. GENTIANACEAE Dumort. 

Gentian Family. 

Bitter mostly glabrous herbs, with opposite (rarely verticillate) estipulate 
entire leaves, reduced to scales in Leiphaimos, and regular perfect flowers in 
clusters, or solitary at the ends of the stem or branches. Calyx inferior, 
persistent, 4-1'2-lobed, -toothed, or -divided (of 2 sepals in Obolaria), the 
lobes imbricated or not meeting in the bud. Corolla gamopetalous, often 
marcescent, 4-12-lobed or -parted. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla, alternate with them, inserted on the tube or throat; anthers 2-ceUed, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Disk none, or inconspicuous. Ovary superior in 
our genera, 1-celled or partly 2-celled; ovules numerous, anatropous or am- 
phitropous; stigma entire, or 2-lobed or 2-cleft. Capsule mostly dehiscent 
by 2 valves. Endosperm fleshy, copious; embryo small, terete or conic. 
About 70 genera and 700 species, widely distributed. 

Herbs or shrubs with chlorophyll, the leaves normal. 

Flowers glomerate in the axils of the leaves; anthers horned. 1. Emcostema. 
Flowers not glomerate in the axils; anthers without horns. .... 

Calyx-tube as long as the lobes or longer, conspicuously ribbed . 

or winged. . z - ocnuuesia. 

Calyx-tube much shorter than the lobes, scarcely winged. 

Corolla-tube as long as the calyx or shorter. 3. centaunum. 

Corolla-tube much longer than the calyx. £• Liswnmus. 

Low herbs without chlorophyll; leaves reduced to scales. 5. Letpnaimos. 

1. ENICOSTEMA Blume, Bijdr. 848. 1826. 

A perennial herb, with opposite sessile lanceolate to linear-lanceolate leaves, 
and small flowers glomerate in the axils. Calyx narrowly campanulate, deeply 



GENTIANACEAE 83 

5-cleft. Corolla nearly funnelform, the cylindric tube somewhat enlarged above 
the middle, the 5 lobes contorted, spreading. Stamens 5, borne on the corolla- 
tube, included, the filaments filiform; anthers oblong, erect, the connective 
apiculate. Ovary 1-celled; style short; stigma globose. Capsule oblong, 2- 
valved. Seeds many, globose. [Greek, included stamens.] A monotypic 
genus. Type species : Enicostema littorale Blume. 

1. Enicostema verticillatum (L.) Gilg. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 2 : 67. 1895. 

Gentiana verticillata L. Syst. ed. 10, 952. 1759. 

Enicostema littorale Blume, Bijdr. 848. 1826. 

Slevogtia occidentalis Griseb. in DC. Prodr. 9: 65. 1845. 

Branched, often from the base, leafy, glabrous, 3-10 dm. high. Leaves 
acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 3-nerved. 4-10 cm. long; glomerules 
several-flowered; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, about 5 mm. long; corolla 
white, about 6 mm. long; capsule about as long as the calyx. 

Recorded in 1845 by Grisebach from Porto Rico, otherwise known to us only from 
Antigua to Trinidad and from the Old World tropics, although recorded also from Cuba 
and Hispaniola. 

2. SCHULTESIA Mart. Nov. Gen. 2: 103. 1826. 

Annual erect herbs, with opposite sessile leaves and rather large flowers at 
the ends of the branches. Calyx tubular, 4-ribbed or 4-winged, 4-cleft, the tube 
as long as the lobes or longer. Corolla funnelform, the tube narrowed above, the 
limb 4-lobed, the lobes contorted. Stamens 4, borne on the corolla-tube; anthers 
oblong. Ovary 1-celled; style filiform; stigma 2-lamellate. Capsule 2-valved. 
Seeds small, foveolate. [Commemorates J. A. Schultes, 1773-1831, Austrian 
botanist.] About 17 species in tropical America, 1 in tropical Africa. Type 
species: Schultesia crenuliflora Mart. 

1. Schultesia heterophylla Miquel, Linnaea 19: 137. 1847. 

Erect, glabrous, simple or few-branched above, 2-4 dm. high. Leaves 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1-5 cm. long, acute or obtuse; flowers solitary 
or 2 or 3 at the ends of the stem and branches ; calyx 2-3 cm. long, narrowly 4- 
winged, the linear-subulate lobes about one-half as long as the tube; corolla pink 
or purple, 3^4 cm. long, its lobes shorter than the tube. [S. stenophylla of Stahl, 
not of Martius.] 

Wet sand near Bayamon, collected only by Stahl: — Cuba, Hispaniola; continental 
tropical America; recorded by Grisebach from Jamaica. 

3. CENTAURIUM Hill, Brit. Herbal 62. 1756. 

Herbs, mostly annual or biennial, with sessile or amplexicaul leaves, and 
pink white or yellow flowers in cymes or spikes. Calyx tubular, 5-4-lobed or 
-divided, the lobes or segments narrow, keeled. Corolla salverform, 5-4-lobed, 
the lobes spreading, contorted, convolute in the bud. Stamens 5 or 4, inserted 
on the corolla-tube; filaments short-filiform; anthers becoming spirally twisted. 
Ovary 1-celled, the placentae sometimes intruded; style filiform; stigma 2-lobed. 
Capsule 2-valved. Seed-coat reticulated. [Latin, 100 gold pieces, referring to 
supposed medicinal value.] About 25 species, both in the Old World and the 
New. Type species: Gentiana Centaurium L. 



84 GENTIANACEAE 

1. Centaurium Brittonii Millsp. & Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 308. 1909. 

Annual, glabrous, much-branched, 5-18 cm. high, the branches very slender, 
quadrangular. Basal and lower leaves obtuse or oblong-spatulate; upper leaves 
sessile, oblong-lanceolate to linear, acute, 1.8 cm. long or less; peduncles nearly 
filiform, much longer than the upper leaves; flowers white with a yellowish eye, 
3-5-parted (mostly 4-parted) ; calyx 5-6 mm. long, its segments narrowly linear, 
acute; corolla 6-10 mm. long, its lobes about one-half as long as the tube ; capsule 
linear-elliptic, 6-8 mm. long. 

Shaded saline soil, West End, Anegada: — Bahamas; Cuba; Venezuela. 

4. LISIANTHUS L. Mant. 1: 6, 43. 1767. 

Glabrous herbs or shrubs with opposite leaves, and large, mostly yellow, 
corymbose flowers. Calyx-tube much shorter than the 5-lobes. Corolla nearly 
salverform, or funnelform, with 5 spreading lobes. Stamens 5, borne on the 
lower part of the corolla-tube ; filaments filiform ; anther oblong. Ovary 1-celled ; 
style filiform; stigma subcapitate; capsule enclosed by the withering corolla, 
2-valved. Seeds mostly tubercled or muricate. [Greek, glossy flower.] About 
15 species, of tropical America. Type species: Lisianthus longifolius L. 

1. Lisianthus laxiflorus Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 332. 1902. 

Lisianthus gracilis Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. 31: 492. 1902. Not Griseb. 1861. 

Shrubby, branched, 1 m. high or less, the branches slender, terete. Leaves 
lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, membranous, 4-12 cm. long, the apex acuminate, 
the base narrowed, the petioles 1.5-6 mm. long; corymbs loosely few-flowered; 
their branches very slender; pedicels about 3 cm. long or shorter, nearly filiform; 
• calyx about 12 mm. long; its tube about 2 mm. long, its linear-lanceolate lobes 
erect; corolla yellow, 3-4 cm. long, funnelform, its tube about 2 cm. long, its 
oblong-lanceolate lobes acuminate; capsule narrowly oblong, 10-15 mm. long; 
pointed; seeds tuberculate, brown. [Leianthus longifolius gracilis of Bello, not 
of Grisebach.] 

Woods and forests at lower and middle altitudes in moist districts of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. Campanilla. 

5. LEIPHAIMOS Schl. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 387. 1831. 

Small glabrous saprophytic pale simple-stemmed herbs, without chlorophyll, 
the stems white or yellowish, bearing opposite sessile scales or the lower scales 
alternate, the flowers terminal, cymose or solitary. Calyx bracteolate at the 
base, 4-5-toothed or -cleft. Corolla salverform or funnelform, 4-5-lobed, mostly 
small. Stamens 4 or 5, included; filaments mostly short; anthers introrse. 
Ovary 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentae; style one; stigma capitate or dilated. 
Capsule oblong or linear, septicidally dehiscent at the middle. [Greek, pallid.] 
About 20 species, mostly of tropical America. Type species: Leiphaimos para- 
sitica Schl. & Cham. 

Corolla yellow; stems yellow. 1. L. aphylla. 

Corolla blue; stems white. 2. L. portoncensts. 

1. Leiphaimos aphylla (Jacq.) Gilg. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 2 : 104. 1895. 

Gentiana aphylla Jacq. Enum. 17. 1760. 

Voyria uniflora Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 491. 1791. 

Stem simple, erect, yellow, with one terminal flower, and bearing several 
distant sessile scales about 2 mm. long. Calyx 5-cleft, much shorter than the 



MENYANTHACEAE 85 

corolla, its lanceolate lobes acuminate; corolla yellow, its slender tube 2-3 cm. 
long, its 5 oblong-lanceolate lobes about 6 mm. long, spreading; capsule narrowly 
oblong, 1-1.5 cm. long. 

In the leaf-mould of mountain forests, Porto Rico: — Jamaica (?); Cuba; Saba to 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

2. Leiphaimos portoricensis Britton, sp. nov. 

Stems weak, simple, 1.5 dm. long or shorter, white, with one terminal flower 
and a few distant sessile translucent scales. Calyx 5-cleft, about 3 mm. long, 
its linear-lanceolate segments acute; corolla blue, 6-8 mm. long, its lobes short; 
capsule oblong, about 1 cm. long. 

Mountain forest, Indiera Fria, near Maricao, Porto Rico (Brilton, Cowell and Brown 
U73). 

Family 4. MENYANTHACEAE G. Don. 

Buckbean Family. 

Perennial aquatic or marsh herbs, with basal or alternate leaves, and 
clustered regular perfect flowers. Calyx inferior, deeply 5-parted, persistent. 
Corolla 5-lobed or 5-cleft, the lobes indu plicate- valvate, at least in the bud. 
Stamens 5, borne on the corolla, and alternate with its lobes; anther-sacs 
longitudinally dehiscent; pollen-grains 3-angled. Ovary 1-celled, the 2 
placentae sometimes intruded. Fruit a capsule, or indehiscent. Five 
genera and about 35 species, widely distributed. 

1. NYMPHOIDES Hill, Brit. Herbal 77. 1756. 
[Limnanthemum S. G. Gmel. Nov. Act. Acad. Petrop. 14: 527. 1769.] 
Aquatic herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves petioled, ovate or orbicular, entire 
or repand, or the primary ones different; flowers yellow, or white, umbellate at 
the summit of stems at the bases of the petioles, or axillary. Calyx 5-parted. 
Corolla nearly rotate, deeply 5-cleft, the lobes induplicate-valvate in the bud, 
sometimes fimbriate on the margins. Stamens 5, inserted on the base of the 
corolla; anthers sagittate, versatile. Ovary 1-celled; style short or none; stigma 
2-lamellate. Capsule indehiscent or irregularly bursting [Greek, resembling 
Nymphaea.] About 20 species, widely distributed. Type species: Nymphoides 
flava Hill. 

1. Nymphoides Humboldtianum (H.B.K.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 429. 1891. 

Villarsia Humboldtiana H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 187. 1818. 
Limnanthemum Humboldtianum Griseb. Gen. & Sp. Gent. 347 1839. 

Glabrous; roots elongated, numerous. Stems stout, about 4 dm. long or 
less; leaves solitary, orbicular or reniform-orbicular, rather fleshy, deeply cordate, 
3-12 cm. broad; short-petioled; flowers in a sessile umbel at the base cf the petiole; 
pedicels few or many, slender, 3-10 cm. long, deflexed in fruit; calyx-segments 
linear-lanceolate, about 8 mm. long; corolla bright white, its segments fimbriate, 
about twice as long as the calyx, recurved; capsule somewhat shorter than the 
calyx ; seeds numerous, smooth, globose. [Menyanthes indica of Sesse and Mocino, 
not of Linnaeus.] 

Wet sandy soil and in lagoons, northern coastal plain and near Humacao, Porto 
Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; continental tropical America. Water 
Snowflake. 



86 APOCYNACEAE 

Family 5. APOCYNACEAE Lindl. 

Dogbane Family. 

Perennial herbs, shrubs, vines, or some tropical genera trees, mostly with 
an acrid milky juice, with simple estipulate leaves, and perfect regular 5- 
parted flowers. Calyx inferior, persistent, the lobes imbricated in the bud. 
Corolla gamopetalous, its lobes convolute in the bud and often twisted. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, alternate with them, inserted on 
the tube or throat; anthers 2-celled; pollen-grains simple. Ovary superior, 
or its base adherent to the calyx, of 2 distinct carpels, or 1-celled with 2 
parietal placentae, or 2-celled; ovules anatropous or amphitropous ; style 
simple, or 2-divided; stigma simple. Fruit usually of 2 follicles or drupes, 
sometimes of a simple drupe or capsule. Seeds often appendaged; endo- 
sperm fleshy; embryo straight; radicle terete, usually shorter than the 
cotyledons. About 130 genera and 1100 species, very widely distributed, 
mostly in tropical regions. 

A. Anthers free from the stigma, their sacs without basal ap- 

pendages. 

1. Carpels itnited; fruit 1-celled, capsular, echinate. 1. Allamanda. 

2. Carpels distinct (partly united in some species of Rauwol- 

fia). 

a. Seeds many in each carpel. 
Fruit dry, follicular, elongated. 

Seeds in many rows; trees. 2. Plumiera. 

Seeds in only 2 rows; herbs. 3. Catharanthus. 

Fruit fleshy or coriaceous, short. 4. Tabernaemontana. 

b. Seeds only 2 or 4 in each carpel. 

Fruit follicular or drupaceous; leaves opposite or ver- 
ticillate. 
Fruit follicular, armed with hooked bristles; vine. 5. Anechites. 
Fruit short, smooth, drupaceous; shrubs or trees. 6. Rauwolfia. 
Fruit a compressed drupe, wider than long; tree with 

linear alternate leaves. 7. Cerbera. 

B. Anthers attached to the stigma, their sacs with basal pro- 

longations ; vines ; fruit follicular. 

1. Anthers included; flowers large. 

Corolla-tube subcylindric. 8. Echiles. 

Corolla-tube funnelform. 

Calyx glandless. 9. Rhabdadenia. 

Calyx many-glandular. 10. Urechites. 

2. Anthers exserted ; flowers small. 11. Forsteronia. 

1. ALLAMANDA L. Mant. 2: 214. 1771. 

Shrubs, trees or woody vines, with opposite or verticillate leaves and large 
flowers in terminal clusters. Calyx 5-parted, the segments lanceolate. Corolla 
funnelform, the tube cylindric, the throat campanulate, bearing ciliate scales 
•within, the 5 bioad lobes sinistrorse. Stamens borne on the throat of the 
corolla; filaments short; anthers lanceolate, free from the stigma, their sacs not 
appendaged. Ovary 1-celled; style filiform; stigma with a basal reflexed annular 
membrane. Capsule compressed, ovate, echinate. Seeds compressed, margined 
or winged. [In honor of F. Allamand, professor in Leyden.] About 12 species, 
the following typical. 

1. Allamanda cathartica L. Mant. 2: 214. 1771. 

Echites verlicillata Sessg & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 39. 1894. 

A shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, the twigs more or less pilose. Leaves verticillate 
in 3's or 4's or the upper opposite, oblong or oblanceolate, subchartaceous, short- 
petioled, 5-12 cm. long, glabrous above, pilose on the stronger veins beneath, 
the apex acuminate, the base narrowed; racemes irregularly several-flowered; 



APOCYNACEAE 87 

calyx-segments oblong-lanceolate, 10-16 mm. long; corolla yellow, 7-9 cm. long, 
the cylindric part of the tube 2-3 cm. long, the limb 6-8 cm. broad, the lobes 
broad and rounded; capsule suborbicular, densely prickly, 4-6 cm. broad, the 
prickles 7-15 mm. long. 

Banks, hillsides and along roads, Porto Rico, Vieques and St. Thomas, mostly 
spontaneous after cultivation; doubtfully native: — widely distributed in the West Indies 
(except Bahamas) and in continental tropical America, and much planted for ornament; 
introduced into the Old World tropics. Canario. Cantiva. Allamanda. 

Allamanda Hendersoni Bull., a woody vine, planted for ornament in 
Porto Eico and the Virgin Islands, has foliage similar to that of A. cathartica but 
much larger flowers. 

2. PLUMIERA L. Sp. PI. 209. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs, with very stout branches, copious milky sap, alternate 
petioled feather-veined leaves, and large bracted flowers in terminal peduncled 
cymes. Calyx small, fleshy, 5-cleft, eglandular. Corolla salverform, the tube 
subcylindric, the 5 lobes sinistrorse. Stamens borne near the base of the corolla- 
tube, included; anthers obtuse, their sacs unappendaged. Carpels 2, distinct; 
ovules many in each carpel ; style very short ; stigma oblong, not annulate, obtusely 
2-lobed at the apex. Follicles 2, coriaceous, usually linear and divaricate, many- 
seeded. Seeds flat, winged, the endosperm fleshy. [Commemorates Charles 
Plumier, a distinguished French botanist, born 1646.] About 45 species, of 
tropical America. Type species: Plumier a rubra L. The plants are known as 
Aleli, Tabeiba and Frangipanni. 

Leaves acute or acuminate. 

Leaves elongated-lanceolate, usually tomentulose beneath. 1. P. alia. 

Leaves elliptic, glabrous. 2. P. rubra. 

Leaves rounded, obtuse or emarginate. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate. 3. P. obtusa. 

Leaves obovate or cuneate-obovate. 

Leaves cuneate-obovate, long-petioled, green on bpth sides. 4. P. Krugii. 
Leaves obovate, short-petioled, whitish beneath. 5. P. portoricensis. 

1. Plumiera alba L. Sp. PI. 210. 1753. 

A tree, with maximum height of about 10 m. Leaves elongated-lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 1-2.5 dm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, glabrous above, 
densely whitish- tomentulose or glabrous and reticulate- veined beneath, the 
secondary veins nearly horizontal, acuminate or obtuse at the apex, narrowed at 
the base, the petioles 1-3 cm. long; peduncles stout, glabrous, as long as the leaves 
or shorter; inflorescence compact, several-many-flowered; pedicels short; calyx 
2-3 mm. long, its lobes rounded ; corolla white with a yellow eye, its tube about 
2 cm. long, its obovate rounded lobes about 3 cm. long; follicles 10-12 cm. long, 
about 1.5 cm. thick. 

Coastal thickets and hillsides, Pcrto Rico, at lower elevations in moist and dry 
districts; Muertos; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; 
Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Anguilla to Grenada; Cayman Islands. The yellowish wood, 
used in carpentry, is hard, tough, heavy and strong. Aleli ctmarron. White Pauct- 
pan. Nosegay Tree. 

2. Plumiera rubra L. Sp. PI. 209. 1753. 

A tree, 5-8 m. high, the young twigs, peduncles and pedicels pubescent. 
Leaves elliptic-oblong to elliptic-obovate, 1.5-4 dm. long, acute or short-acu- 
minate at the apex, narrowed at the base, glabrous on both sides, the lateral 
veins rather distant and widely spreading, the petioles 3-6 cm. long; panicles 
several-many-flowered, mostly shorter than the leaves ; pedicels stout, thickened 



88 APOCYNACEAE 

above, 1.5-3 cm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long; corolla purple or red, 5-7 cm. 
broad, the tube rather shorter than the limb, the lobes broadly elliptic, obtuse; 
follicles 1.5-2.5 cm. long, about 2.5 cm. in diameter. 

Commonly planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, locally spon- 
taneous after cultivation: — widely planted in the West Indies; native of continental 
tropical America. Red Paucipan. 

3. Plumiera obtusa L. Sp. PI. 210. 1753. 

A tree, 4-6 m. high, often flowering when not more than 1.5 m. high, the 
stout twigs, the leaves and the inflorescence glabrous. Leaves oblong to oblong- 
oblanceolate or oblong- obovate, 7-20 cm. long, rounded or emarginate at the 
apex, mostly narrowed or somewhat cuneate at the base, the lateral veins nearly 
straight and rather widely spreading, the slender petioles 2-6 cm. long; panicles 
few-several-flowered; peduncle as long as the leaves or shorter; pedicels short; 
calyx about 3 mm. long; corolla white with a yellow eye, the lobes obovate or 
oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, 1.5-2 cm. long, about as long as the tube; 
follicles 7-12 cm. long, about 1 cm. in diameter. 

Rocky soil, Mona; St. Croix (according to West); — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

4. Plumiera Krugii Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 387. 1899. 

A glabrous small tree, 4-6 m. high. Leaves obovate, 6-15 cm. long, sub- 
coriaceous, the lateral veins ascending, the apex rounded, subtruncate or emar- 
ginate, rarely apiculate, the base cuneate, the slender petioles about 5.5 cm. 
long or shorter, both surfaces green; peduncles rather stout, 6-12 cm. long; 
inflorescence dense, several-many-flowered ; pedicels short ; calyx-teeth short and 
broad; follicles 10-15 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. thick; seeds 3-3.5 cm. long, the thin 
wing about as long as the body. 

Mountain slopes, especially on serpentine, western districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

5. Plumiera portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 387. 1899. 

Leaves obovate, about 7 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, whitish green beneath, 
the lateral veins nearly horizontal, the apex rounded, the base narrowed, the 
petioles only about 5 mm. long; peduncle 10-12 cm. long; corolla-tube dark 
violet, the lobes 3-3.5 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, white with a yellow base. [P. 
obtusa of Bello, not o/ Linnaeus.] 

Described by Urban from a painting by Krug of a plant from western Porto Rico; 
known to us only from the description. 

Plumiera Tenorii Gasp., recorded by Stahl as formerly in a garden at 
Mayaguez, Porto Rico, resembles P. rubra, but the corolla is white, with a 
yellow tube and throat. 

3. CATHARANTHUS G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 95. 1838. 

Herbs or low shrubs, with opposite leaves, and large axillary flowers, solitary 
or 2 together. Calyx eglandular, 5-cleft, the lobes narrow. Corolla salverform, 
its cylindric tube slightly enlarged above, its 5 broad lobes sinistrorse. Stamens 
included ; anthers not appendaged. Disk of 2 large glands. Carpels 2, distinct; 
style very slender; stigma thick, pilose; ovules many in each carpel. Follicles 
narrowly cylindric, many-seeded. Seeds small, unappendaged. [Greek, pure 
flower.] Three known species, the following typical one native of tropical 
America, widely distributed through cultivation, one East Indian, the other of 
Madagascar. 



APOCYNACEAE 89 

1. Catharanthus roseus (L.) Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 95. 1838. 

Vinca rosea L. Syst. ed. 10, 944. 1759. 
Lochnera rosea Rchb. Consp. 134. 1828. 
Ammocallis rosea Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 936. 1903. 

Somewhat woody, usually branched, pubescent, 8 dm. high or less. Leaves 
oblong to oblong-oblanceolate, 3-8 cm. long, obtuse or retuse at the apex, mucro- 
nulate, narrowed at the base into short petioles; peduncles very short, pubescent; 
calyx-lobes linear-subulate, 3-4 mm. long, pubescent; corolla white or pink, the 
finely pubescent tube 2.5-3 cm. long, the oblique lobes somewhat shorter than 
the tube; follicles cylindric, pubescent, 2-3 cm. long. 

Coastal sands, waste grounds and roadsides, Porto Rico, escaped from cultivation 
and locally naturalized; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — 
Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Widely 
planted for ornament. Flor de todo el ano. Periwinkle. Church-flower. 

4. TABERNAEMONTANA L. Sp. PI. 210. 1753. 

Mostly glabrous trees or shrubs, with opposite pinnately veined leaves and 
rather large cymose flowers. Calyx short, 5-lobed, glanduliferous at the base 
within, the lobes obtuse, imbricated. Corolla salverform, the tube nearly cylin- 
dric, the 5 lobes sinistrorsely contorted. Stamens borne on the corolla-tube; 
anthers sagittate, their sacs unappendaged. Carpels 2; ovules numerous; style 
short or slender; stigma with an annular membrane at the base. Fruiting 
carpels short, coriaceous or fleshy, indehiscent. [Commemorates J. T. Tabernae- 
montanus, German botanist, died 1590.] Perhaps 150 species, of tropical dis- 
tribution. Type species: Tabernaemontana citrifolia L. 

1. Tabernaemontana oppositifolia (Spreng.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 493 
1910. 

Rauwolfia oppositifolia Spreng. Neue Entd. 3: 33. 1822. 
Anabata odorata Spreng. Syst. 1: 582. 1825. 
Tabernaemontana Berterii DC. Prodr. 8: 367. 1844. 

A tree up to 12 m. high, or shrubby, glabrous throughout. Leaves elliptic 
or oblong to obovate-elliptic, chartaceous, shining, 6-18 cm. long, acute or 
abruptly acuminate at the apex, narrowed or cuneate at the base, the unequal 
petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; cymes few-several-flowered, loose; pedicels 
slender, 5-20 mm. long; calyx about 5 mm. long, its lobes ovate; corolla white, 
its tube 10-13 mm. long, its oblong-obovate lobes about as long. [T. citrifolia 
of Bello and of Stahl, not of Jacquin.] 

Woods and forests in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico. Endemic. Palo de 

LECHOSO. PEGOGE. 



Tabernaemontana coronaria (Jacq.) Willd., Crape Jasmine, of unknown 
origin, planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a glabrous 
shrub, with bright green, opposite, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate leaves 
7-15 cm. long, and cymose, white, usually double flowers about 3 cm. broad. 
[Nerium coronarium Jacq. ; (?) Tabernaemontana macrophylla of Krebs.] 

Tabernaemontana nereifolia Vahl, recorded by Vahl as found in Porto 
Rico by von Rohr, and otherwise unknown (Vahl, Eclog. 2: 21. 1798), is a 
lost species, no known specimen being extant. From the description it would 
appear that the plant may not be of this genus. 



90 APOCYNACEAE 

A species of Tabemaemontana was found in thickets at Frenchman's Bay, 
St. Thomas, prior to 1876, according to Eggers, who doubtfully recorded it as 
T. citrifolia L. ; search for it there in 1913 was fruitless. 

5, ANECHITES Griseb. PL Br. W. I. 410. 1861. 

A slender scabrous twining vine, with opposite petioled leaves, the rather 
small white flowers in loose long-peduncled racemiform clusters opposite the 
leaves. Calyx small, 5-cleft, glanduliferous at the base within. Corolla salver- 
form, the tube subcylindric, contracted at the throat, the 5 lobes sinistrorse. 
Stamens borne at about the middle of the corolla-tube; anthers oblong, their 
sacs unappendaged. Carpels 2, distinct. Style filiform; stigma annulate at base ; 
ovules few or several. Follicles linear, stipitate, terete, densely pubescent with 
stiff partly reflexed hairs above. [Greek, not Echites.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Anechites Nerium (Aubl.) Urban, Repert. 16: 150. 1919. 

Apocynum Nerium Aubl. PL Guian. 1: 277; 2: Table des Noms 3. 1775. 

Echites lappulacea Lam. Encycl. 2: 341. 17S6. 

Echites asperuginis Sw. Prodr. 52. 1788. 

Anechites asperuginis Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 410. 1861. 

Anechites lappulacea Miers. Apoc. S. A. 237. 1878. 

Stem up to 10 m. long, sparingly pubescent with short stiff hairs. Leaves 
oblong-ovate, 5—10 cm. long, membranous, pinnately veined, scabrous, Avith 
scattered short, thick-based hairs above, sparingly pubescent on the midvein 
beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or cordate, the slender 
petioles 1-2 cm. long; peduncles slender, elongated, 1-1.5 dm. long; flowers few 
or several; pedicels nearly filiform, 8-15 mm. long, calyx 2-3 mm. long; corolla- 
tube about 6 mm. long, the limb 12-15 mm. broad; follicles 6-8 cm. long, spar- 
ingly pubescent below, hispid above. 

Collected by Stahl near Vega Baja, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Colombia; Ecuador. 

6. RAUWOLFIA L. Sp. PL 208. 1753. 

Shi ubs or trees with whorled or opposite leaves and small flowers in peduncled 
cymes. Calyx eglandular, 5-cleft or 5-parted. Corolla salverform, the tube 
subcylindric, the 5 lobes sinistrorse. Stamens included; anthers obtuse, their 
sacs not appendaged. Disc annular or cup-shaped. Carpels 2, distinct or con- 
nate; style filiform; stigma thick, annular or with a reflexed membrane at the 
base; ovules 2 in each carpel. Fruit of 2 drupes, usually connate, the fruit thus 
usually emarginate and 2-grooved. Seeds ovoid with fleshy endosperm. [Com- 
memorates Leonh. Rauwolf, a German botanist.] Forty species or more, natives 
of tropical regions and of South America. Type species: Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. 

Fruit 8-12 mm. broad; leaves shining. 1. R. tetraphylla. 

Fruit 5-7 mm. broad; leaves dull. 2. R. Lamarckii. 

1. Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. Sp. PL 208. 1753. 

Rauwolfia nitida Jacq. Enum. 14. 1760. 
Rauwolfia lanceolata A. DC. Prodr. 8: 337. 1844. 

A glabrous tree, up to 20 m. high, or shrubby, the twigs slender. Leaves 
oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, verticillate in 4's or some 
of them opposite, acuminate or acute at the apex, tapering at the base, shining 
above, rather dull beneath, the lateral veins numerous, widely spreading, the 



APOCYNACEAE 91 

petioles 6-12 mm. long ; peduncles shorter than the leaves ; cymes many-flowered ; 
pedicels very short; calyx 2 mm. long, its lobes ovate; corolla white, its tube 2-3 
times as long as the calyx, its lobes about one-half as long as the tube ; fruit 1—1.5 
cm. broad, 8-12 mm. high, red, its lobes ovoid, rounded. 

Thickets, hillsides and woodlands at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; Mona; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
recorded from St. Barts. Cachinho. Palo amargo. Milk Bush. 

2. Rauwolfia Lamarckii A. DC. Prodr. 8: 337. 1844. 

A branching shrub, 1-3 m. high, the twigs and leaves glabrous, the inflores- 
cence glabrous or sparingly pubescent. Leaves oblong to elliptic, 4-10 cm. long, 
pinnately veined, verticillate in 3's or 4's, membranous, dull, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 4-7 mm. long; peduncles shorter than 
the leaves; cymes several-many-flowered; pedicels short; calyx about 1.5 mm. 
long, its lobes ovate to lanceolate, acute; corolla white, its tube about 2 mm. long, 
its lobes nearly as long; fruit 5-7 mm. broad, nearly black. 

Coastal thickets, eastern districts of Porto Rico; Tcacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — Cuba (?); Hispaniola; St. Martin to Tobago; 
Margarita; Venezuela. Bitter Bush. 

A specimen of Rauwolfia canescens L., preserved in the Torrey Herbarium, is an- 
notated as collected in St. Thomas by Perrin, without date, but doubtless many years 
ago; as the species is not otherwise known from Porto Rico or the Virgin Islands, the 
record is believed to be erroneous. It differs from B. Lamarckii by densely tomentulose 
leaves and obtuse calyx-lobes. 

7. CERBERA L. Sp. PI. 208. 1753. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with alternate, 1-nerved and pinnately veined 
leaves, and large yellow flowers in terminal peduncled cymes. Calyx 5-parted, 
many-glandular within at the base. Corolla funnelform, the tube cylindric 
below, bearing pilose scales at the top within, abruptly expanded into a campanu- 
late throat, the 5 broad rounded lobes sinistrorse. Stamens borne with the 
scales at the top of the tube ; anther-sacs unappendaged. Disk wanting. Ovary 
2-lobed, 2-celled; style filiform; stigma discoid, its small tip 2-lobed; ovules 2 in 
each cavity of the ovary. Fruit a compressed drupe, broader than high, the 
flesh thin, the bony endocarp 2-celled. Seeds with a thick testa and no endo- 
sperm. [Named for Cerberus, the three-headed dog of mythology.] About 7 
species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Cerbera Ahouai L. 

1. Cerbera Thevetia L. Sp. PI. 209. 1753. 

Thevetia nereifolia Juss.; Steud. Nom. ed. 2, 2: 680. 1841. 
Thevetia Thevetia Millsp. Field. Mus. Bot. 2: 83. 1900. 

A shrub, or small tree up to about 10 m. high, glabrous throughout, the twigs 
rather stout, densely leafy. Leaves linear, 7-15 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, nar- 
rowed at both ends, very nearly sessile, bright green and shining above, rather 
dull beneath, the midvein prominent, the lateral venation obscure; calyx-segments 
about 7 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; corolla yellow, about 7 cm. long, 
funnelform with the tube shorter than the limb; drupe triangular-compressed, 
3-4 cm. broad, about 2 cm. high, and 1-1.5 cm. thick, nearly truncate, the flesh 
thin. 

Coastal thickets, Porto Rico, and commonly planted for ornament and interest; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America. 
Milk Tree. Cabalonga. Lucky-nut. 



92 APOCYNACEAE 

8. ECHITES Jacq. Enum. 2, 13. 1760. 

Twining, somewhat woody vines, with opposite petioled leaves, and rather 
large flowers in cymes. Calyx 5-lobed, glandular. Corolla salverform, the 
cylindric tube somewhat swollen, the lobes spreading. Stamens included, the 
anthers appendaged at the base. Fruit of 2 follicles, many-seeded. [Greek, an 
adder, referring to the twining stem.] About 40 species, of tropical and sub- 
tropical America. Type species: Tabernaemontana Echites L. 

1. Echites agglutinata Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

Echites circinalis Sw. Prod'r. 52. 1788. 

Echites obtusifolia Sessg & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 42. 1894. 

A glabrous vine, up to 7 m. long or longer. Leaves ovate to elliptic or ovate- 
orbicular, chartaceous, 4-10 cm. long, pinnately veined, the apex short-acuminate 
or mucronate, the base rounded, obtuse or narrowed, the petioles 2 cm. long or 
shorter; peduncles shorter than or as long as the leaves; cymes racemiform, few- 
flowered; pedicels short, stout; calyx-lobes ovate, acute; corolla greenish, its 
tube about 6 mm. long, its lobes nearly as long; follicles linear, 10-17 cm. long. 
[E. umbellata of Bello and of Stahl, not of Jacquin.] 

Thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, most abundant in dry dis- 
tricts; Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Hispaniola. Babeiro. 

Echites Echites (L.) Britton was erroneously recorded from Porto Rico 
by Grisebach, by Bello and by Stahl, and this error was carried into the "Bahama 
Flora." [Tabernaemontana Echites L. ; Echites umbellata Jacq.] 

Echites nitida Vahl, recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, is a South 
American species. 

Echites thomasiana DC. is unpublished, appearing in Krebs' list of plants 
found in St. Thomas, and not identified. 

9. RHABDADENIA Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 1 : 173. 1860. 

Woody vines, rarely erect shrubs, with opposite petioled leaves, and large 
flowers in small racemes, or solitary. Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla tubular-campanu- 
late, with a cylindric base and a spreading 5-lobed limb, the lobes broad, dextrorse. 
Stamens short, included, borne near the top of the corolla-tube ; anthers oblong, 
connivent around the stigma, the sacs with short obtuse appendages at the base. 
Carpels 2, distinct; style slender; stigma thick, its base dilated into a reflexed 
membrane; ovules many in each carpel. Follicles linear, parallel or little diver- 
gent, many-seeded. Seeds linear, comose. [Greek, wand-gland; probably 
referring to the fruit.] About 10 species, of Florida, the West Indies and South 
America. Type species: Rhabdadenia Pohlii Muell. Arg. 

1. Rhabdadenia bifiora (Jacq.) Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 1 : 175. 1860. 

Echites bifiora Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

A glabrous vine, 3-8 m. long, the branches slender, terete. Leaves oblong 
to elliptic, oblanceolate or obovate, somewhat fleshy, 5-10 cm. long, faintly pin- 
nately veined, the apex acute or obtuse, apiculate, sometimes emarginate, the 
base narrowed, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; peduncles as long as the 



APOCYNACEAE 93 

leaves or shorter, 1-few-flowered ; calyx short, its ovate lobes acute ; corolla white, 
5-6 cm. long, the cylindric part about 2 cm. long: follicles 10-12 cm. long. 

Mangrove swamps, Porto Rico; St. Thomas (ex Krebs): — Guadeloupe to Trinidad 
and northern South America. Mangrove Vine. 

10. URECHITES Muell. Arg. Linnaea 30: 440. 1860. 

Somewhat woody, twining vines, with opposite petioled leaves, and large 
mostly yellow, cymose flowers. Calyx-lobes 5, narrow; calyx- tube glandular 
within. Corolla cylindric below, expanded into a narrowly campanulate throat, 
the limb 5-lobed, somewhat spreading. Anthers appendaged at the base, partly 
adherent to the stigma. Fruit of 2 long linear follicles. Seeds narrow, comose. 
[Greek, tailed-.Ec/iiZes.] A few species, of tropical America. Type species: 
Urechites Karwinskii Muell. Arg. 

1. Urechites lutea (L.) Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 5: 316. 1907. 

Vinca lutea L. Cent. PI. 2, 12. 1756. 
Echites suberecta Jacq'. Enum. 13. 1760. 
Echites barbala Desv. in Ham. Prodr. 30. 1825. 
Echites Catesbaei G. Don. Syst. 4: 74. 1838. 
Echites Andrewsii Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. 359. 1860. 
Echites neriandra Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 415. 1861. 
Urechites Andrewsii Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 936. 1903. 

Pubescent or glabrous, slender, often 3 m. long or more. Leaves oblong to 
obovate or suborbicular, herbaceous, 2-8 cm. long dark green above, pale green 
beneath, mostly obtuse at the apex and narrowed at the base, the slender petioles 
about 1 cm. long; cymes few-several-flowered; pedicels slender; calyx-lobes nar- 
rowly lanceolate, acuminate, 8-12 mm. long; corolla yellow, 3^1 cm. long; anthers 
mostly tipped by filiform appendages; follicles linear, 10-15 cm. long, 4-5 mm. 
thick. 

Thickets, along and near the coasts, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Anegada: — Florida; West Indies, south to St. Kitts, and 
recorded from St. Vincent. Babiero amarillo. 

11. FORSTERONIA G. F. W. Meyer, Prin. Fl. Esseq. 133. 1818. 

Woody vines, with opposite, pinnately veined leaves and small flowers in 
terminal corymbose or panicled cymes. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla salverform, 
or subcampanulate, the tube short, the limb 5-lobed. Stamens borne on the 
corolla-tube, with short filaments, the oblong-sagittate anthers with appendaged 
sacs. Carpels 2, distinct; style short; stigma ovoid. Follicles elongated, sub- 
terete, slender. Seeds linear, with an apical coma. [Commemorates Forly 
Forster.] Thirty species or more, natives of tropical America, the following 
typical. 

1. Forsteronia corymbosa (Jacq.) G. F. W. Meyer, Prim. Fl. Ess. 134. 1818. 

Echites corymbosa Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

High-climbing, up to 7 m. long or longer, the branches terete, the foliage 
glabrous. Leaves oval or elliptic, coriaceous, 4-8 cm. long, rather dark green, 
shining above, the apex acute or obtuse, the base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 
8 mm. long or less; cymes corymbose, many-flowered, puberulent or glabrous, 
4—8 cm. broad; pedicels short, rather stout; calyx-lobes oblong, obtuse, 1.5-2 mm. 
long; corolla red or purple, about 6 mm. long, the oblong lobes longer than the 



94 ASCLEPIADACEAE 

tube; anthers yellow, somewhat exserted; follicles straight, about 8 cm. long. 
[F. fioribunda of Cook and Collins.] 

Woods, thickets and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to higher 
elevations: — Cuba; Hispaniola; recorded from Guiana. Bejuco de San Juan. Leche 

DE PERRA. SANJUANERA. 

Arduina grandiflora E. Meyer, Natal Plum, South African, occasionally 
grown in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands for its edible fruit, is a glabrous shrub, 
about 2 m. high, with forked spines 2-5 cm. long, ovate thick glabrous, short- 
petioled leaves 2-7 cm. long, the white flowers solitary or in terminal cymes, the 
corolla-lobes dextrorsely contorted, the ovoid pointed red berry 2.5-5 cm. long. 
[Carissa grandiflora A. DC] 

Arduina Carandas (L.) Britton, East Indian, was experimentally planted 
at the Insular Agricultural Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, in 1923. [Carissa 
Carandas L.] 

Strophanthus gratus (Wall. & Hook.) Baill., native of western tropical 
Africa, seen as a tree about 4 m. high in gardens at St. Thomas in 1923, has glabrous 
oblong, short-petioled, coriaceous leaves 6-10 cm. long with few divergent lateral 
veins, the showy flowers terminal, the campanulate calyx about 12 mm. long, the 
corolla with a crimson campanulate tube about 3 cm. long and a spreading light 
purple limb about 6 cm. broad. [Roupellia grata Wall. & Hook.] 

Nerium Oleander L., Adelfa, Laurel rosado, Oleander, Oriental, 
commonly planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a shrub, 
2-5 m. high with narrowly oblong leaves 7-13 cm. long, opposite or whorled in 
3's, glabrous, the apex acuminate or acute; the pink or white often double flowers 
are in terminal cymes, the corolla 3-5 cm. broad; the follicles are linear, straight, 
10-17 cm. long. It has been reported as spontaneous in Porto Rico, but we have 
not observed it except where planted. 

Family 6. ASCLEPIADACEAE Lindl. 

Milkweed Family. 

Perennial herbs, vines or shrubs, mostly with milky juice, with estipulate 
leaves, and cymose or umbellate, perfect regular flowers. Calyx inferior, 
its tube very short, or none, its segments imbricated or separate in the bud. 
Corolla campanulate, urceolate, rotate or funnelform, 5-lobed or 5-cleft, 
the segments commonly reflexed. A 5-lobed or 5-parted crown (corona) 
between the corolla and the stamens and adnate to one or the other. Sta- 
mens 5, inserted on the corolla; filaments short, stout, mostly monadelphous, 
or distinct; anthers attached by their bases to the filaments, introrsely 2- 
celled, connivent around the stigma, or more or less united with each other; 
anther-sacs tipped with an inflexed or erect scarious membrane, or unap- 
pendaged at the top, sometimes appendaged at the base; pollen coherent into 
waxy or granular masses, one or rarely two such masses in each sac, con- 
nected with the stigma in pairs or fours, by 5 glandular corpuscles alternate 
with the anthers. Disk none. Ovary of 2 carpels; styles 2, short, connected 
at the summit by the peltate discoid stigma; ovules numerous in each carpel, 
mostly anatropous, pendulous. Fruit of 2 follicles. Seeds compressed, 
usually appendaged by a long coma; endosperm cartilaginous; embryo 
nearly as long as the seed; cotyledons flat. About 220 genera and 2,000 
species, of wide distribution. 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 95 

A. Erect herbs, sometimes a little woody. 

Corolla-lobes reflexed; crown-segments with a horn-like process 

within. 1. Asclepias. 

Corolla-lobes spreading; crown-segments spurred near the base. 2. Calotropis. 

B. Twining vines. 

1. Stigmas not bind. 

a. Crown single. 

Stigma without a central appendage. 

Pollinia pendulous; slender vines. 3. Metaslelma. 

Polhnia erect. 

Corolla campanulate. 4. Marsdenia. 

Corolla rotate. 5. Hoya. 

Stigma with a long central filiform appendage. 6. Ibatia. 

b. Crown double. 

Polhnia pendulous. 7. Funastrum. 

Pollinia horizontal or nearly so. 8. Vincetoxicum. 

2. Stigmas deeply bifid; crown 5-scaled. 9. Oxypetalum. 

1. ASCLEPIAS L. Sp. PI. 214. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, with entire leaves, and middle-sized or small flowers in 
umbels. Calyx 5-parted or 5-divided, usually small, segments or sepals acute, 
often glandular within. Corolla deeply 5-parted, the segments mostly valvate, 
reflexed in anthesis. Corona-column generally present. Corona of 5 concave 
hoods, each bearing within a slender or subulate incurved horn. Filaments 
connate into a tube; anthers tipped with an inflexed membrane, winged, the 
wings broadened below; pollen-masses (pollinia) solitary in each sac, pendulous 
on their caudicles. Stigma nearly flat, 5-angled or 5-lobed. Follicles acuminate. 
Seeds comose in all but one species. [Dedicated to Aesculapius.] About 95 
species, mostly natives of the New World. Type species: Asclepias syriaca L. 

Corolla red or yellow. 1. A. curassavica. 

Corolla white. 2. A. nivea. 

1. Asclepias curassavica L. Sp. PI. 215. 1753. 

Asclepias nivea curassavica Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 418. 1891. 
Asclepias nivea flava Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 418. 1891. 
Asclepias curassavica concolor Krug & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 389. 
1899. 

Glabrous, or finely pubescent above, 8 dm. high or less, herbaceous or some- 
what woody. Leaves opposite, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, thin, 5-12 cm. long, 
acute or acuminate, the petioles 5-15 mm. long; umbels usually several, few— 
several-flowered; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; corolla-lobes red-purple, rarely yellow, 
6-8 mm. long, ovate to oblong; column distinct; hoods erect, ovate, about 4 mm. 
high, obtuse, flattened, shorter than the flat, curved horn; fruiting pedicels erect; 
follicles fusiform, glabrous or minutely pubescent, 3-10 cm. long; seeds 6 mm. 
long, the coma 3-4 mm. long. 

Banks, thickets, fields and waste grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southeastern United States; 
Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America. Algodoncillo. Red Milkweed. 
Wild or Bastard Ipecac. Bloodflower. 

2. Asclepias nivea L. Sp. PI. 215. 1753. 

Closely resembling the preceding species in height, habit, foliage, in in- 
florescence and fruit, the leaves sometimes broader, lanceolate to ovate. Corolla- 
lobes white. 

Banks, fields and waste grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, often 
seen in proximity to A. curassavica and a form intermediate between the two has been 
recorded: St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin; Saba; Martinique. 



96 ASCLEPIADACEAE 

2. CALOTROPIS R. Br. in Ait. f. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2: 78. 1811. 

Shrubs or trees, with broad, nearly sessile, opposite leaves, and rather large 
flowers in terminal or axillary umbel- like cymes. Calyx 5-parted, bearing several- 
many glands at the base within. Corolla subrotate, 5-cleft, with broad lobes; 
corona-scales 5, fleshy, adnate to the stamen-tube, lobed or toothed, short- 
spurred. Stamens borne at the base of the corolla; filaments connate, forming a 
short tube; anthers tipped by an inflexed membrane; pollinia solitary in each 
sac, pendulous. Follicles thick, pointed. Seeds comose. [Greek, beautiful 
keel.] Three species, natives of the Old World tropics, the following typical. 

1. Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. in Ait. f. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2: 78. 1811. 

Asclepias procera Ait. Hort. Kew. l: 305. 1789. 

Arboreous, 1-5 m. high, branched, with the aspect of a gigantic herb. Leaves 
obovate-oblong to broadly elliptic or nearly orbicular, mostly cuspidate at the 
apex, cordate at the base, white-felted when young, glabrous when old; the stout 
petiole 1 cm. long or less; cymes 5-8 cm. broad, several-many-flowered, on stout 
peduncles 4-8 cm. long; pedicels 1-3 cm. long ; calyx-segments ovate, about 4 mm. 
long; corolla white, tinged with violet, 2-2.5 cm. broad; follicles swollen, 3-8 cm. 
long. [Calotropis gigantea of Krebs.] 

Fields, hillsides and waste grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St Jan: — West Indies; continental tropical America. Native of the Old World tropics. 
Sometimes grown for ornament in the Virgin Islands. Algodon de seda. Giant 
Milkweed. Mudar. 

Calotropis aspera R. Br., a name listed by Krebs for a plant found in 
St. Thomas, can not be traced, as there is no such published species. 

3. METASTELMA R. Br. Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 52. 1809. 

Slender perennial vines, with small opposite leaves, and small or minute 
white or greenish flowers in axillary cymes. Calyx-lobes 5, usually with a gland 
in each sinus. Corolla subrotate or campanulate, rather deeply 5-lobed. Corona 
simple, 5-parted, its segments narrow. Pollinia waxy. Gynostegium sessile or 
stipitate. Stigma flat. Follicles small, slender, smooth. [Greek, referring to 
the parted corona.] Fifty species or more, natives of tropical and subtropical 
America. Type species: Cynanchum parvifiorum Sw. 

Plants nearly or quite leafless at flowering time. 1. M. ephedroides. 
Plants leaf-bearing at flowering time. 

Leaves linear to linear-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate. 

Corolla-lobes ovate-lanceolate. 2. M. monense. 
Corolla-lobes oblong-lanceolate. 

Leaves narrowly linear. ■>• £*• linear e. 

Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, apiculate. 4. M. anegadense. 
Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate. 

Gynostegium long-stipitate. 5- M ■ parvifiorum. 
Gynostegium sessile or short-stipitate. . . 

Corona-lobes rhombic-dilated above. 6. M. decipiens. 

Corona-lobes linear. 7. M. Decaisneanum. 

1. Metastelma ephedroides (Griseb.) Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 262. 
1899. 
Amphistelma ephedroides Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 174. 1866. 

Glabrous, essentially leafless at flowering time or bearing a few scattered 
linear leaves 1-1.5 cm. long, the leaves mostly reduced to minute scales. Flowers 
few, in distant cymes; pedicels filiform, puberulent, about 3 mm. long; calyx- 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 97 

lobes oblong, obtuse; corolla-lobes oblong, obtuse, about 3 times as long as the 
calyx, puberulent or glabrous; corona-lobes obtuse; gynostegium sessile; follicles 
4—6 cm. long. [Includes Metastelma filiforme of Schlechter, not of C. Wright.] 

Forests of the central and western mountains of Porto Rico: — Cuba; Hispaniola. 

2. Metastelma monense Britton, sp. nov. 

Glabrous; leaves linear, involute, acute, short-petioled, 8-17 mm. long. 
Cymes few-flowered, sessile; pedicels rather stout, 1-1.5 mm. long; calyx-lobes 
ovate, glabrous, acutish or obtuse, about 1 mm. long; corolla-lobes ovate-lance- 
olate, about 2 mm. long, glabrous without, pubescent within ; corona-lobes oblong- 
lanceolate, about as long as the corolla; gynostegium sessile. 

Limestone rocks, Mona. Type from the limestone plateau at Sardinera (Britton, 
Cowell and Hess 1713). Endemic. 

3. Metastelma lineare Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 292. 1881. 

Glabrous, leafy; leaves linear, acute, 2-4 cm. long. Cymes umbel-like, 
sessile or nearly so, few-several-flowered; pedicels slender, 1.5-2.5 mm. long; 
calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse or acutish, about 1 mm. long; corolla-lobes oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse, pubescent within, about 3 mm. long; corona-lobes linear- 
filiform, erect; gynostegium nearly sessile; follicles about 4 cm. long. 

Thickets and mountain slopes, western districts of Porto Rico. Recorded by Urban 
from Cuba. 

4. Metastelma anegadense Britton, sp. nov. 

Glabrous, about 3 dm. long. Leaves linear-oblong to narrowly oblanceolate, 
1.5-3.5 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide, the apex abruptly acute, the base narrowed, the 
petioles 2 mm. long or shorter. Cymes sessile, few-several-flowered; pedicels 
2-2.5 mm. long; calyx very small, its ovate acute lobes 1 mm. long; corolla green- 
ish yellow, its narrowly lanceolate acute lobes 3 mm. long, glabrous without, 
puberulent within, ciliate; gynostegium sessile. 

Sandy plain, West End, Anegada (Britton and Fishlock 962). Endemic. Recorded 
(Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6: 568, 577) as Astephanus. 

5. Metastelma parviflorum R. Br. Mem. Wern. Soc. l: 52. 1809. 

Metastelma Paralias Dene, in DC. Prodr. 8: 514. 1844. 

Glabrous or nearly so, up to 4 m. long or longer. Leaves ovate to oblong- 
lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, the apex acute, the base rounded, the slender petioles 
4-10 mm. long; cymes sessile or very short-peduncled ; few-flowered; pedicels 2-3 
mm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse, ciliolate, nearly 1 mm. long; corolla-segments 
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, about 2 mm. long, glabrous without, white-puberulent 
along the margins within; corona-lobes linear-spatulate, dilated above, erect; 
gynostegium long stipitate ; follicles 4— 5 cm. long. [M. Schlechtendalii of Eggers 
and of Millspaugh, not of Decaisne.] 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola-; Virgin 
Gorda: — St. Martin; St. Barts; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Dominica; Trinidad; 
Margarita. Apparently distinct from the following species by its long-stipitate gyno- 
stegium, otherwise similar. 

6. Metastelma decipiens Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 249. 1899. 

Metastelma fallax Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 249. 1899. 

Glabrous; leaves ovate to ovate oblong, 1.5-3 cm. long, the apex acute, the 
base rounded, the petioles 2-6 mm. long. Cymes few-flowered, sessile or short- 




98 ASCLEPIADACEAE 

peduncled; pedicels 2-3 mm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse; corolla-lobes oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, puberulent along the margins within, about 2 mm. long, 
2-3 times as long as the calyx; corona-lobes linear-spatulate, erect; gynostegium 
sessile or nearly so. [Gonolobus pubescens of Stahl, not of Grisebach; Vince- 
toxicum pubescens of Cook and Collins.] 

Thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; Icacos (?); St. Thomas: — 
Tobago. 

7. Metastelma Decaisneanum Schlechtcr in Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 250. 1899. 

Metastelma Grisebachianum Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 469. 1908. 

Glabrous or very nearly so, or the young shoots puberulent. Leaves ovate 
to oblong-ovate, the apex acute or apiculate, the base rounded, the petioles 2-5 
mm. long; cymes sessile or very short-peduncled, few-several-flowered; pedicels 
2-5 mm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse, puberulent or ciliolate, less than 1 mm. 
long ; corolla-lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse, nearly 2 mm. long, glabrous or puberulent 
within; corona-lobes linear; gynostegium sessile. [M. parviflorum of Decaisne, 
not of R. Brown; M. albiflorum of Schlechter, not of Grisebach.] 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Guadeloupe; 
Martinique; St. Vincent. Perhaps not distinct from the preceding species. 

4. MARSDENIA R. Br. Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 28. 1809. 

Twining vines, or shrubs, the leaves opposite, the rather small flowers In 
terminal or axillary umbel-like cymes. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla mostly cam- 
panulate, 5-lobed or 5-cleft, the lobes obtuse. Corona-scales 5, erect, flat. 
Stamens borne near the base of the corolla; filaments connate; pollinia oblong or 
ovoid, erect. Stigma flat, convex or rostrate. Follicles smooth, sometimes 
winged. Seeds comose. [Commemorates William Marsden, English traveller.] 
About 70 species, natives of tropical regions. Type species : Marsdenia tinctoria 
R. Br. 

1. Marsdenia elliptica Dene, in DC. Prodr. 8: 616. 1844. 

Twining. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, thick, acuminate, the margins 
reflexed; peduncles shorter than the petioles; cymes dense; corolla glabrous, its 
lobes erect; corona-scales dilated below, attenuate above; stigma apiculate. 

Forests, Sierra de Luquillo, collected only by "Wydler and by Sintenis. Endemic. 
Erroneously recorded by Schlechter from Cuba. 

5. HOYA R. Br. Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 26. 1809. 

Vines, sometimes climbing by aerial roots, the leaves broad, opposite, the 
rather large flowers in axillary umbel-like cymes. Calyx 5-parted, 5-glandular 
at the base within, the segments ovate or lanceolate. Corolla fleshy, rotate, 
deeply 5-cleft, the lobes valvate. Corona-scales 5, spreading. Stamens borne 
at the base of the corolla, the filaments connate; anthers connivent over the 
stigma; pollinia oblong, erect. Stigma flat or apiculate. Follicles smooth. 
[Commemorates Thomas Hoy, English horticulturist.] Sixty species or more, 
natives of the Old World tropics, the following -typical. 

1. Hoya carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. Mem. Wern. Soc. 1: 27. 1809. 

Asclepias carnosa L. f. Suppl. 170. 1781. 

A very fleshy glabrous or puberulent vine, up to 3 m. long or longer. Leaves 
ovate to oblong-elliptic, 6-13 cm. long, the apex acute, the base narrowed, the 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 99 

petioles 1-2 cm. long; cymes usually many-flowered, short-peduncled ; pedicels 
slender, 2-3 cm. long; flowers white, waxy, fragrant, about 15 mm. broad. 

Naturalized in thickets, Louisenhoj and MafoUe, St. Thomas: — native of tropical 
Asia. Widely planted for ornament in tropical America. Flor de cera. Wax-plant, 

6. IBATIA Dene, in DC. Prodr. 8: 599. 1844. 

Twining woody vines, with cordate leaves, and small purplish or white 
flowers in subaxillary sessile cymes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments ovate or 
lanceolate. Corolla rotate, 5-parted. Corona simple, denticulate. Gynoste- 
gium short, sessile, anthers obliquely dehiscent; pollinia pendulous. Stigma 
pentagonal, with a central filiform appendage. Follicles ovoid, tuberculate. 
[West Indian name.] A few species, of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Ibatia maritima (Jacq.) Dene, in DC. Prodr. 8: 599. 1844. 

Asclepias maritima Jacq. Enum. 17. 1760. 
Cynanchum maritimum Jacq. Sel. Amer. 83. 1763. 
Ibatia muricata Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 421. 1861. 

Tomentose, 2-6 m. long, often high-climbing. Leaves broadly ovate, 
acuminate, deeply cordate, membranous, slender-petioled, 10 cm. long or less; 
cymes few-several-flowered; pedicels short; calyx-segments ovate-lanceolate, 
obtuse, about 2 mm. long, villous; corolla-segments ovate-oblong, obtuse, about 
4 mm. long; corona 15-denticulate ; follicles 4—7 cm. long, villous-pubescent and 
tuberculate with short blunt stipitate processes. 

Woods and thickets along and near the dry southern coast of Porto Rico; Desecheo; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Cuba (?); 
Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; Curacao and northern South America. Illustrated 
by Cook & Collins (pi. 60) as Vincetoxicum sp. Popon. Beach Milk-vine. 

7. FUNASTRUM Fourn. Ann. Sci. Nat. VI. 14: 388. 1882. 
[Philibertella Vail, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 305. 1897.] 

Twining vines, with o pposite leaves and cymose axillary flowers, their buds 
5-angled. Calyx small, 5-parted. Corolla subrotate or widely campanulate, 
5-lobed. Corona double, the exterior one annular, adnate to the base of the 
corolla, the interior one of 5 scales. Stamens borne on the base of the corolla, 
the filaments united into a short tube, the anthers with a terminal inflexed mem- 
brane. Pollinia solitary in each cell, oblong, waxy. Follicles elongated, smooth. 
[Latin, a starry cord.] About 30 species, of tropical and subtropical America. 
Type species: Asclepias angustissima Anders. 

1. Funastrum clausum (Jacq.) Schlechter, Repert. 13: 283. 1914. 

Asclepias clausa Jacq. Enum. 17. 1760. 

Asclepias viminalis Sw. Prodr. 53. 1788. 

Sarcostemma Swartzianum R. & S. Syst. 6: 115. 1820. 

Sarcostemma Brownei Meyer; Spreng. Syst. 1: 854. 1825. 

Philibertia clausa Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzf. 4 2 : 229. 1895. 

Philibertella clausa Vail, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 306. 1897. 

A somewhat fleshy, herbaceous vine often 3 m. long or longer. Leaves 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, short-petioled, 3-8 cm. long, gla- 
brous, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base; 
peduncles glabrous, longer than the leaves; umbels several-flowered; pedicels 
slender, puberulent, 7-12 mm. long; calyx puberulent, 4 mm. long, its lobes 



100 ASCLEPIADACEAE 

oblong-lanceolate; corolla white, 10-12 mm. broad, its lobes oblong or ovate; 
follicles glabrous, 5-8 cm. long. 

Recorded by West and by Eggers as formerly found in St. Croix, and by Krebs in 
St. Thomas, otherwise unknown within the geographic limits of this Flora: — Florida; 
Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Grenada; continental tropical America. 

8. VINCETOXICUM Walt. Fl. Car. 104. 1788. 

Perennial vines, with opposite usually cordate leaves, and rather large 
flowers in axillary umbel-like cymes or fascicles. Calyx 5-parted or deeply 5-cleft, 
mostly 5-glandular within. Corolla rotate, very deeply 5-parted, the tube very 
short, the segments convolute in the bud. Corona double, annular or cup-shaped, 
adnate to the corolla. Stamens inserted on the base of the corolla, the filaments 
connate; anthers not appendaged, merely tipped, borne along or just under the 
margin of the flat-topped stigma, the sacs more or less transversely dehiscent. 
Pollen-masses solitary in each sac, horizontal or nearly so. Follicles thick, acu- 
minate, smooth, angled or tuberculate. [Greek, subduing poison.] About 75 
species, natives of America. Type species: Vincetoxicum gonocarpum Walt. 

Leaves, at least the larger ones cordate. 

Leaves uniformly ovate to ovate-oblong; corolla-segments 

about 15 mm. long, lanceolate. 1. V. stephanolrichum. 

Lower leaves broadly ovate-lanceolate, upper linear-lanceo- 
late; corolla-segments about 7 mm. long, suborbicular. 2. V. variifolium. 
Leaves rounded or subcordate at base; corolla-segments about 5 

mm. long. 3. V. Sintenisn. 

1. Vincetoxicum stephanotrichum (Griseb.) Britton. 

Gonolobus stephanotrichus Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 177. 1866. 

Stem puberulent or glabrate, high-climbing. Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, 
6-10 cm. long, glabrous, the apex acuminate, the base cordate, the slender petioles 
1.5-4 cm. long; flowers few in sessile fascicles, greenish brown; pedicels pilose, 
about 5 mm. long; calyx-segments lanceolate, acuminate, puberulent, about 5 
mm. long; corolla-segments narrowly lanceolate, about 15 mm. long, pilose with- 
out, long-attenuate, obtusish; outer corona obtusely 5-lobed. 

Forests.in wet moist districts, Porto Rico: — Cuba. 

2. Vincetoxicum variifolium (Schlechter) Britton. 

Gonolobus variifolius Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 286. 1S99. 

High-climbing, the young shoots sparingly puberulent. Leaves various, 
the lower ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, cordate, acuminate, 2 dm. long 
or less, the upper linear-lanceolate, rounded at the base, much smaller; umbels 
short-peduncled in the upper axils ; pedicels strigose, 6-8 mm. long ; calyx-segments 
ovate-lanceolate, about one-fourth as long as the corolla; corolla-segments 6-8 
mm. long, suborbicular, glabrous; outer corona entire. 

Forests and thickets, Sierra de Luquillo and on Monte Cienega near Adjuntas, 
Porto Rico. Endemic. 

3. Vincetoxicum Sintenisii (Schlechter) Britton. 

Gonolobus Sintenisii Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 288. 1899. 

Stems slender, 3 mm. long or longer, the young shoots pubescent. Leaves 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, membranous, 6 cm. long or less, glabrous, the apex 
acute or acuminate, the base rounded or subcordate, the slender petioles 1-2 cm. 
long, fascicles few-flowered, sessile or nearly so at the axils; pedicels puberulent, 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 101 

about 5 mm. long; calyx-segments ovate, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla-segments 
lanceolate, acute, glabrous, about 5 mm. long; outer corona entire. 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in wet districts, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

Urban records a barren specimen, perhaps of this genus, collected by Sintenis 
In forest near Utuado (Sintenis 6492). 

9. OXYPETALUM R. Br.; R. & S. Syst. Veg. 91. 1820. 

Vines or herbs, with opposite leaves, the rather large flowers cymose. Calyx 
5-parted. Corolla with a short campanulate or subglobose tube and 5 narrow 
elongated lobes. Corona-scales 5, erect. Stamens borne on the base of the 
corolla-tube, the filaments connate; anthers with a membranous appendage; 
pollinia oblong, pendulous. Stigma 2-cleft or 2-parted. Follicles smooth or 
tuberculate. [Greek, pointed petals.] About 75 species, mostly natives of 
South America, the following one extending to the West Indies. Type species: 
Oxypetalum Banksii R. & S. 

1. Oxypetalum cordifolium (Vent.) Schlechter in Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 269. 
1899. 

Gothofreda cordifolia Vent. Choix des Plantes 60. 1803. 
Oxypetalum riparium H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 197. 1818. 

A tomentulose twining slender vine, up to 4 m. long or longer. Leaves ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, membranous, 5-10 cm. long, acuminate, deeply cordate, 
puberulent or glabrate above, pubescent beneath, the slender petioles 3 cm. long 
or shorter; cymes axillary, few-flowered; peduncles about as long as the petioles; 
pedicels filiform, shorter than the peduncles; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, 
acute; corolla-lobes linear, 1.5-2 cm. long, much longer than the calyx; follicles 
about 8 cm. long, long-pointed. 

Porto Rico, collected by Read (according to Urban); St. Thomas (according to 
Schlechter): — Jamaica; Cuba; continental tropical America. 

Cryptostegia grandifiora R. Br., Purple Allamanda, Rubber-vine, 
occasionally planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a 
woody, nearly glabrous vine, 3 m. long or longer, with thick elliptic acute leaves 
5-9 cm. long, the purple corolla 5-6 cm. long, the divergent woody follicles 10-12 
cm. long. It has been cidtivated for caoutchouc; its geographical origin is 
unknown. 

Stephanotis fioribunda A. Brongn., Estephanota, Stephanotis, Mada- 
gascar planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a high- 
climbing, glabrous vine, with thick shining elliptic leaves 5-10 cm. long, and 
large white fragrant flowers in peduncled axillary umbels, the salverform corolla 
about 5 cm. long with 5 spreading lobes; the fleshy pod is about 10 cm. long. 
[Marsdenia fioribunda Schlechter.] 

Fischeria crispiflora (Sw.) Schlechter [Cynanchum crispiflorum Sw. ; F. 
scandens DC] was recorded by Eggers as found in forests at Spring-gut, St. 
Croix, but as the species is otherwise known only in Jamaica and Cuba, the 
determination is doubted. 

Stapelia variegata L., of South Africa, a fleshy leafless plant, with clustered 
4-angled stems 5-15 cm. high, often purplish, the large malodorous mottled 



102 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 



pedicelled flowers 5-7 cm. broad, was well established in Mr. A. S, 
collection at Louisenhoj, St. Thomas, in 1924. 



Fairchild's 



Stapelia grandiflora Mass., also successfully grown at Louisenhoj, is similar 
to -S. variegata but larger and with much larger flowers, measured by Mr. Fairchild 
up to over 3 dm. across. 

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) K. Br., an African shrub, was recorded 
by West as cultivated on St. Croix prior to 1793. [Asclepias fruticosa L. 



Fam. 1. CONVOLVULACEAE. 



Fam. 2. 
Fam. 3. 



Fam. 4. 
Fam. 5. 



cuscutaceae. 
Hydrophtllaceae. 



Eheetiaceae. 
boraginaceae. 



Order 5. POLEMONIALES. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Corolla almost always gamopetalous, regular or 
irregular. Stamens adnate to the corolla-tube usually to the middle or 
beyond, as many as the corolla-lobes, or fewer and alternate with them. 
Ovary 1, superior, compound (in Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae deeply 4- 
lobed around the style). 

A. Corolla regular. [See Solanaceae and some Ver- 

Vv f^fl f\ f* f* *\ (\ 1 

1. Ovary not 4-lobed, the carpels not separating 

as distinct nutlets at maturity. 
Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3— 4-celled. 

Leaves and flowers mostly large; plants not 

parasitic. 
Leaves none; flowers very small; slender 
parasitic vines. 
Ovary 1-celled; style 1, 2-lobed, or 2-parted. 

2. Ovary deeply 4-lobed around the style, or not 

lobed; carpels mostly separating as distinct 

nutlets. 
Ovary not lobed ; styles terminal. 
Style arising from between the ovary-lobes. 

B. Corolla irregular, more or less 2-lipped (regular in 
Solanaceae, and nearly or quite so in Verbena and 
Callicarpa and other genera of the Verbenaceae and 

in Scoparia of the Scrophulariaceae). 

1. Carpels 1-2-seeded. 

Ovary not lobed, 2-4-celled, the style apical; 

carpels separating into 1-seeded nutlets or fruit 

drupaceous. 

Ovary 4-lobed around the style, the lobes ripening 

into 1-seeded nutlets. 

2. Carpels several-many-seeded (2-seeded 
in some Acanthaceae). 
JFruit a berry, or more commonly a capsule 
which is 1 -2-celled, 2-valved, circumscissile, 
or irregularly bursting, not elastically de- 
hiscent. 

Flowers regular; fertile stamens 5 (4 in Petunia) ; 

fruit a berry or capsule. 
Flowers more or less irregular; fertile stamens 2 
or 4 (5 in Verbascum) ; fruit a capsule. 
Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-5-celled. 
Ovary 1-celled; marsh or aquatic herbs with 
flowers on scapes. 
Placentae parietal. 

Trees, shrubs, or woody vines; capsule 2-celled, 

or fruit indehiscent. 
Herbs annual or perennial, (or shrubs in 
Gesneriaceae). 
Ovary 2-celled or falsely 4-celled; flowers 

axillary. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Capsule beaked; flowers in terminal 

TclCGITlCS 

Capsule not beaked; flowers variously 
clustered or solitary. 



Fam. 6. 
Fam. 1 . 



verbenaceae. 
Lamiaceae. 



Fam. 


8. 


Solanaceae. 


Fam. 


9. 


Scrophulariaceae 


Fam. 


10. 


Lentlbulariaceae , 


Fam. 


11. 


BlGNONIACEAE. 


Fam. 


12. 


Pedaliaceae. 


Fam. 


13. 


Martyniaceae. 


Fam. 


14. 


Gesneriaceae. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 103 

JJCapsule completely 2-celled, elastically locu- 
licidaUy dehiscent; opposite-leaved herbs and 

shrubs; placentae axile. Fam. 15. Acanthaceae. 

3. Ovary 2-celled with 1 ovule in each cavity; trees 

or shrubs with alternate leaves. Fam. 16. MYOPORACEAE. 

Family 1. CONVOLVULACEAE Vent. 

MORNTNG-GLOKY FAMILY. 

Herbs or vines, some tropical species shrubs or trees, with alternate 
estipulate leaves, and regular perfect axillary cymose or solitary flowers. 
Calyx inferior, 5-parted or 5-divided, usually persistent, the segments or 
sepals imbricated. Corolla gamopetalous, the limb 5-angled, 5-lobed or 
entire. Stamens 5, inserted low down on the tube of the corolla and alternate 
with its lobes, all anther-bearing, the filaments filiform, or dilated at the base; 
anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Disk annular or none. 
Ovary superior, sessile, 2-3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cavity, or falsely 
4-6-celled with a single ovule in each cavity, usually entire; styles 1-3, 
terminal, ovules anatropous. Fruit mostly a 2^-valved capsule. Seeds 
erect, the testa villous, pubescent or glabrous; embryo plaited or crumpled; 
cot}dedons foliaceous; endosperm fleshy or cartilaginous, usually scanty. 
About 45 genera and probably 1,000 species or more, of wide distribution. 
The generic limitations within this family are not wholly satisfactory. 

A. Capsule dehiscent by valves or rarely operculate. 

1. Capsule dehiscent by valves. 

a. Styles separate nearly or quite to the base. 1. Evolvulus. 

b. Styles united up to the stigma or stigmas. 

♦Stigmas oval, oblong or linear, flattened. 

Flowers cymose or panicled; bracts small. 2. Jacquemontia. 

Flowers capitate; bracts large, foliaceous. 3. Thyella. 

.**Stigma or stigmas globose. 

tStamens and style exserted; corolla salver form or 
funnelform. 
Corolla large, white; flowers nocturnal. 4. Calonyction. 

Corolla small, mostly red or scarlet. 

Ovary 4-celled. 5. Quamoclit. 

Ovary 2-celled. 6. Exogonium. 

ttStamens and style included ; corolla campanulate or 

funnelform. 7. Ipomoea. 

2. Capsule operculate. 8. Operculina. 

B. Capsule indehiscent. 

Sepals much enlarged in fruit, appressed; ovary 4-celled; fruit 

baccate. 9. Rivea. 

Sepals little enlarged in fruit; ovary 2-celled; fruit woody. 10. Turbina. 

1. EVOLVULUS L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 391. 1762. 

Mostly silky-pubescent or pilose herbs, or low shrubs, with small leaves, and 
axillary small flowers. Sepals nearly equal. Corolla funnelform, campanulate 
or rotate, the limb plaited, 5-angled or 5-lobed. Filaments filiform; anthers 
ovate or oblong. Ovary entire, 2-celled; styles separate to the base, or near it, 
each division deeply 2-cleft; stigmas linear-filiform. Capsule 2-4-valved, 1-4- 
seeded. Seeds glabrous. [Latin, unrolling.] About 85 species, of warm and 
tropical regions. Type species: Evolvulus nummularius L. 

Erect low shrub with small narrow or scale-like leaves. 1. E. squamosus. 

Prostrate, creeping or erect herbs. 

Leaves suborbicular to orbicular-obovate, rounded or notched 

at the apex. 2. E. nummularius. 

Leaves linear to oblong or obovate, acute or mucronate. 

Peduncles 1-flowered, very short, much shorter than the 

leaves. 3. E. sericeus. 

Peduncles filiform, elongated, 1 -several-flowered, mostly as 
long as the leaves or longer. 



104 CONVOLVULACEAE 

Leaves oblong-obovate, mucronulate; sepals about one- 
third as long as corolla. 4. E. glaber. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong, acute or obtusish; sepals 

at least one-half as long as corolla. 5. E. hnifohus. 

1. Evolvulus squamosus Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 449. 1905. 

An intricately branched erect shrub, 3 dm. high or less, the slender terete 
twigs densely appressed-pubescent. Leaves scattered, reduced to mere lance- 
olate-acuminate scales, 2 mm. long or less, appressed-pubescent ; flowers solitary 
in the upper axils, on appressed-pubescent peduncles, which are about as long 
as the calyx; sepals ovate, acute, appressed-pubescent, about one-half as long as 
the white corolla, or less; corolla about 6 mm. broad, slightly 5-lobed, the broad 
lobes a little emarginate; stamens a little shorter than the corolla, their filaments 
filiform, their anthers oval, short; ovary densely pubescent, oblong; styles 2, 
2-cleft to about the middle. 

Occasional on the rocky plain of Anegada: — Bahamas. 

2. Evolvulus nummularius L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 391. 1762. 

Diffuse, herbaceous, the stems 5-20 cm. long, branched, the branches rooting 
at the nodes, pilose or glabrate. Leaves orbicular or broadly oval, 4-20 mm. 
long, rounded or retuse at the apex, obtuse or subcordate at the base, short- 
petioled, pilose or glabrate; peduncles 1-flowered, much shorter than the leaves; 
sepals oblong or oblong-obovate, obtuse, about 2 mm. long; corolla pale blue or 
white, 5-8 mm. in diameter; capsule globose, 2 mm. in diameter. 

Shaded banks and hillsides at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan: — West Indies; continental tropical America; tropical Africa. 

3. Evolvulus sericeus Sw. Prodr. 55. 1788. 

Herbaceous, erect or ascending, usually branched from near the base, 
slender, silky-pubescent, 1-3 dm. high. Leaves linear, lanceolate or narrowly 
oblanceolate, nearly sessile, 1-2.5 cm. long, about 3 mm. wide or less, acute or 
acuminate; peduncles 1-flowered, much shorter than the leaves, often shorter 
than the calyx; sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 3-4 
mm. long; corolla white or pale blue, 6-10 mm. broad; capsule subglobose, about 
as long as the calyx. 

Serpentine slopes near Mayaguez, Porto Rico; Tor tola; Anegada:— southeastern 
United States: Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; contmental 
tropical America. 

4. Evolvulus glaber Spreng. Syst. 1: 862. 1825. 

Evolvulus mucronatus Sw.; Wikstr. Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. 1827: 61. 

1827. 
Evolvulus glabriusculus Choisy, Conv. Ear. 156. 1838. 

Finely silky-pubescent when young, becoming glabrate, branched, the 
branches very slender, prostrate or ascending, 4 dm. long or less. Leaves oblong 
to obovate, 1-3 cm. long, mucronate, short-petioled ; peduncles nearly filiform, 
as long as the leaves or longer; pedicels longer than the flowers; sepals oblong or 
ovate-oblong, acute, 3-4.5 mm. long; corolla rotate, white, 7-10 mm. broad; 
capsule subglobose, 2-2.5 mm. in diameter. 

Moist grounds, southern districts of Porto Rico near the coast; Mona; St. Crcix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada:— Florida; West Indies; northern 
South America. 

5. Evolvulus linifolius L. Sp. PI. ed. 2: 392. 1762. 

Pubescent or glabrate; stems several or many from a rather slender root, 
simple or few-branched, diffuse or nearly erect, 4 dm. long or less. Leaves 



CONVOLVULACEAE 105 

lanceolate, linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 1-2 cm. long, acute or mucronate, 
nearly sessile; peduncles filiform, 1-3-flowered, mostly longer than the leaves; 
sepals lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 2-3 mm. long; corolla white or pale blue, 
5-6 mm. broad; capsule longer than the calyx. 

Recorded bv Schlechtendal as found on St. Croix and St. Thomas, by Krebs as from 
St. Thomas and'bv Eggers as on all the Virgin Islands; not known to us within the geo- 
graphic limits of this Flora: — Bahamas (according to Grisebach); Jamaica; continental 
tropical America; Old World tropics. 

Evolvulus bocasanus Britton, an herbaceous species, native of Trinidad 
and Venezuela, was seen in cultivation by Mr. A. S. Fairchild, at Louisenhoj, St. 
Thomas, in 1923 ; it has slender erect stems about 4 dm. high, lanceolate sessile 
leaves 2-5 cm. long and bright blue flowers 10-12 mm. broad, the calyx tomentose. 

2. JACQUEMONTIA Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Gen. 6: 476. 1833. 

Trailing or climbing vines, mostly herbaceous, the leaves usually entire, the 

violet blue or white flowers cymose or panicled. Bracts small. Sepals nearly 

equal or the outer ones larger than the inner. Corolla campanulate or rotate- 

campanulate, the limb 5-angled. Stamens shorter than the corolla; filaments 

filiform, or their bases dilated; anthers oblong. Ovary 2-celled; ovules mostly 4; 

united styles filiform; stigmas 2, flattened. Capsule 2-celled. [Commemorates 

Victor Jacquemont, a French botanical traveller, died 1828.] Thirty species or 

more, of tropical and subtropical America. Type species: Convolvulus coeruleus 

Schum. 

Peduncles as long as the leaves or longer. 1. J. pentantha. 
Peduncles much shorter than the leaves. . 

Corolla only 3-4 mm. broad. 2. J. verticillata. 
Corolla 8-15 mm. broad. 

Densely pubescent or tomentose. 3. J. nodiflora. 
Glabrate or sparingly pubescent. 

Corolla white, whitish or yellowish. 

Leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate. 4. J. jamaicensis. 

Leaves ovate-oval to suborbicular, fleshy. 5. J. cayensis. 

Corolla bright blue or lavender. 6. J. subsalina. 

1. Jacquemontia pentantha (Jacq.) G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 283. 1838. 

Convolvulus pentanthos Jacq. Coll. 4: 210. 1790. 

Convolvulus violaceus Vahl, Symb. 3: 29. 1794. 

Jacquemontia violacea Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Gen. 8: 61. 1838. 

Slender, glabrate or densely pubescent, 0.5-2 m. long, sometimes much 
branched. Leaves ovate, 2-4 cm. long, slender-petioled, entire or slightly 
repand, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base; peduncles slender, 
mostly as long as the leaves or longer; cymes dense, several-flowered; pedicels 
usually shorter than the calyx; sepals ovate to lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
5-7 mm. long, the outer broader than the inner; corolla blue, rarely white, 2-3 
cm. broad; capsule subglobose, about as long as the sepals or a little shorter. 
[Convolvulus umbellatus of Sesse and Mocino, not of Linnaeus.] 

Thickets, banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Mona; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; 
West Indies; south tc Barbados; continental tropical America. Aguemaldo azul. 

2. Jacquemontia verticillata (L.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 339. 1902. 

Ipomoea verticillata L. Syst. ed. 10, 924. 1759. 
Convolvulus micranthus R. & S. Syst. 4: 276. 1819. 
Jacquemontia micrantha G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 283. 1838. 

Stems very slender, appressed-pubescent at least above, 2 m. long or less. 
Leaves oblong to lanceolate, membranous, repand or entire-margined, 1.5-4 cm. 



106 CONVOLVULACEAE 

long, mucronulate at the apex, cordate or subcordate at the base, more or less 
pubescent, short-petioled ; cymes sessile or very short-peduncled, several-flowered ; 
pedicels about as long as the sepals: sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, 2.5-3 mm. 
long; corolla 3-4 mm. broad, purple or pink, its limb 5-cleft; capsule globose, 2-3 
mm. in diameter; seeds brownish, rugulose. 

Limestone cliffs, northern districts of Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

3. Jacquemontia nodiflora (Desv.) G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 283. 1838. 

Convolvulus nodiflorus Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 3: 557. 1789. 

Densely pubescent or tomentose, or the stems glabrate below, 2-6 m. long. 
Leaves ovate, 2-6 cm. long, the apex acute, mucronate, the base rounded or 
cordate, the slender petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; cymes several-flowered, 
short-peduncled; pedicels 3-6 mm. long; sepals 2-3 mm. long, rounded; corolla 
white, about 2 cm. in diameter; stigmas slender; capsule globose, 3-4 mm. in 
diameter. [? C. bifiorus of SessS and Mocino, not of Linnaeus; Convolvulus 
albiflorus of West.] 

Banks and thickets in the dry southern districts at lower and middle elevations and 
near Cape San Juan , Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; Bonaire; 
Curacao; Mexico and continental tropical America. Agutnaldo blanco. 

4. Jacquemontia jamaicensis (Jacq.) Hallier f.; Solereder, Syst. Anat. 641. 

1899. 

Convolvulus jamaicensis Jacq. Obs. 3! 6. 1768. 

Finely pubescent or glabrate; stems slender, 1-2 m. long. Leaves lanceolate 
to linear or oblong, rather firm in texture, short-petioled, 1.5-4 cm. long, obtuse, 
mucronulate or acute at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, sparingly 
pubescent or glabrate; cymes 1-several-flowered, short-peduncled; sepals broad, 
ovate, acute, about 2 mm. long; corolla white or purplish, 1-1.5 cm. broad, the 
limb 5-cleft, the narrow segments acute; capsule subglobose, about 4 mm. long; 
seeds rough. 

Thickets and dunes along and near the dry southern coast, and near Bayamon, Porto 
Rico; Mona; Culebra; Vieques; St. Crcix; St. Thomas; Tortola: — Florida; Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Cayman Islands; recorded from Yucatan. Agutnaldo de 

COSTA. 

5. Jacquemontia cayensis Britton; Britton & Millspaugh, Bahama PI. 349. 

1920. 

Stem rather stout, somewhat woody, branched, trailing or ascending, 0.5- 
2.5 m. long, finely pubescent or glabrate. Leaves fleshy, oval to ovate-orbicular, 
entire, 1-3 cm. long, obtuse, retuse or acute at the apex, narrowed or rounded at 
the base, short-petioled, sparingly pubescent or glabrous ; peduncles shorter than 
the leaves; cymes few-flowered; sepals ovate, apiculate, about 2 mm. long; 
corolla white or yellowish. 2-2.5 cm. broad, 5-cleft, 8-12 mm. broad; capsule 
ovoid-globose, about 5 mm. long. 

Sandy plain, West End, Anegada: — Bahamas. The plant of Anegada was at first 
referred to J. reclinata House, a Florida species. 

6. Jacquemontia subsalina Britton, spec. nov. 

Prostrate, rooting at the nodes and forming mats, slightly fleshy, about 5 dm. 
long or less, the slender branches loosely strigose. Leaves oval to suborbicular, 
glabrous, 1-3 cm. long, the apex emarginate or rounded, the base obtuse, the 
petioles 2-10 mm. long; peduncles short, 1-flowered, curved in fruit; sepals un- 



CONVOLVULACEAE 107 

equal, the larger oval, rounded, about 3 mm. long; corolla bright blue or lavender, 
about 1 cm. wide; capsule subglobose, about 4 mm. in diameter. 

Subsaline soil, southern coastal plain of Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba. Type from 
coastal marsh between Ponce and Santa Isabel, Porto Rico (Britton and Brown 5515). 

3. THYELLA Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 84. 1838. 

Mostly slender twining vines, with alternate leaves, and blue or white, capi- 
tate flowers subtended by foliaceous bracts. Sepals equal, narrow. Corolla cam- 
panulate, 5-angled or 5-lobed, plaited. Stamens 5, not longer than the corolla. 
Ovary 2-celled; styles united; stigmas 2, ovate, flattened. Capsule 4-valved. 
[Greek, a harpy.] Perhaps a dozen species, natives of tropical and warm-tem- 
perate America, the following typical. 

1. Thyella tamnifolia (L.) Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 84. 1836. 

Ipomoea tamnifolia L. Sp. PI. 162. 1753. 

Jacquemontia tamnifolia Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 474. 1861. 

Stems densely pilose, 1.5 m. long or less, or sometimes nearly erect and 1.5-3 
dm. high. Leaves ovate, entire, thin, 3-12 cm. long, the lower slender-petioled, 
the upper short-petioled, the apex acuminate or acute, the base cordate, both 
surfaces loosely pilose, or glabrate; peduncles densely pilose, 2-15 cm. long; 
heads densely-many-flowered, the outer bracts ovate, 1-3 cm. long; sepals linear, 
acuminate, pilose, 1-1.5 cm. long; corolla blue, about 1 cm. in diameter; capsule 
much shorter than the sepals. 

Sandy plains, banks and slopes at lower elevations, northern and western districts 
of Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan (according to Eggers) : — Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Guadeloupe to Trinidad; continental tropical America and tropical Africa. Aguinaldo 
peludo. 

4. CALONYCTION Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 440. 1S33. 

Long twining vines, with large, entire or 3-lobed leaves and large white 
nocturnal flowers. Sepals herbaceous or subcoriaceous, the outer appendaged 
or unappendaged. Corolla long-salverform with a nearly cylindric tube. Stamens 
and style exserted. Styles united; stigmas globose. Fruit a dehiscent capsule. 
[Greek, night-beauty.] A few species, of tropical regions, Type species : Calonyc- 
tion speciosum Choisy. 

Outer sepals with infraterminal tail-like appendages; stems more or 

less aculeate. 1. C. aculcatum. 

Outer sepals without appendages; stems not aculeate. 2. C. Tuba. 

1. Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House, Bull. Torr. Club 31: 590. 1904. 

Convolvulus aculeatus L. Sp. PI. 155. 1753. 

Ipomoea bona-nox L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 228. 1762. 

Calonyction speciosum Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Gen. 6: 441. 1833. 

Calonyction megalocarpum A. Rich, in Sagra, Hist. Cub. 11: 129. 1850. 

Ipomoea aculeata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI, 442. 1891. 

Glabrous, trailing or high-climbing, sometimes 20 m. long or longer, the sap 
milky. Leaves orbicular-ovate, membranous, 5-15 cm. long, entire, repand or 
sometimes 3-lobed, long-petioled, acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate at the 
base; peduncles 1-several-flowered, stout, shorter than the leaves; sepals about 
1 cm. long, appressed, the outer subulate-appendaged ; corolla-tube slender, 
10-12 cm. long, the limb 8-10 cm. wide, each lobe with a broad green median 



108 CONVOLVULACEAE 

band terminating in a cusp; capsule ovoid, pointed, about 2 cm. long; seeds 
glabrous or nearly so. 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico, in moist districts; much planted for orna- 
ment in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands and often spontaneous after cultivation: — 
Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Bejxjco de 

VACA. MOON-VINE. 

2. Calonyction Tuba (Schlecht.) Colla, Nov. Sp. Calon. 15. 1840. 

Convolvulus Tuba Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 735. 1831. 

Calonyction grandiflorum Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 442. 1833. 
Ipomoea Tuba G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 271. 1838. 

Calonyction album House, Bull. Torr. Club 31: 591. 1904. Not Ipomoea 
alba L. 1753. 

Glabrous, fleshy, usually climbing, sometimes 10 m. long. Leaves ovate- 
orbicular, slender-petioled, 6-10 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, 
deeply cordate at the base; peduncles stout, 1-2-flowered, shorter than the 
leaves; sepals ovate-oblong, obtuse, appressed, about 2 cm. long; corolla white, 
its tube stout, cylindric, 5-6 cm. long, the limb 5-6 cm. broad, with 5 narrow 
greenish bands; capsule subglobose, 2-2.5 cm. in diameter; seeds densely puber- 
ulent, villous on the angles and at the hilum. 

Coastal thickets, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — 
Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America; Old World tropics. Coast Moon- 
vine. 

5. QUAMOCLIT [Tourn.] Moench, Meth. 453. 1794. 

Twining herbaceous vines, with petioled leaves, and peduncled axillary 
flowers. Sepals 5, herbaceous, equal, acuminate, mucronate or appendaged. 
Corolla salverform, scarlet, or rarely white, the tube longer than the spreading 
limb. Stamens and united styles exserted; stigma capitate; ovary 2-celled or 
falsely 4-celled, 4-ovuled. Capsule usually 4-celled and 4-seeded. [Greek, dwarf 
kidney-bean.] About 10 species, of warm and tropical regions. Type species: 
Ipomoea coccinea L. 

Leaves pinnately parted into very narrow segments. 1. Q. Quamoclit. 

Leaves cordate, acuminate, entire or angulate-lobed. 2. Q. coccinea. 

1. Quamoclit Quamoclit (L.) Britton in Britton & Brown, 111. PI. 3: 22. 1S98. 

Ipomoea Quamoclit L. Sp. PI. 159. 1753. 

Quamoclit vulgaris Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 336. 1845. 

Annual, glabrous. Leaves ovate in outline, 5-18 cm. long, pinnately 
parted into segments less than 2 mm. wide; peduncles 1-6-flowered; pedicels 
thickening in fruit; sepals obtuse, usually mucronate, 4-6 mm. long; corolla 
2.5-4 cm. long, the tube expanded above, the limb nearly flat, the lobes ovate, 
acutish; ovary 4-celled; capsule ovoid, 4-valved, about 1 cm. high, twice as long 
as the sepals. 

Banks, thickets and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, mostly spontaneous after cul- 
tivation; St. Croix; St. Thomas; commonly grown for ornament: — southern and eastern 
United States; West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. The 
race with white flowers was observed on a roadside bank near Barceloneta, Porto Rico. 
Cambustera. Cypress-vine. Sweet William. Indian Creeper. 

2. Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench, Meth. 453. 1794. 

Ipomoea coccinea L. Sp. PL 160. 1753. 
Ipomoea hederaefolia L. Syst. ed. 10, 925. 1759. 
Ipomoea sanguinea Vahl, Symb. 3: 33. 1794. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 109 

Quamoclit hederaefolia Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 336. 1845. 
Mina coccinea Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 294. 1881. 
Mina hederaefolia Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 294. 1881. 

Annual. Leaves ovate to orbicular, long-acuminate, 5-15 cm. long, entire 
or angulate-lobed, slender-petioled ; peduncles few-several-flowered ; sepals obtuse, 
about 4 mm. long, subulate-appendaged ; corolla 2-4 cm. long, the limb obscurely 
5-lobed; ovary 4-celled; capsule globose, 4-valved, 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Thickets, woods, banks and river valleys at lower elevations, Porto Rico, occasionally 
planted for ornament; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — southeastern United 
States; West Indies; continental tropical America. Cambustera. 

6. EXOGONIUM Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 443. 1833. 

Vines, woody at the base, with alternate leaves and showy, cymose or solitary, 
axillary flowers. Sepals 5, obtuse, somewhat unequal. Corolla salverform or 
funnelform. Ovary 2-celled; styles united; stigmas globose. Stamens more or 
less exserted. Fruit a capsule. [Greek, referring to the exserted stamens and 
styles.] Some 25 species or more, of tropical and subtropical America. Type 
species: Ipomoea bracteata Cav. 

Corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, its limb short; leaves ovate, or ovate- 
lanceolate. 1. E. solanifolium. 
Corolla about 4 cm. long, its limb spreading. 

Leaves large, 4-12 cm. long, entire or 3-lobed. 2. E. repandum. 

Leaves small, 2 cm. long or less, emarginate or 2-4-lobed. 3. E. arenarium. 

1. Exogonium solanifolium. (L.) Britton, Mem. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 1: 82. 

1918. 

Ipomoea solanifolia L. Sp. PL 161. 1753. 

Ipomoea fiUformis Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

Convolvulus fiUformis Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 3: 555. 1789. 

Exogonium filiforme Choisy, Conv. Rar. 129. 1838. 

Quamoclit solanifolia Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 335. 1845. 

A slender glabrous vine, 1-3 m. long. Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong or 
ovate-lanceolate, thin, entire, 2-5 cm. long, the apex obtuse, aristulate, rarely 
emarginate, the base rounded or cordate, the slender petioles 0.5-3 cm. long; 
peduncles about as long as the leaves or longer, few-several-flowered; pedicels 
nearly filiform, 1-3 cm. long; sepals ovate, acute, about 5 mm. long; corolla 
crimson or scarlet, 2-2 5 cm. long, salverform, its limb very short; capsule 4-5 
mm. in diameter; seeds glabrous. 

Coastal thickets, northern and western districts of Porto Rico, and at Utuado; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — St. Barts to St. Vincent. Cambustera DE Costa. 

2. Exogonium repandum (Jacq.) Choisy, Conv. Rar. 128. 1838. 

Ipomoea repanda Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

High-climbing, glabrous, up to 10 m. in length. Leaves various, ovate to 
lanceolate, entire, repand or some of them deeply 3-5-lobed, 5-16 cm. long, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or cordate, the slender petioles 2-12 
cm. long; inflorescence axillary, mostly long-peduncled, few-several-flowered; 
pedicels rather stout, 2 cm. long or less; sepals ovate, rounded, 6-8 mm. long; 
corolla crimson or scarlet, about 4 cm. long, its narrow lobes about one-fourth as 
long as the nearly cylindric tube; capsule globose-ovoid, about 1 cm. long, tipped 
by the base of the style; seeds long- woolly. 

Mountain forests, Porto Rico; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Montserrat to 
Grenada. 



110 CONVOLVULACEAE 

3. Exogonium arenarium Choisy, Conv. Rar. 129. 1838. 

Ipomoea arenaria Steud. Nom. 815. 1840. 
Ipomoea Steudelii Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 86. 1900. 
Ipomoea Eggersiana Peter in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 3a : 30. 1899. 
Exogonium Eggersii House, Bull. Torr. Club 35: 104. 1908. 

A slender glabrous, trailing or twining vine, up to 4 m. long or longer. 
Leaves small, thin, various, ovate to suboibicular in outline, 0.5-2 cm. long, 
filiform-petioled, entire, emarginate, obcordate or 2-lobed or 4-lobed, the lobes 
ovate to oblong or linear, obtuse, the base cordate or rounded; peduncles stout, 
short, 1-4-flowered ; sepals ovate-orbicular, rounded, about 6 mm. long; corolla 
3-4 mm. long, crimson, rose, lilac, purplish or white, salverform, the spreading 
limb with short rounded lobes; capsule ovoid, 10-15 mm. long; seeds long-woolly. 
[Exogonium pedatum of Bello, not of Choisy.] 

Thickets at lower and middle elevations in the dry southern and western districts 
and near Rincon. Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin 
Gorda: — Hispaniola; Anguilla; St. Martin. A plant of great variability in foliage and 
corolla, strikingly conspicuous wben in flower. 

A vine, growing on the limestone plateau of Mona Island, known only from 
incomplete specimens, has been tentatively referred to Exogonium microdactylum 
(Griseb.) House, otherwise known from Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas. (Ann. 
Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 47.) 

7. IPOMOEA L. Sp. PI. 159. 1753. 

Twining, trailing or rarely erect herbs, with large showy axillary flowers. 
Corolla funnelform or campanulate, the limb entire, 5-angled or 5-lobed, often 
plaited. Stamens included. Ovary entire, 2-4-celled, 4-6-celled ; styles united, 
included; stigmas 1 or 2, capitate or globose. Pollen spinose in most species, 
smooth in others. Capsule usually septifragally 2-4-celled, 2-4-valved, 2-4- 
seeded. [Greek, worm-like.] About 400 species, of wide distribution. Known 
as Aguinaldo and Morning-glory. Type species: Ipomoea Pes-tigrinus L. 

A. Flowers bright yellow, umbellate. 1. J. polyanthes. 

B Flowers white, red or purple, not umbellate. 

1. Sepals much enlarged in fruit; leaves pedately dissected. 2. I. aissecta. 

2. Sepals little if at all enlarged in fruit; lea\es entire, lobed or 

pedate. 

a. Sepals herbaceous, elongated. 

♦Leaves pedate; stems and calyx long-villous. 3. I. aegyplta. 

**Leaves entire or 3-lobed, cordate or sagittate. 
Sepals glabrous. 

Sepals aristulate. 4. I. rubra. 

Sepals acuminate. 5. I. catharttca. 

Sepals hirsute or villous at least below. 

Sepals with long linear tips. 6. I. Nil. 

Sepals linear or linear-lanceolate. 

Sepals 1-1.5 cm. long; corolla 5-6 cm. long. 7. I. purpurea. 

Sepals 2-3 cm. long; corolla 2-3 cm. long. 8. I. Meyeri. 

b. Sepals coriaceous or subherbaceous, not elongated. 

*Stems prostrate or stoloniferous; plants fleshy; littoral 
species. 
Leaves suborbicular, emarginate; flowers purple; 

stems long, prostrate. 9. I. Pes-caprae. 

Leaves various, entire or lobed; flowers white; stems 

stoloniferous. 10. I. stolomfera. 

**Stems twining or trailing. 

fSeeds comose, woolly or pubescent. 
Leaves pedately 5-7-foliolate. 

Corolla rose, 5-6 cm. long. 11. I. Hoisfalliae. 

Corolla wbite to violet, 1.5-3 cm. long. 

Corolla white or light yellow, 1.5-2 cm. 

long; leaflets serrate. 12. 7. quinquefoha. 

Corolla violet, 2.5-3 cm. long; leaflets entire. 13. I. heptaphylla. 
Leaves entire, cordate. 

Sepals about 5 mm. long. 14. I. carnea. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 111 

Sepals 10-13 mm. long. 15. I. calantha. 

ttSeeds glabrous. 

{Leaves linear to lanceolate. 

Leaves with a few short lobes near the base, 

almost sessile. 16. I. angustifolia. 

Leaves sagittate, slender-petioled. 17. I. tenuissima. 

{{Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, entire or lobed. 
Sepals awned or acuminate. 

Sepals pilose or ciliate. 18. I. triloba. 

Sepals glabrous. 

Twining, glabrous or pubescent; leaves 
ovate, cordate. 
Corolla about 3.5 cm. long. 19. J. Krugii. 

Corolla 5-6 cm. long. 20. I. tiliacea. 

Prostrate, glabrous; leaves various, 

entire or lobed. 21. I. Batatas. 

Sepals obtuse, scarious-margined. 22. I. tricolor. 

1. Ipomoea polyanthes r. & s. Syst. 4: 234. 1819. 

Convolvulus umbellatus L. Sp. PI. 155. 1753. Not Ipomoea umbellata L. 
Ipomoea umbellata Meyer, Prim. Fl. Ess. 99. 1818. 
Convolvulus sagittifer H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 100. 1819. 
Ipomoea mollicoma Miquel, Stirp. Sur. Sel. 132. 1850. 
Merremia umbellata Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 552. 1893. 

Stem twining, glabrous, or when young puberulent, 1-5 m. long or longer. 
Leaves ovate to lanceolate or sometimes suborbicular, 4-9 cm. long, puberulent 
on both sides or glabrate, entire or slightly repand, the apex acuminate, acute, 
obtuse or rounded, the base cordate, the petioles nearly as long as the blades or 
shorter; inflorescence long -peduncled, umbelliform, few-several-flowered; pedicels 
1-3 cm. long; sepals oval, obtuse, mucronulate, about 8 mm. long; corolla bright 
yellow, 2-2.5 cm. long, funnelform-campanulate ; ovary 2-celled; capsule subglo- 
bose, about 10 mm. broad; seeds velvety. 

Banks and thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; Hlspaniola; St. Barts to 
Trinidad; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Aguinaldo amakillo. 
Yellow Morning-glory. 

2. Ipomoea dissecta (Jacq.) Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 145. 1814. 

Convolvulus dissectus Jacq. Obs. 2: 4. 1767. 
Ipomoea sinuata Ortega, Hort. Matr. Dec. 84. 1798. 
Merremia dissecta Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 552. 1893. 
Operculina dissecta House, Bull. Torr. Club 33: 500. 1908. 

Perennial, villous-hirsute, or glabrate. Stems twining, branching; leaves 
suborbicular, 3-10 cm. in diameter, 5-7-parted, the segments oval to oblong or 
lanceolate, coarsely toothed or pinnatifid ; petioles as long as the blades or longer, 
villous-hirsute; sepals glabrate, oblong to oblong-oval, 1-2.5 cm. long; obtuse; 
corolla white with purple throat, its tube funnelform, 2-3 cm. long, its limb 3-5 
cm. broad; capsules about 1.5 cm. long; seeds smooth and glabrous. 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico, occasionally planted for ornament; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southeastern United States; West 
Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Noyo. Noyau Vine. 

3. Ipomoea aegyptia L. Sp. PI. 162. 1753. 

Convolvulus pentaphyllus L, Sp. PI. ed. 2, 223. 1762. 
Ipomoea pentaphylla Jacq. Coll. 2: 297. 1788. 
Batatas pentaphylla Chois'y, Conv. Or. 54. 1833. 
Merremia pentaphylla Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 552. 1893. 
Operculina aegyptia House, Bull. Torr. Club 33: 502. 1906. 
Merremia aegyptia Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 505. 1910. 

Twining, 2-4 m. long or longer, the branches, petioles, inflorescence and 
sepals long-pilose. Leaves long-petioled, pedately 5-foliolate, the segments 



112 CONVOLVULACEAE 

sessile, entire, thin, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 3-9 cm. long, sparingly long- 
pilose, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed ; peduncles commonly longer than 
the petioles, 1-few-flowered ; pedicels 1-5 cm. long; sepals thin, ovate to ovate- 
oblong, acute or acutish, unequal, the outer ones 2-2.5 cm. long; corolla white, 
about 3 cm. long; ovary 4-celled; capsule subglobose, about 1.5 cm. broad; seeds 
smooth. 

Banks, fields and thickets at low elevations, Porto Rico, in dry and moist districts; 
Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Jamaica; Cuba; His- 
paniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; Curacao; continental tropical America and Old World 
tropics; Hawaii. 

4. Ipomoea rubra (Vahl) Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 86. 1900. 

Convolvulus ruber Vahl, Eclog. 2: 12. 1798. 
Ipomoea setifera Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6: 17. 1804. 
Ipomoea rubra alboflavida Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 345. 1902. 
Ipomoea rubra palustris Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 345. 1902. 

Stem prostrate or twining, 1-3 m. long, glabrous, or pilose below, the young 
parts sometimes minutely puberulent. Leaves ovate, glabrous, long-petioled, 
5-15 cm. long, entire or slightly repand, the apex obtuse or acute, the base cordate 
or sagittate; peduncles stout, mostly shorter than the leaves, 1-few-flowered ; 
flowers bracteate, the bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 6-15 mm. long, acuminate 
with a terminal bristle; outer sepals ovate, about as long as the bracts, also with 
a terminal bristle; corolla purple, rarely yellowish-white, 3-6 cm. long; capsule 
subglobose, about 1 cm. thick; seeds tomentose. [7. ciliolata of Stahl, not of 
Persoon; Convolvulus sagittatus of Sesse - & Mocino.] 

Wet or moist soil, northeastern districts of Porto Rico: — Jamaica: Cuba; Eispaniola; 
Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Vincent; Trinidad; central and South America; tropical 
Africa. Recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas. Bejtjco de puerco. 

5. Ipomoea cathartica Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 633. 1816. 

Convolvulus acuminatus Vahl, Symb. 3: 26. 1794. Not I. acuminata R. & P. 

Convolvulus portoricensis Spreng. Syst, 1: 595. 1825. 

Ipomoea portoricensis G. Don. Gen. Syst. 4: 278. 1838. 

Pharbitis acuminata Choisy, in DC. Prodr. 9: 342. 1845. 

Pharbitis cathartica Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 342. 1845. 

Ipomoea jamaicensis glabrata Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 474. 1861. 

Twining, minutely strigillose or glabrate, 1-5 m. long or longer. Leaves 
broadly ovate, 5-9 cm. long, entire or 3-lobed, acuminate, cordate; peduncles 
shorter than the subtending petioles, 1-few-flowered; sepals glabrate, linear- 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, acuminate; corolla pink-purple or 
crimson, 5-7 cm. long, the limb 6—8 cm. broad, undulate; capsules spheroidal, 
about 1 cm. broad; seeds glabrous, about 3 mm. in diameter. 

Thickets, banks, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Bermuda; West 
Indies; continental tropical America. Bejtjco de gloria. 

6. Ipomoea Nil. (L.) Roth, Cat. l: 36. 1797. 

Convolvulus Nil L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 219. 1762. 
Pharbitis Nil Choisy, Conv. Or. 57. 1833. 

Pilose, the stems twining or trailing, 0.5-2 m. long. Leaves ovate to sub- 
orbicular, 3-lobed or some of them nearly entire, thin, 5-15 cm. broad, mostly 
long-petioled, the lobes ovate, acuminate or acute, the base cordate; peduncles 
about as long as the petioles or shorter, 1-5-flowered; pedicels short; sepals 1.5- 
2.5 cm. long, linear with a broadened base, pilose; corolla blue, fading purple, 
3-4 cm. long, its limb 4-5 cm. broad; ovary 3-celled; capsule globose, 8-12 mm. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 113 

in diameter; seeds finely pubescent. [Ipomoea hederacea barbata of Kuntze; 
? Convolvulus hederaceus of Schlechtendal.] 

Banks, thickets, waste and cultivated grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies (except Ba- 
hamas); continental tropical America; Old World tropics; Hawaii. 

7. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 466. 1791. 

Convolvulus purpureus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 219. 1762. 
Pharbitis hispida Choisy, Conv. Or. 56. 1833. 

Stem retrorsely pubescent, twining or trailing, about 3 m. long or shorter. 
Leaves broadly ovate, membranous, entire, sparingly pubescent, long-petioled, 
5-12 cm. broad, the apex acute or acuminate, the base cordate; peduncles re- 
trorsely pubescent, commonly longer than the petioles, 1-5-flowered ; sepals 
lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 10-16 mm. long, pilose below; corolla 
purple, blue or white, 5-6 cm. long; ovary mostly 3-celled; capsule depressed- 
globose, about 10 mm. in diameter; seeds smooth. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico, planted for ornament in 
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: — widely planted as an ornamental vine in temperate 
and tropical regions; native of continental tropical America. 

8. Ipomoea Meyeri (Spreng.) G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 275. 1838. 

Convolvulus Meyeri Spreng. Syst. 1: 597. 1825. 
Convolvulus cuspidatus Willd.; Spreng. Syst. 1: 597. 1825. 

Stem twining, glabrous or sparingly pilose, up to 3 m. long or longer. Leaves 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, entire or hastately 3-lobed, 4-12 cm. long, glabrate, 
thin, the apex acuminate or acute, the base cordate, the upper short-petioled, 
the lower long-petioled; peduncles 1-10 cm. long, 1-10-flowered; pedicels very 
short, the cymes contracted, the bracts linear; sepals linear-lanceolate, pilose, 
acuminate, 2-3 cm. long; corolla blue, violet or purple with a white throat, 2.5-3 
cm. long; capsule subglobose, about 8 mm. in diameter; seeds finely pubescent. 
[Ipomoea purpurea of Grisebach, not of Lamarck; J. coerulea of Bello, not of 
Koenig; J. portoricensis of House, not of G. Don.] 

Thickets and river-banks, at lower elevations, southern and western districts of 
Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guatemala to Venezuela. 

9. Ipomoea Pes-caprae (L.) Roth. Nov. Sp. 109. 1821. 

Convolvulus Pes-caprae L. Sp. PI. 159. 1753. 
Convolvulus brasiliensis L. Sp. PI. 159. 1753. 
Convolvulus biloba Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 44. 1775. 
Convolvulus maritimus Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 3: 556. 1789. 

Glabrous, succulent. Stems prostrate, creeping, sometimes 20 m long or 
more, branching; leaves suborbicular, 6-10 cm. broad, usually notched at the 
apex, rounded or cordate at the base; petioles as long as the blades or shorter; 
peduncles stout, 1-several-flowered; pedicels more slender than the peduncles; 
sepals glabrous, oval or suborbicular, about 1 cm. long, obtuse; corolla purple, 
4-5 cm. long, its tube broadly funnelform, its limb undulately lobed, 5-8 cm. 
broad; capsules broadly ovoid or globose-ovoid, 1.5 cm. high; seeds pubescent. 

Coastal sands, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola: — Georgia and Florida: Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America and 
Old World tropics. Bay Hops. Bejuco de plata. 

10. Ipomoea stolonifera (Cyrill.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6: 20. 1804. 

Convolvulus littoralis L. Syst. ed. 10, 924. 1759. Not Ipomoea littoralia 

Blume. 1826. 
Convolvulus arenarius Vahl, Symb. 1: IS. 1790. 



114 CONVOLVULACEAE 

Convolvulus stoloniferus Cyrill. PI. Rar. Neap. 1: 14. 1788. 
Convolvulus acetosaefolius Vahl, Eclog. 1: 18. 1796. 
Ipomoea carnosa R. Br. Prodr. 485. 1810. 
Ipomoea acetosaefolia R. & S. Syst. 4: 247. 1819. 
Batatus littoralis Choisy, Conv. Rar. 124. 1838. 
Batatus acetosaefolius Choisy, in DC. Prodr. 9: 338. 1845. 
Ipomoea littoralis Boiss. Fl. Orient. 4: 112. 1879. 

Stem slender, buried in sand, sending up branches which rise 0.5-2 dm. above 
the surface, glabrous and fleshy, sometimes twining on shrubs. Leaves ovate 
to ovate-oblong, or broader, long-petioled, fleshy, glabrous, 3-7 cm. long, entire 
or variously lobed, narrowed at the base or the later ones rounded or cordate; 
flowers few or solitary ; peduncles mostly shorter than the leaves ; sepals oval or 
oblong, 10-15 mm. long, mucronate; corolla white, funnelform-campanulate, 
4-5 cm. long; capsules globose, 1-1.5 cm. long; seeds smooth. 

Coastal sands, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix: — South Carolina to Florida; 
West Indies; continental tropical America; Old World tropics. Bejuco de costa. 

11. Ipomoea Horsfalliae W. Hooker, Bot. Mag. 61: pi. 3315. 1834. 

Ipomoea pendula Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 387. 1845. 

Glabrous ; stem high-climbing, up to 8 m. long or longer. Leaves pedately 
5-7-foliolate, or some of the upper ones deeply 5-cleft; leaflets obovate, oblong or 
lanceolate, thin, sessile, 4-11 cm. long, entire, the apex acuminate, the base nar- 
rowed; peduncles stout, 2-12 cm. long, few-many-flowered; pedicels 1-3 cm. 
long; sepals red, ovate-oblong, obtuse, the larger ones 10-12 mm. long; corolla 
narrowly campanulate-funnelform, about 6 cm. long; capsule ovoid, about 1.5 
cm. long; seeds long-hairy. 

Woodlands and forests, Porto Rice, ascending to higher elevations. Endemic. 
Planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands and elsewhere in tropical 
regions, elegant when in bloom. 

12. Ipomoea quinquefolia L. Sp. PI. 162. 1753. 

Convolvulus quinquefolius L. Syst. ed. 10, 923. 1759. 
Batatas quinquefolia Choisy, Conv. Rar. 127. 1838. 
Merremia quinquefolia Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 552. 1893. 

Stem very slender, 1-2 m. long, twining or trailing, glabrous, or sparingly 
long-pilose. Leaves 5-foliolate, or some of them 3-4-foliolate, mostly slender- 
petioled, the petioles glabrous or pilose; leaflets oblong to lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, sessile, 2-6 cm. long, serrate, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
narrowed; inflorescence peduncled, glabrous or glandular, few-flowered; pedicels 
nearly filiform; sepals ovate-oblong, obtuse, the lower ones 6-8 mm. long; corolla 
white or pale yellow, 1.5-2 cm. long; capsule subglobose, 8-10 mm. in diameter; 
seeds puberulent. 

Banks and thickets at low elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tor tola:— 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Grenada; Mexico and continental 
tropical America. Batatilla blanca. 

13. Ipomoea heptaphylla (Rottl. & Willd.) Voight, Hort. Sub. Calc. 360. 1845. 

Convolvulus hepiaphyllus Rottl. & Willd. Neue. Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. 4: 196. 

1803. 
Ipomoea radicans Bert.; Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 389. 1845. 
Ipomoea pulchella Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 470. 1861. Not Roth. 1821. 

Slender, glabrous, 1-2 m. long or longer, twining or trailing. Leaves 
pedately 5-foliolate, long-petioled; leaflets oblong, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 
entire, sessile, 1-4.5 cm. long, the apex acute, acuminate or obtuse, the base 
narrowed; peduncles filiform, about as long as the petioles or longer, 1-flowered; 



CONVOLVULACEAE 115 

bracts about 1 mm. long; pedicel 8-10 mm. long; sepals ovate, obtuse, 5-7 mm. 
long; corolla violet, 2.5-3 cm. long; capsule ovoid, about 8 mm. long; seeds finely 
pubescent. 

River banks and lake shores, southwestern districts of Porto Rico; St. Tbomas 
(according to Urban): — Cuba; Jamaica; Antigua; Guadaloupe; Curacao; continental 
tropical America and Old World tropics. 

14. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Enum. 13. 1760. 

Stem stout, climbing, velvety-puberulent at least when young. Leaves 
thin, long-petioled, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 5-15 cm. long, entire, puberu- 
lent on both sides, the apex short-acuminate, the base cordate or subcordate; 
peduncles stout, puberulent, about as long as the petioles or shorter, several- 
flowered; sepals suborbicular, about 5 mm. long, puberulent; corolla. violet-pink 
or white, 6-7 cm. long, puberulent; capsule ovoid, about 1.5 cm. long; seeds long- 
woolly. 

Mountain woodlands, San Ildefonso, near Coamo, determined by Urban from barren 
specimens collected by Sintenis; St. Croix (according to West): — Jamaica; St. Vincent; 
Margarita; Aruba; Nicaragua to Venezuela. 

15. Ipomoea calantha Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 202. 1866. 

Stem rather slender, twining, glabrous, but muricate on the angles below. 
Leaves membranous, broadly ovate, entire, slender-petioled, 6-10 cm. long, 
glabrous above, more or less pubescent beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base cordate; peduncles rather stout, i-few-flowered, about as long as the 
petioles or shorter; pedicels stout, short; sepals oval or ovate-oval, rounded or 
obtuse, about equal, 10-13 mm. long, puberulent; corolla rose or white, about 
9 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so; capsule subglobose, about 12 mm. in diameter; 
seeds long-woolly. [? /. carnea of Bello, not of Jacquin.] 

Woods and thickets, southwestern dry districts of Porto Rico at low elevations: — 
Cuba; Curacao; Colombia; Venezuela. 

16. Ipomoea angustifolia Jacq. Coll. 2: 367. 1788. 

Convolvulus filicaulis VahL Symb. 3: 24. 1794. 
Ipomoea filicaulis Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 848. 1798. 
Merremia angustifolia Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 552. 1893. . 

Glabrous; stems slender, usually several from a deep root, prostrate, 0.2— 
2 m. in length. Leaves narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate, almost sessile, 2-5 
cm. long, 0.5-6 mm. wide, subhastate and dentate with a few short acuminate or 
acute teeth or lobes at the base, the apex gradually acuminate; peduncles filiform, 
about as long as the leaves or shorter, 1-few-flowered, pedicels filiform; bracts 
linear- lanceolate 1.5-3 mm. long; sepals oblong, aristulate, about 3 mm. long; 
corolla white, 1-1.5 cm. long; capsule globose, about 6 mm. in diameter; seeds 
smooth. [Ipomoea sericantha of Stahl, not of Grisebach.] 

Tn sand, northern coastal plain of Porto Rico: — southern and tropical Africa. In- 
troduced into Georgia. The plant appears to be native in Porto Rico, and, if so, is a very 
interesting illustration of a species in common between tropical Africa and America. It 
was first described by Jacquin from specimens collected in Guinea, not Guiana as stated 
by House. 

17. Ipomoea tenuissima Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 376. 1845. 

Glabrous or nearly so; stem very slender, twining, 3-10 dm. long. Leaves 
lanceolate, slender-petioled, 2-6.5 cm. long, entire, sagittate, the basal lobes 
lanceolate to ovate, the apex obtuse or acute, mucronulate; peduncles 1-flowered, 
rarely 2-flowered, shorter than the leaves or longer; bracts linear, about 2 mm. 
long, deciduous; pedicel 2-6 mm. long; sepals oblong-lanceolate, long-ciliate, 



116 CONVOLVULACEAE 

aristulate, 6-7 mm. long; corolla pink to purple, about 2.5 cm. long; capsule 
subglobose, about as long as the sepals; seeds smooth. 

Sandy coconut grove, Joyuda, Porto Rico, April, 1913: — Florida; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

18. Ipomoea triloba L. Sp. PI. 161. 1753. 

Ipomoea eustachiana Jacq. Obs. 2: 12. 1767. 

Ipomoea parviflora Vahl, Symb. 3: 34. 1794. 

Convolvulus Sloanei Spreng. Syst. 1: 593. 1825. 

Ipomoea triloba eustachiana Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 71. 1879. 

Ipomoea triloba quinqueloba Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 446. 1891. 

Somewhat pubescent or glabrate; stem herbaceous, slender, 5-10 dm. long, 
usually trailing. Leaves usually very deeply 3-5-lobed, sometimes entire, ovate, 
2-10 cm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base, the petioles 
slender; peduncles mostly longer than the petioles, 1-few-flowered ; pedicels 1-2 
cm. long, thickening in fruit ; sepals oblong, acute or mucronate, pilose, 5-6 mm. 
long; corolla red or purple, funnelform-campanulate, about 1.5 cm. broad; capsule 
subglobose, pilose, 2-celled, about 7 mm. in diameter; seeds glabrous. 

Thickets, waste and cultivated grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Mona; 
Vieques; Icacos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; West Indies; continental 
tropical America; naturalized in tropical regions of the Old World. Bejtjquillo de 
puerco. 

19. Ipomoea Krugii Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 472. 1908. 

Glabrous, twining. Leaves ovate, long-petioled, 5-9 cm. long, entire or 2- 
lobed below the apex, long-acuminate, the base cordate; peduncles 3.5-5 cm. 
long, 2- or 3-flowered; sepals 12-13 mm. long, oblong to elliptic-acuminate, equal; 
corolla about 3.5 cm. long or shorter, white, the tube subcylindric. 

Near Mayaguez, collected only by Krug, and known to us from description only. 

20. Ipomoea tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy, in DC. Prodr. 9: 375. 1845. 

Convolvulus tiliaceus Willd. Enum. 1: 203. 1809. 
Convolvulus fastigiatus Roxb. Hort. Beng. 13. 1814. 
Ipomoea cymosa G. F. W. Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 99. 1818. 
Ipomoea fastigiata Sweet, Hort. Brit. 288. 1826. 
Ipomoea Batatas fastigiata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 442. 1891. 
Ipomoea gracilis House, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 18: 248. 1908. Not R. Br. 
1810. 

" Glabrous or sparingly pubescent, twining up to 2 m. long or longer, the root 
sometimes tuberiferous. Leaves ovate, 5-8 cm. long, membranous, acute at the 
apex, cordate at the base, the slender petioles sometimes half as long as the 
blades; peduncles about as long as the petioles or longer, few-several-flowered; 
pedicels short ; sepals oblong, mucronate or aristulate, unequal, the larger about 
8 mm. long; corolla purple, pink or rarely white, usually with a dark eye, 5-6 cm. 
long; capsule 2-celled, subglobose, 8-10 mm. in diameter; seeds glabrous. 

Banks and thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America. The 
vines are used for hog-food. This species is supposed to have yielded the following one 
through aboriginal selection and cultivation. Bejuco de puerco. 

21. Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam. Encycl. 6: 14. 1804. 

Convolvulus Batatas L. Sp. PL 154. 1753. 

Batatus edulis Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 435. 1845. 

Ipomoea pandurata cuspidata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 445. 1891. 

Rootstocks large, fleshy, a well-known vegetable ; stems glabrous or nearly 
so, trailing, 1 m. long or longer. Leaves various, ovate to suborbicular, entire, 



CONVOLVULACEAE 117 

dentate or lobed, acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base, 5—15 cm. long; 
peduncles as long as the petioles or shorter, few-flowered; sepals oblong, acute, 
cuspidate, somewhat unequal, 7-10 mm. long; corolla pale purple or nearly white, 
about 5 cm. long; ovary and capsule 2-celled; seeds glabrous. 

Persistent or spontaneous after cultivation for its valuable edible roots, Porto Eico 
and the Virgin Islands: — widely cultivated for food in temperate and tropical regions, 
its original home unknown; not known anywhere in the wild state. Mr. J. B. Thompson, 
Director of the St. Croix Agricultural Experiment Station, produced, through repeated 
hybridization, a very wonderful series of more than 250 kinds of sweet potatoes, during 
several years prior to 1924; the great plantation of these, established by him, was studied 
with great interest and appreciation early in that year; his work has made possible the 
selection of improved kinds of this, the most important root-crop of the tropics. Batata. 
Sweet Potato. 

22. Ipomoea tricolor Cav. Icon. 3: 5. 1794. 

Twining, glabrous, up to 4 m. long or longer. Leaves orbicular-ovate, thin, 
long-petioled, entire or repand, 3-12 cm. broad, the apex acuminate or obtuse, 
the base cordate; peduncles stout, hollow, 2-5 cm. long, usually several-flowered; 
pedicels rather stout, 0.5-4 cm. long; sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, scarious- 
margined, 6-7 mm. long; corolla blue, fading purple, 6-8 cm. broad; capsule 
ovoid-ellipsoid, about 1.5 cm. long finely nerved; seeds oblong, glabrous. [I. 
violacea of Grisebach, of Eggers, of Millspaugh and of House, not of Linnaeus; 
? Pharbitis violacea of Krebs.J 

Collected by Krug at Mayaguez; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; planted for orna- 
ment: — Jamaica; Cuba; St. Martin; Saba; Antigua; Guadeloupe; continental tropical 
America. Granny-Vine. 

Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Br. f East Indian, found as a waif at Rio Piedras by 
Stevenson in 1914, is a slender, somewhat pubescent vine with ovate-lanceolate 
cordate leaves and small flowers in axillary short-stalked cymes. [I. sessiliflora 
Roth.] 

Ipomoea Learii Paxton, Lear's Morning-glory, planted for ornament in 
the Virgin Islands, is a twining vine, up to 13 m. in length, with large cordate, 
entire or 3-lobed leaves, the lilac or purple flowers 10-12 cm. broad; it is supposed 
to be of South American origin. 

Ipomoea Pes-tigridis L. [Convolvulus Pes-tigridis L.], East Indian, was 
recorded by Schlechtendal as formerly existing on St. Thomas, and was found at 
Rio Piedras, Porto Rico, by Stevenson in 1914, apparently not persistent. It is 
a long hirsute vine with deeply palmately lobed leaves, the flowers capitate in 
long-peduncled bracted heads. 

Ipomoea asarifolia (Desv.) R. & S. [Convolvulus asarifolius Desv.] is re- 
corded by Grisebach from the ''Danish Islands" but is otherwise unknown 
within the limits of this Flora. The record is probably erroneous. Mr. N. E. 
Brown informs us that no specimen of it from the Virgin Islands is preserved in 
the Kew Herbarium. 

Ipomoea dumetorum Willd. and I. incarnata Choisy, species of northern 
South America, were listed by Krebs from St. Thomas. 

Ipomoea sagittata Lam., of the southeastern United States, Bermuda, 
Bahamas and Cuba, was also recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, pre- 
sumably in error. 

Ipomoea leucantha Jacq., a South American species, was listed by Eggers 
as found on St. Croix and St. Thomas prior to 1876, presumably an error in 
determination. 



118 CONVOLVULACEAE 

Ipomoea quinquepartita (Vahl) R. & S. [Convolvulus quinquepartitus 
Vahl; C. ovalifolius West, not Vahl], recorded from St. Croix, is not identified. 

8. OPERCULINA Manso, Enum. Subst. Bras. 14. 1836. 

Perennial twining vines, the leaves and flowers mostly large, the flowers 
clustered or solitary. Sepals broad, much enlarged in fruit. Corolla funnelform 
or campanulate. Anthers large. Ovary 2-celled; stigmas 2, globose. Capsule 
operculate. Seeds large, black, glabrous. [Latin, referring to the operculate 
capsule.] About 15 species, of tropical regions. Type species: Operculina Con- 
volvulus Manso. 

Pubescent; leaves entire, cordate; corolla white. 1. O. triquetra. 

Glabrous; leaves deeply palmately lobed; corolla yellow. 2. O.tuberosa. 

1. Operculina triquetra (Vahl) Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 18: 120. 1894. 

Convolvulus triqueler Vahl, Symb. 3: 30. 1794. 
Ipomoea triquetra R. & S. Syst. 4: 231. 1819. 

Densely pubescent nearly all over ; stem sharply 3-angled, climbing. Leaves 
ovate or ovate-orbicular, 5-8 cm. long, slender-petioled, the apex acute or short- 
acuminate, the base cordate or subcordate ; peduncles 1-few-flowered, longer than 
the petioles, loosely pubescent, 5 cm. long or shorter; bracts ovate-lanceolate, 
pubescent, deciduous, about 15 mm. long; sepals ovate, obtuse, the outer ones 
1.5-2 cm. long, pubescent, the inner smaller, glabrous; corolla white, about 3 cm. 
long. 

Thickets, St. Croix; St. Thomas. Endemic. 

2. Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meissn. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 7: 212. 1869. 

Ipomoea tuberosa L. Sp. PI. 160. 1753. 

Glabrous; stem high-climbing, rather stout. Leaves long-petioled, deeply 
palmately 5-7-lobed, 8-20 cm. broad, the lobes lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 
acuminate or acute; peduncles stout, 1-several-flowered, commonly as long as 
the petioles or longer ; pedicels 1-4 cm. long, upwardly thickened in fruit; flowering 
sepals ovate, obtuse, about 2 cm. long, in fruit becoming 4-6 cm. long; corolla 
yellow, about 5 cm. long; capsule globose, nearly 3 cm. in diameter; seeds about 
2 cm. long, angled. 

Forests, St. Croix (according to Eggers); St. Thomas :— Florida ; Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; continental tropical America; Old World tropics. Occasionally 
planted for ornament. Batatilla ventruda. 

Operculina ventricosa (Bert.) Peter, native of the Lesser Antilles, a twining 
glabrous vine, with large cordate, entire leaves, and large, white or cream-colored 
flowers, is planted for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Islands gardens. [Con- 
volvulus ventricosus Bert. ; Ipomoea ventricosa Choisy ; Argyreia tiliaefolia of Stahl, 
not of Wight.] 

9. RIVEA Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 407. 1833. 

Twining woody vines, mostly with broad leaves and large axillary flowers. 
Sepals enlarged in fruit. Corolla funnelform to campanulate. Ovary 4-celled; 
ovule 1 in each cavity. Style 1; stigma globose. Fruit baccate, indehiscent. 
[Commemorates Aug. de la Rive, Swiss physician.] A few species, of tropical 
distribution, the following typical. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 119 

1. Rivea campanulata (L.) House, Muhlenbergia 5: 72. 1909. 

Ipomoea campanulata L. Sp. PI. 160. 1753. 

Convolvulus tiliaefolius Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 3: 544. 1789. 

Rivea tiliaefolia Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6: 407. 1833. 

Argyreia tiliaefolia Wight, Icones 4 2 : 12. 1850. 

Stictocardia tiliaefolia Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 18: 159. 1893. 

Stem rather stout, puberulent when young, 2-4 m. long or longer. Leaves 
long-petioled, broadly ovate or ovate-orbicular, thin, 8-15 cm. long, entire or 
nearly so, puberulent beneath, the apex acute, short-acuminate or obtuse, the 
base cordate; peduncles short, stout, 1-few-flowered; sepals ovate, rounded, 
puberulent, 1-1.5 cm. long in flower, about 3 cm. long in fruit; corolla rose, 7-8 
cm. long; berry subglobose, 2-2.5 cm. in diameter; seeds puberulent, 8-10 mm. 
long. 

Thickets along and near the northern and western coast of Porto Rico; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; West Indies (except Bahamas); 
continental tropical America and Old World tropics. 

10. TURBINA Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 81. 1838. 

Vines with cordate leaves, and axillary peduncled clusters of large or middle- 
sized flowers. Sepals ovate to lanceolate, spreading and little enlarged in fruit. 
Corolla campanulate or funnelform. Ovary 2-celled or 4-celled; stigmas 2. 
Fruit dry, woody, indehiscent, subglobose or ovoid, 1-celled, mostly 1-seeded, the 
seeds smooth. [Latin, from the supposed top-shaped fruit. ] About 20 species, 
natives of tropical regions, the following typical. 

l. Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 81. 1838. 

Convolvulus corymbosus L. Syst. ed. 10, 923. 1759. 

Convolvulus domingensis Desv. in Lam. Encycl. 3: 554. 1791. 

Convolvulus sidaefolius H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 99. 1818. 

Ipomoea sidaefolia Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve, 6: 459. 1833. 

Ipomoea Burmannii Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 350. 1845. 

Rivea corymbosa Hall. f. Bot. Jahrb. 18: 157. 1893. 

Ipomoea antillana Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 84. 1900. 

High-climbing or trailing, glabrous. Leaves slender-petioled, ovate, entire, 
4-10 cm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base; peduncles 
axillary, as long as the leaves or longer, corymbosely or paniculately several- 
many-flowered, the pedicels slender; sepals oblong, persistent, the 3 inner ones 
8-12 mm. long, nearly twice as long as the two outer; corolla white, 2.5-3 cm. 
long; fruit ovoid, acute, about half as long as the longer sepals, 1-seeded. 

Thickets at lower elevations, western districts of Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Tobago; continental tropical America north to Mexico. 
Christmas Vine. Aguinaldo. 

Porana paniculata Roxb., White Coralita, Christmas Vine, East 
Indian, grown for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a whitish- 
pubescent twining vine, sometimes 10 m. long, with ovate cordate leaves 7-15 
cm. long and very numerous, small white-panicled flowers only about 3 mm. 
long, the fruit a very small globose capsule. It is widely grown for ornament in 
tropical regions. 

Argyreia speciosa (L. f.) Sweet, East Indain, grown for ornament in Porto 
Rico, as in many other West Indian islands, is a high-climbing-vine, the stout 
stems w T hite-tomentose, the long-petioled, suborbicular leaves 1-3 dm. broad, 
silvery-tomentose beneath, green and glabrous above, the long peduncles urn- 




120 CUSCUTACEAE 

bellately several-flowered, the bracted flowers with a rose-colored corolla 5-6 
cm. long, the yellow fruit baccate. [Convolvulus speciosus L. f. ; Argyreia brac- 
teala Choisy.] 

Convolvulus matutinus West, and Convolvulus venenatus West, de- 
scribed in 1793 as from St. Croix, were not identified by subsequent botanists. 

Family 2. CUSCUTACEAE Dumort. 

Dodder Family. 

White, red or yellow slender or filiform parasites, dextrorsely twining, 
the leaves reduced to minute alternate scales. Calyx inferior, 5-lobed or 
5-parted (rarely 4-lobed or 4-parted), or of 5 distinct sepals. Corolla 5-lobed 
(rarely 4-lobed), the tube bearing as many fimbriate or crenulate scales as 
there are lobes and alternate with them, or these sometimes obsolete. 
Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, inserted in the throat or sinuses above 
the scales; anthers short, ovate or oval, obtuse, 2-celled, the sacs longi- 
tudinally dehiscent. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity; styles 2, 
terminal, separate, or rarely united below; stigmas linear or capitate. Cap- 
sule globose or ovoid, circumscissile, irregularly bursting or indehiscent, 
3-4-seeded. Seeds glabrous; embryo linear, terete, curved or spiral, its 
apex bearing 1-4 minute alternate scales; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons none. 
Only one genus. 

1. CUSCUTA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PL 124. 1753. 

Characters of the family. The filiform twining stems are parasitic on herbs 
and shrubs by numerous minute suckers. The seeds germinate in the soil and 
the plantlet attaches itself to its host, its root and lower portion soon perishing. 
The subsequent nutrition of the parasite is apparently wholly through its suckers. 
Indications of a small amount of green coloring matter, possibly chlorophyll, 
have been observed in some species. [Name from the Arabic ] About 100 
species or more, of wide distribution. Type species : Cuscuta europaea L. Known 
as Bejuco de Mona, Fideos and Dodder. 

Capsule circumscissile. 

Corolla-lobes obtuse. 1. C. americana. 

Corolla-lobes acute or acuminate. 2. C. umbellate,. 

Capsule indehiscent. 

Flowers scarcely fleshy. 

Corolla-lobes obtuse. 3. C. glandulosa. 

Corolla-lobes acute or acuminate, the tips inflexed. 4. C. pentagona. 

Flowers fleshy; corolla-lobes acuminate. 5. C. indecora. 

1. Cuscuta americana L. Sp. PL 124. 1753. 

Cuscuta americana congesta Progel, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 7: 376. 1871. 
Cuscuta americana spectabilis Progel, loc. cit. 377. 1871. 

Stems slender, sometimes high-climbing on shrubs. Flowers cymose or 
subracemose, 2.5-4 mm. long, 5-parted; calyx tubular, its ovate-orbicular lobes 
obtuse; corolla cylindric, its tube about as long as the calyx, its ovate obtuse 
lobes erect or slightly spreading; scales triangular or oblong-triangular, fringed, 
shorter than the corolla-tube; filaments shorter than the anthers; capsule globose- 
ovoid, circumscissile, capped by the withering corolla; seeds usually 1 or 2, about 
1.5 mm. long. 

On herbs and shrubs at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tor tola; Virgin Gorda: — West Indies; Mexico. 



HYDROPHYLLACEAE 121 

2. Cuscuta umbellata H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 121. 1818. 

Stems very slender. Flowers 3-6 mm. long, 5-parted, pedicelled in dense 
compound cymes; calyx turbinate, its triangular-ovate lobes acute or acuminate; 
corolla campanulate; corolla-lobes as long as the tube or longer, lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, reflexed; scales obovate or spatulate, fringed; filaments as 
long as the anthers or somewhat longer ; capsule depressed-globose, circumscissile, 
surrounded by the withering corolla; seeds about 1 mm. long. 

On herbaceous plants, southwestern dry districts of Porto Rico at low elevations; 
Muertos: — Jamaica; Cuba; southern and southwestern United States; Mexico. 

3. Cuscuta glandulosa (Engelm.) Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 969. 1903. 

Cuscuta obtusiflora glandulosa Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 1: 492. 1859. 

Stems slender. Flowers 5-parted, not fleshy, about 2 mm. long, sessile or 
subsessile in dense globose clusters; calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse; corolla campanu- 
late, its ovate obtuse lobes erect, spreading, or becoming reflexed, shorter than 
the tube; scales fimbriate, about as long as the corolla-tube; filaments longer than 
the anthers; capsule indehiscent, depressed-globose, the withering corolla remain- 
ing at its base; seeds 2-4. 

Sierra de Naguabo, Porto Rico, collected only by Britton and Cowell, determined 
by Prof. Youncker: — Cuba; southern United States; Mexico. 

4. Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. Am. Journ. Sci. 43: 340. 1842. 

Cuscuta arvensis Beyr. ; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 77. Hyponym. 1834. 
Cuscuta pentagona calycina Engelm. Am. Journ. Sci. 45: 76. 1845. 

Stems nearly filiform, the 5-parted flowers nearly sessile in small globose 
clusters. Calyx-lobes obtuse; corolla nearly campanulate, the lobes acute or 
acuminate, about as long as the tube, their tips inflexed; scales large, ovate, 
densely fringed all around with short irregular processes; filaments longer than 
the anthers; capsule depressed-globose, indehiscent, the withering corolla re- 
maining at its base; seeds about 4, about 1 mm. long. 

Near Manati and Arecibo, Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Martinique; 
Canada and the United States; northern Mexico. 

5. Cuscuta indecora Choisy, Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 9: 278. 1841. 

Cuscuta decora Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 1: 501. 1859. 

Cuscuta indecora neuropetala Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 549. 1896. 

Cuscuta portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 502. 1910. 

Stems rather slender. Flowers 3-5 mm. long, fleshy, pedicelled in compact 
or rather loose clusters; calyx-lobes triangular or lanceolate, acute or acutish; 
corolla campanulate; its triangular acute lobes inflexed; scales ovate to nearly 
spatulate, deeply fringed, as long as the corolla-tube or longer; filaments about as 
long as the anthers; capsule globose, pointed, indehiscent, enclosed by the 
withering corolla; seeds 2-4, about 1.7 mm. long. 

On Lippia reptans, shore of Lake Guanica, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
United States; northern Mexico; Venezuela. 

Cuscuta corymbosa R. & P., a species of Mexico and Central America and 
C. racemosa Choisy, Brazilian, were recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, doubt- 
less in error. 

Family 3. HYDROPHYLLACEAE Lindl. 
Water-leaf Family. 

Herbs, mostly hirsute, pubescent or scabrous, with alternate or basal, 
rarely opposite leaves, and perfect regular 5-parted flowers, in scorpioid 



122 EHRETIACEAE 

cymes, spikes or racemes, or rarely solitary. Calyx inferior, deeply cleft 
or divided. Corolla gamopetalous. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla, 
and alternate with its lobes; filaments filiform; anthers mostly versatile, 
2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Disk annular, or none. Ovary 
superior, 2-celled, or 1-celled with 2 placentae; styles 2, separate, or partly 
united; stigmas small, terminal; ovules anatropous or amphitropous. Cap- 
sule 1-2-celled, mostly loculicidally 2-valved. Seeds usually pitted, rugose 
or reticulated; endosperm fleshy or cartilaginous; embryo small; cotyledons 
half-terete or plano-convex. About 17 genera and 175 species, mostly 
natives of western North America. 

1. MARILAUNIDIUM Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 434. 1891. 

Branching pubescent herbs, with alternate entire leaves, the flowers solitary 
in the axils. Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla funnelform or salverform, 5-lobed, the 
lobes imbricated in the bud. Stamens mostly included, borne on the corolla- 
tube. Ovary 1-celled, or incompletely 2-celled; ovules numerous. Fruit a 
2-valved capsule. [In honor of Dr. Anton Kerner, Knight of Marilaun, 1831- 
1898.] About 20 species, natives of America, the following typical. 

1. Marilaunidium jamaicense (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 434. 1891. 

Nama jamaicense L. Syst. ed. 10, 950. 1759. 
Hydrolea jamaicensis Raensch. Nom. ed. 3, 76. 1797. 

Annual, much branched, the branches prostrate, 0.7-4 dm. long. Leaves 
thin, spatulate or obovate, 1-5 cm. long, obtuse or apiculate, narrowed to a 
sessile, somewhat decurrent base; peduncles 6 mm. long or less; calyx-segments 
hirsute, linear, 6-8 mm. long; corolla white or purplish, about as long as the calyx, 
its lobes broad; capsule oblong, a little longer than the calyx. 

Moist or dry shaded situations, southern dry districts of Porto Rico; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas: — Florida; Texas; Bermuda; West Indies; Mexico to Venezuela. Jamaica 
Weed. 

Phlox Drummondii Hook., Texan, of the related family Polemoniaceae, 
grown for ornament in Porto Rican and Virgin Island gardens, is a low villous 
and viscid annual, with alternate oblong to lanceolate leaves 1.5-4 cm. long, and 
large corymbose flowers, the salverform corolla white, red or purple. 

Phlox ovata L., North American, listed by Krebs as formerly grown in St. 
Thomas, where it may have been planted, is an erect glabrous perennial, with 
opposite, oblong or lanceolate leaves and purple flowers. 



Family 4. EHRETIACEAE Schrad. 
Ehretia Family. 

Shrubs, trees or rarely herbs, with alternate estipulate simple entire or 
dentate leaves, and perfect regular flowers in heads, spikes, cymes or pani- 
cles. Calyx 2-5-lobed, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, mostly 5-lobed, the 
lobes spreading. Stamens mostly 5, borne on the base of the corolla-tube, 
the anthers introrse. Ovary superior, 1-4-celled; styles 2, distinct or rarely 
united, or 4, united in pairs; ovules 1 or 2 in each cavity of the ovary. Fruit 
a drupe. Seeds 1-4. About 20 genera, including some 350 species, of 
tropical and warm-temperate regions. 



EHRETIACEAE 123 

A. Styles each 2-cleft, distinct, or united below. 

Calvx 10-12-ribbed. „ . 

Calyx 3-5-toothed; corolla withering-persistent. 1. Verdana. 

Calyx circumscissile; corolla deciduous. 2. Calyptracordia. 

Calyx not ribbed. 

Corolla-tube exceeding the calyx, which becomes fleshy or 

accrescent in fruit. 3. Sebesten. 

Corolla-tube little if at all exceeding the herbaceous calyx. 

Flowers corymbose-cymose; trees. 4. Cordia. 

Flowers spicate, glomerate or capitate; mostly shrubs. 5. Varronia. 

B. Styles simple, united below or wholly connate. 

Corolla salverform; unarmed trees or shrubs. 6. Bourreria. 

Corolla rotate; often spiny shrubs or small trees. 7. Rochefortia. 

1. CERDANA R. & P. Fl. Per. 2: 47. 1799. 

Trees, with alternate entire leaves and rather large flowers in terminal 
panicles, often glomerate at the ends of the panicle-branches. Calyx obconic or 
subcylindric, 10-ribbed, 3-5-toothed. Corolla salverform, marcescent, its tube 
about as long as the calyx, its usually 5 lobes contorted, often as long as the tube. 
Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. Styles 2-cleft. Fruit described as oblong 
and 1-celled. [Commemorates Francisco Cerda y Rico.] A few species, of 
tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Cerdana alliodora R. & P. Fl. Per. 2: 47. 1799. 

Cordia Gerascanthus Jacq. Sel. Amer. 43. 1763. Not L. 1759. 
Cordia alliodora Cham. Linnaea 8: 121. 1833. 

A tree, 8-20 m. high, the twigs, inflorescence and calyx more or less densely 
stellate-pubescent. Leaves oblong to elliptic, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic- 
obovate, subchartaceous, 7-15 cm. long, or the upper smaller, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base mostly narrowed, the under surface stellate-pubescent, the 
petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; panicles large, sometimes 3 dm. broad, many- 
flowered; flowers sessile, in glomerules; calyx 4-7 mm. long, stellate-tomentulose, 
strongly ribbed; corolla white, fading brown, its lobes oblong-spathulate, about 
as long as the calyx. [Cordia gerascanthoides of Cook & Collins, not of Linnaeus; 
C. Gerascanthus subcanescens of Eggers.] 

Forests, river valleys and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; 
ascending to about 900 m.; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Antigua to Trinidad; continental tropical America. The light brown wood, valued for 
furniture and for construction, is strong and durable. Capa. Capaw. Spanish Elm. 

2. CALYPTRACORDIA Britton. 

Trees, with broad alternate petioled leaves, the white or yellow flowers In 
broad terminal panicles. Calyx oblong or campanulate, 10-12-ribbed, mem- 
branous, 5-toothed, irregulaily circumscissile above, the top calyptriform. 
Corolla short-funnelform, deciduous, plicate, the limb spreading, 5-toothed. 
Stamens 5, short. Styles 2, each 2-cleft. Fruit an ovoid drupe, the pit 2-4- 
celled. [Greek, capped-Cordia.] A few species, of tropical America, the following 
typical. 

1. Calyptracordia alba (Jacq.) Britton. 

Varronia alba Jacq. Enum. 14. 1760. 
Cordia alba R. & S. Syst. 4: 466. 1819. 
Varronia calyptrata DC. Prodr.-9: 469. 1845. 

A shrub, or small tree 3-5 m. high, rarely taller, up to 10 m. high, the branches 
slender and sometimes vine-like, the twigs, petioles and inflorescence pilose. 



124 EHRETIACEAE 

Leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 4-12 cm. long, chartaceous, repand-dentate, 
scabrous above, pilose beneath, at least on the veins, the apex acute or obtuse, 
the base obtuse or rounded; panicles many-flowered, often broader than long, 
sometimes 2 dm. broad; flowers very nearly sessile; calyx pubescent, 4-6 mm. 
long, obovoid in bud; corolla white, or cream-colored, 10-16 mm. broad; drupe 
white, 10-16 mm. long. 

Thickets and river-banks, dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. 
Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua to Barbados and Aruba; Mexico to 
Venezuela. Cerezas blancas. White Manjack. 

3. SEBESTEN Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 177. 1763. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate broad petioled, entire or few-toothed leaves, 

and large showy flowers in terminal cymes or rarely solitary. Calyx tubular, 

3-5-toothed. Corolla salverform, the tube nearly cylindric, the limb spreading, 

6-15-lobed. Stamens borne on the corolla-tube, as many as the corolla-lobes; 

anthers sagittate. Ovary 2-4-celled; styles usually 2, each 2-cleft; stigmas 

capitate. Drupe ovoid, adnate to the accrescent calyx and enclosed by it, the 

stone bony. Seeds without endosperm. [Name, Arabic, originally applied to a 

different tree.] About 12 species, of tropical and subtropical America. Type 

species: Cordia Sebestena L. 

Calyx strigose; fruit white. 1. S. Sebestena. 

Calyx glabrous; fruit yellow or orange. 2. S. Rickseckeri. 

1. Sebesten Sebestena (L.) Britton; Small, Fl. Miami 158. 1913. 

Cordia Sebestena L. Sp. PI. 190. 1753. 

A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 10 m., with a trunk up to 1.5 
dm. in diameter, the scaly bark dark brown, the young twigs brown-hairy. 
Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, thick, 8-20 cm. long, repand-dentate or entire, 
dark green and scabrate above, paler green beneath, acuminate, acute or obtuse 
at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, the petioles 3-5 cm. long; cymes 
compound, several-many-flowered; pedicels 5-15 mm. long; calyx strigose, cy- 
lindric, 1-1.8 cm. long, its lobes short; corolla orange, its tube twice as long as the 
calyx, its limb 2.5-4 cm. broad; drupe round, 5-8-lobed, white, pointed, 2-4 cm. 
long, the flesh thin. 

Occasional along roadsides; much planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands, but not known to be native within the range of this flora: — Florida; Bahamas; 
Cuba; HisDaniola; Guadeloupe to Barbados; Margarita; Curacao; continental tropical 
America. The brown wood is hard, with a specific gravity of about 0.7. San Barto- 

LOME. VOMITEL COLORADO. GEIGER TREE. ANACONDA. ALOE-WOOD. 

2. Sebesten Rickseckeri (Millsp.) Britton, 

Cordia Sebestena brachycalyx Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 389. 1899. 
Cordia Rickseckeri Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 1: 522. 1902. 
Sebesten brachycalyx Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 457. 1916. 

A tree, 4-8 m. high, similar to the preceding species, the leaves often very 
scabrous above, elliptic or ovate-elliptic or sometimes oblong; cymes usually 
many-flowered; calyx cylindric, glabrous or nearly so; corolla orange-red, its 
limb 2-3 cm. broad; drupe ovoid, yellow or orange. 

Coastal thickets, eastern and southern districts cf Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; 
St. Thomas; Tortola. Endemic. San Bartolome. 

4. CORDIA L. Sp. PI. 190. 1753. 

Trees, sometimes shrubs, with broad alternate leaves, and small or medium- 
sized, mostly 5-parted flowers in corymbose panicles. Calyx pubescent or 



EHRETIACEAE 125 

glabrous, not ribbed, its teeth short. Corolla salverform or subrotate, its tube 
short. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. Ovary 4-celled; styles 2-cleft. 
Fruit a fleshy drupe. [Commemorates Valerin Cordus, 1515-1544, German 
physician and botanist.] Fifty species, or more, natives of tropical regions. 
Type species : Cordia glabra L. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves chartaceous; petioles slender. 

Calyx tomentulose; flowers sessile. 1. C. glabra. 

Calyx glabrate; flowers short-pedicelled. 2. C. nilida. 

Leaves coriaceous; petioles stout. 3. C. borinquensis. 

Leaves tomentulose-scabrous, 1.5-3 dm. long, sbort-petioled. 4. C. sulcata. 

1. Cordia glabra L. Sp. PL 191. 1753. 

Cordia Collococca L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 274. 1762. 
Lithocardium Collococca Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 438. 1891. 
Cordia micrantha Sw. Prodr. 47. 1788. 

A tree, 7-15 m. high, with spreading branches, the young twigs and the in- 
florescence puberulent. Leaves elliptic to obovate or oblong-obovate, charta- 
ceous, often fallen at flowering-time, 7-15 cm. long, entire or slightly repand, 
glabrous and smooth above, sparingly puberulent beneath, the apex acute or 
obtuse, the base narrowed or rounded, the slender petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; panicles 
many-flowered, 4-8 cm. broad; flowers sessile; calyx densely tomentulose, globose 
in bud, 3-5-toothed, 1.5-2 mm. long; corolla white, 5-6 mm. broad ; drupe globose, 
red, about 8 mm. in diameter. [Cordia elliptica of Bello, not of Swartz.] 

Hillsides, woodlands, fields and valleys at lower elevations, Porto Rico, in dry or 
moist districts; Culebra; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies (except 
Bahamas). Its wood is rather soft and not durable. Palo de mtineca. Manjack. 

2. Cordia nitida Vahl; West, Bidr. St. Croix 275. 1793. 

A tree, occasionally 20 m. high, usually much smaller, sometimes shrubby, 
the slender twigs puberulent. Leaves elliptic to obovate-elliptic, chartaceous, 
4-14 cm. long, entire, glabrous, shining above, the apex acute or obtuse, the base 
narrowed, the slender petioles 6-15 mm. long; panicles many-flowered, peduncled, 
10 cm. broad or less; pedicels puberulent, 1.5-3 mm. long; calyx nearly glabrous, 
globose in bud, about 4 mm. long, 3-5-toothed; corolla white, 10-12 mm. broad; 
drupe globose, bright red, viscid, about 8 mm. in diameter. [Cordia elliptica of 
Sprengel, of Krebs and of Stahl, not of Swartz; (?) C. laevigata of Schlechtendal, 
not of Lamarck.J 

Woodlands, hillsides, forests and arroyos, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations 
in dry and moist districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola. The fruit is eaten by wild doves. Cereza. Muneca. West Indian 
Cherry. Red Manjack. 

3. Cordia borinquensis Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 390. 1899. 

A tree, with maximum height of about 20 m., usually much smaller, the twigs 
puberulent, the flowers dioecious. Leaves elliptic, oval or obovate, coriaceous, 
glabrous, 0.S-2.5 dm. long, entire, strongly reticulate-veined, the apex obtuse, 
rounded or short-acuminate, the base obtuse, rounded or rarely narrowed, the 
stout petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; panicles short-peduncled, several-many-flowered, 
4-8 cm. broad; flowers subsessile; calyx obovoid in bud, puberulent, about 3.5 
mm. long, 5-lobed or that of the staminate flowers somewhat smaller; corolla 
white, about 8 mm. broad; drupe ovoid to globose, red, about 7 mm. long. 

Woods and forests in wet or moist districts, mostly at middle or higher elevations, 
Porto Rico. Endemic. Its light yellow wood is rather hard and heavy. Capa ctmar- 
ron. Muneca. 



126 EHRETIACEAE 

4. Cordia sulcata DC. Prodr. 9: 488. 1845. 

. Cordia macrophylla R. & S. Syst. 4: 452. 1819. Not L. 

A tree, 6-20 m. high, with furrowed bark, the twigs tomentulose. Leaves 
ovate to ovate-elliptic, large, 1-3 dm. long, repand or nearly entire, scabrous- 
tomentulose on both sides, the apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or 
subcordate, the stout tomentose petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; panicles peduncled, 
many-flowered, 8-20 cm. broad; flowers sessile; calyx tomentulose, obovoid in 
bud, 3-5-toothed, 3^4 mm. long; corolla about 4 mm. broad; drupe subglobose, 
yellowish-translucent when young, white when mature, 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Hillsides, wocdlands and forests, Porto Rico, in wet and moist districts at lower and 
middle elevations; Vieques; St. Croix according to West); St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor- 
tola: — Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad. Moral. White Manjack. 



Cordia Myxa L. [ Varronia abyssinica DC], an Old World species, was listed 
by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, presumably in error. 



5. VARRONIA P. Browne, Hist. Jam. 172. 1756. 

Shrubs, or small trees, with scabrous or pubescent leaves, the small, usually 
white flowers variously clustered, mostly sessile in heads, spikes or glomerules. 
Calyx 4-5-toothed. Corolla salverform or funnelform, the limb 4— 5-lobed. 
Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, mostly included. Ovary 4-celled. Styles 
2-cleft; stigmas small, capitate. Fruit a small, slightly fleshy drupe, often little 
longer than the calyx-tube and sometimes enclosed by it, containing 4 nutlets or 
fewer. [In honor of Marcus Varro, a distinguished Roman, born 116 B.C., died 
27 B. C] Seventy species or more, of tropical and subtropical America. Type 
species: Lantana corymbosa L. 

A. Flowers spicate. 1. V. angustifolia. 

B. Flowers capitate or glomerate. 

1. Heads peduncled. 

Heads panicled or subcorymbose. 2. V. corymbosa. 

Heads solitary. 

Leaves dentate; calyx-lobes nearly filiform, hirsute. 3. V. globosa. 

Leaves entire, repand or denticulate; calyx-teeth ovate to 
linear. 
Calyx-teeth linear-appendaged. 4. V. bahamensis. 

Calyx-teeth ovate. 

Leaves bullate. 5. V. lima. 

Leaves not bullate. 6. V. rupicola. 

2. Inflorescence subsessile,- axillary, few-flowered. 7. V. Bellonis. 



1. Varronia angustifolia West; Willd. Sp. PI. l: 1081. 1797. 

Cordia angustifolia R. & S. Syst. 4: 460. 1819. Not Roxb. 1814. 

A shrub, 1—3 m. high, erect, sometimes forming thickets, the twigs, leaves 
and inflorescence scabrous-puberulent. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, 
chartaceous, low-serrate, 3-7 cm. long, the apex obtuse or acutish, the base 
narrowed, the petioles 1-5 mm. long; spikes solitary, terminal or lateral, pe- 
duncled, slender, 2-4.5 cm. long; flowers numerous, sessile; calyx globose in bud, 
2-2.5 mm. long, its lobes ovate; corolla white, 4-5 mm. broad; fruit subglobose, 
red, about as long as the calyx. [Cordia cylindrostachya of Eggers, of Millspaugh 
and of Urban, not of Ruiz and Pavon.] 

Hillsides and thickets, southern and southwestern dry districts of Porto Rico at 
lower and middle elevations; St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Eggers): — Cuba; 
Hispaniola (?). 



EHRETIACEAE 127 

2. Varronia corymbosa (L.) Desv. Journ. Bot. l: 275. 1808. 

Lantana corymbosa L. Sp. PI. 628. 1753. 

Cordia ulmifolia Juss.; Dumont, Bot. Cult. 21 148. 1802. 

Cordia corymbosa G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 383. 1838. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, with slender, sometimes elongated and vine-like 
branches, the slender twigs densely short-pubescent. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 
thin, serrate, 5-12 cm. long, or the upper smaller, dark green, scabrous and with 
scattered white hairs above, paler or nearly white and tomentulose beneath, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded, subcordate or sometimes narrowed, 
the rather stout pubescent petioles 2-12 mm. long; peduncles axillary, bearing 
several small globose heads of small white or greenish flowers, or sometimes only 
one head, often leafy-bracted ; calyx subglobose in bud, strigose, 5-toothed, 2-3 
mm. long; corolla about 5 mm. wide ; fruit red, globose, about as long as the calyx. 
[Cordia spinescens of Sessg & Mocino, not of Linnaeus.] 

Thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Vieques; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trini- 
dad; continental tropical America. Consists of several slightly differing races. Basora. 
Saraguero. Palo de perico. Black Sage. 

3. Varronia globosa Jacq. Enum. 14. 1760. 

Cordia globosa H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 76. 1818. 
Cordia dasycephala H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 76. 1818. 

A usually much-branched shrub, 1-3 m. high, the slender twigs hispid. 
Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 1.5-6 cm. long, rather coarsely 
serrate, short-petioled, rough and papillose-hispid above, pubescent and strongly 
veined beneath, acute or bluntish at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base ; 
flowers in solitary dense globular peduncled heads, the peduncles mostly shorter 
than the leaves; calyx hispid, 5-cleft, 6-8 mm. long, its teeth nearly filiform; 
corolla white, about 6 mm. long; drupe red, about 4 mm. long. 

Thickets and hillsides, in the dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico, at low 
elevations; Mona; recorded from St. Croix and St. Thomas by West, by Schlechtendal 
and by Eggers, but not seen by us in the Virgin Islands: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cayman Islands; St. Barts to Trinidad; Margarita; Curacao; continental tropical 
America. Curacao Bush. Cupillo. 

4. Varronia bahamensis (Urban) Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 310. 1909. 

Cordia bahamensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 392. 1900. 

A usually much-branched shrub, 1-2 m. high, rarely a small tree 3-4 m. high, 
the branches slender, the young shoots appressed-setulose. Leaves various, 
linear-oblong to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 2-10 cm. long, 0.5-5 cm. wide, acute, 
obtuse or rounded at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base, entire or few- 
toothed, subcoriaceous, setulose-scabrous above, pilose beneath, at least on the 
veins, the petioles 4-20 mm. long; peduncles as long as the leaves or shorter; 
flowers capitate; heads solitary, several-many-flowered; calyx loosely pubescent, 
4—5-lobed, the lobes triangular with linear slender tips 2-3 mm. long; corolla 
white, 4-5-lobed, 3-4 mm. long, its lobes ovate, obtuse; drupe ovoid, obtuse, red 
to black, about 4 mm. long. 

Sandy plain, West End, Anegada: — Bahamas; Cuba. 

5. Varronia lima Desv. Journ. Bot. 1 : 278. 1808. 

Cordia lima R. & S. Syst. 4: 465. 1819. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, the twigs hirsute-scabrous. Leaves ovate or elliptic* 
rigid, coriaceous, 2-5 cm. long, dentate, very scabrous above and bullate, sca- 
brous-pubescent and reticulate-veined beneath, the apex obtuse, rounded or 
acute, the base mostly obtuse, the hirsute petioles 3-10 mm. long; glomerules 



128 EHRETIACEAE 

terminal or also lateral, few-flowered, short-peduncled or subsessile ; calyx densely 
hirsute, globose, about 3 mm. long, 4-5-toothed, the teeth ovate ; corolla white, 
6-8 mm. broad ; fruit globose, about as long as the calyx. 

Mountain slopes and serpentine hillsides, northwestern Porto Rico: — Hispaniola. 



6. Varronia rupicola (Urban) Britton. 

Cordia rupicola Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 392. 1899. 

A large shrub, up to 5 m. in height, the twigs setulose-strigose. Leaves 
ovate to elliptic or oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, 2-9 cm. long, low-crenate or 
entire, the apex acute or obtuse, the base rounded, obtuse or narrowed, the 
strigose petioles 2-10 mm. long; heads solitary, terminal or also lateral, densely 
several-many-flowered, the peduncles 4 cm. long or shorter; calyx obovoid in 
bud, appressed-pilose, 4-5-lobed, 4-5 mm. long; corolla white, about 7 mm. 
broad; fruit ovoid, red; about 5 mm. long. 

Hillside thickets at low elevations, dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico. En- 
demic. 



7. Varronia Bellonis (Urban) Britton. 

Cordia Bellonis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 393. 1899. 

A straggling shrub, about 1 m. high, the very slender twigs appressed- 
puberulent. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, or some of them obovate, 
chartaceous 2-6 cm. long, dentate or denticulate, scabrous above, puberulent 
beneath, the apex acute, the base acute or obtuse, the petioles 2-7 mm. long; 
inflorescence axillary, few-flowered, nearly sessile, subglomerate; calyx in bud 
globose-obovoid, about 2 mm. long, 4-lobed, the lobes triangular; corolla 4-lobed, 
subcylindric; drupe ovoid, pointed, about 5 mm. long. 

Mountain-sides, vicinity of Maricao, Porto Rico. Endemic. A peculiar species, 
not closely related to the others, perhaps generically distinct. 



Varronia martinicensis Jacq. [Cordia martinicensis R. & S.], a species of 
the southern Lesser Antilles, with spicate flowers and large ovate serrate leaves 
was recorded by Grisebach as found on St. Croix, but the only species with spicate 
flowers now known from that island is V. angustifolia West. 



6. BOURRERIA P. Browne; Jacq. Enum. 2, 14. 1760. 

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate petioled entire leaves, and white 
flowers in terminal corymb-like cymes. Calyx campanulate, 2-5-lobed, the lobes 
valvate. Corolla salverform, the limb 5-lobed. Stamens 5, borne on the corolla- 
tube, the filaments filiform. Ovary sessile, 2-celled or incompletely 4-celled; 
styles 2-cleft or connate; stigmas flattened. Fruit a drupe, with thin flesh t 
inclosing 4 bony nutlets ridged on the back. [Commemorates J. A. Beurer, a 
Nuremberg apothecary,] About 25 species, of tropical America. Type species: 
Bourreria succulenta Jacq. 

Leaves large, mostly 7-12 cm. long; style-branches connate; tall 

tree, sometimes shrubby. 1. B. succulenta. 

Leaves small, mostly 2-5 cm. long; shrubs or small trees. 

Style-branches connate. 2. B. revoluta. 

Style-branches divaricate. 

Leaves smooth above. 3. B. domingensis. 

Leaves scabrous above. 4. B. virgata. 



EHRETIACEAE 129 

1. Bourreria succulenta Jacq. Enum. 14. 1760. 

Bourreria succulenta canescens O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 521. 
1910. 

A tree, up to about 10 m. bigh, usually lower, sometimes shrubby, the bark 
gray, smooth, the twigs, leaves and inflorescence glabrous in wet and moist 
districts, canescent or tomentose in dry regions, the branches spreading or droop- 
ing. Leaves elliptic to obovate, or the lower ones suborbicular, 5-12 cm. long, 
flat, chartaceous, the apex obtuse, acute or emarginate, the base narrowed or 
obtuse, the petioles 5-20 mm. long; inflorescence several-many-flowered; pedicels 
2-12 mm. long; calyx campanulate, 5—7 mm. long, its lobes acute; corolla 7-10 
mm. broad, its lobes rounded; stamens somewhat exserted; style-branches con- 
nate ; drupe subglobose, orange or red, 8-11 mm. in diameter. [Ehretia Bourreria 
of Krebs, of Bello and of Sesse" and Mocino, not of Linnaeus.] 

Hillsides, plains and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; Mona; Icacos; Culebra; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — West Indies 
(except Bahamas). Roble guayo. Palo de Vaca. Spoon Tree. 

2. Bourreria revoluta H.B.K, Nov. Gen. 3: 53. 1818. 

Bourreria succulenta revoluta O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 7: 59. 1911. 

A small tree or shrub, the young twigs short-pilose or glabrous. Leaves 
elliptic to obovate, mostly 4 cm. long or shorter, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, 
smooth or scabrate, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles 
2-10 mm. long; inflorescence few-several-flowered; pedicels short; calyx 5-6 mm. 
long, somewhat pubescent; corolla about 10 mm. broad; drupe about 8 mm. in 
diameter. 

Recorded by Schulz as collected by Gundlach near Quebradillas and Camuy, Porto 
Rico: — Florida; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

3. Bourreria domingensis (DC.) Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 482. 1861. 

Ehretia domingensis DC. Prodr. 9: 508. 1845. 

A shrub, or a small tree 4-8 m. high, the twigs slender, densely leafy, glabrous, 
or when young sparingly pubescent. Leaves obovate or elliptic, 2-6 cm. long, 
smooth, subcoriaceous, glabrous or very nearly so, the apex rounded or emargin- 
ate, rarely mucronate, the base narrowed, the petioles 2-8 mm. long; inflorescence 
few, several-flowered, short-peduncled ; calyx sparingly puberulent, about 6 mm. 
long, its lobes ovate, acute; corolla 10-12 mm. broad; style-branches divaricate; 
drupe red, subglobose, about 8 mm. in diameter. 

Limestone hills in the dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico at low elevations, and 
near Quebradillas; Vieques: — Hispaniola. Perhaps not distinct from the following 
species. 

4. Bourreria virgata (Sw.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 389. 1838. 

Ehretia virgata Sw. Prodr. 17. 1788. 

Bourreria virgata vestita O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 7: 66. 1911. 

A shrub or small tree, the twigs, leaves and inflorescence either glabrous or 
tomentose, the branches densely leafy. Leaves obovate, oblong or elliptic, sub- 
coriaceous, 2-7 cm. long, scabrous above, pubescent or glabrous beneath, the 
apex rounded or emarginate, the base narrowed, the petioles 4-15 mm. long; 
inflorescence peduncled, 2-several-flowered ; calyx 4-6 mm. long, canescent or 
tomentose, its teeth ovate, acute; corolla about 12 mm. broad; style-branches 
divaricate; drupe subglobose, 5-8 mm. in diameter. 

Limestone hills in the dry southwestern parts of Porto Rico, at low elevations: — 
Hispaniola. 



130 BORAGINACEAE 

7. ROCHEFORTIA Sw. Procir. 53. 1788. 

Shrubs or small trees, mostly armed with spines, the leaves entire, petioled, 
often fascicled, the small, mostly dioecious, terminal flowers cymose or glomer- 
ate or solitary. Calyx 4-5-parted, the lobes imbricated. Corolla rotate, the 
tube very short, the 4 or 5 filaments filiform; anthers ovate. Disk thick. Ovary 
2-celled or falsely 4-celled; styles 2, terminal, filiform; stigmas dilated. Drupe 
fleshy, globose, containing 4 hard nutlets. [Commemorates Cesar de Rochefort, 
a French naturalist of the seventeenth century.] About 8 species, natives of 
the West Indies and northern South America. Type species : Rochefortia cuneata 
Sw. 

Unarmed or with some short spines; peduncles slender, few-several 

flowered. 1. R. cuneata. 

Very spiny; flowers solitary or 2 together, nearly sessile. 2. B. acanthophora. 

1. Rochefortia cuneata Sw. Prodr. 54. 1788. 

A shrub, or recorded as sometimes forming a small tree up to 8 m. high, 
glabrous and unarmed, or bearing a few short spines. Leaves obovate, mem- 
branous, 2-5 cm. long, the apex rounded or emarginate, the base narrowed or 
cuneate, the slender petioles about 1 cm. long or shorter; peduncles very slender, 
0.5-3 cm. long, few-several-flowered; calyx campanulate, about 2 mm. long, its 
rounded lobes ciliate; corolla 8-10 mm. broad; drupe yellow, globose, about 6 mm. 
in diameter. 

La Plata, near Guanica, collected by Sintenis, determined by Urban from barren 
specimens. — Jamaica; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique. The leaves of 
this plant much resemble those of Torrubia discolor. 

2. Rochefortia acanthophora (DC.) Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 482. 1861. 

Ehretia acanthophora DC. Prodr. 9: 510. 1845. 

A usually small tree, 5-8 m. high, recorded as sometimes 15 m. high, often 
shrubby, densely and intricately branched, armed all over with straight slender 
stiff spines, 5-15 mm. long or longer, the tortuous, glabrous twigs rather densely 
leafy. Leaves obovate, spatulate or oval, subcoriaceous, 8-22 mm. long, shining 
above, glabrous or pubescent beneath, the petioles very short; flowers solitary or 
2 together, nearly sessile; calyx about 2 mm. long; its short lobes ciliate; corolla 
small; drupe globose, yellowish, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Hillsides, thickets and arroyos, southern and southwestern dry districts of Porto 
Eico; St. Croix (according to Grisebach and to Eggers); St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Jamaica; 
Hispaniola; St. Martin; Antigua (according to Grisebach); St. Eustatius. Juzo. 

Ehretia tinifolia L., a tree inhabiting Jamaica, Cuba and Hispaniola, was 
listed by Krebs in 1851 as found in St. Thomas, doubtless in error. 

Family 5. BORAGINACEAE Lindl. 

Borage Family. 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate, 
estipulate, mostly entire and hispid, pubescent, scabrous or setose. Flowers 
perfect, usually regular, in one-sided scorpioid spikes, racemes, cymes, or 
sometimes scattered. Calyx inferior, mostly 5-lobed, 5-cleft, or 5-parted, 
usually persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, mostly regular and 5-lobed, 
rarely irregular. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes and alternate with 
them, inserted on the tube or throat; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally 



BORAGINACEAE 131 

dehiscent. Disk commonly inconspicuous. Ovary, superior, of 2, 2-ovuled 
carpels, entire, or the carpels commonly deeply 2-lobed, making it appear 
as of 4, 1-ovuled carpels; style simple, entire or 2-cleft; ovules anatropous 
or amphitropous. Fruit mostly of 4, 1-seeded nutlets, or of 2, 2-seeded 
carpels. Endosperm fleshy, copious, or none; cotyledons mostly flat or 
plano-convex; radicle short. About 100 genera and 1,500 species or more, 
of wide distribution. 

Fruit drupaceous. 

Fruit hollowed at base; coastal silky-tomentose shrub. 1. Malloionia. 

Fruit not hollowed at base. 2. Tournefortia, 

Fruit dry, of 2-4 nutlets. 

Nutlets united in pairs forming a 2-lobed or didymous fruit. 

Nutlets conic, ribbed, the fruit 2-lobed. 3. Tiaridium. 

Nutlets subglobose, rugose, the fruit didymous. 4. Schobera. 

Nutlets separating. 5. Heliotropium. 

1. MALLOTONIA [Griseb.] Britton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 47. 

1915. 

Silvery-silky shrubs of the seacoast, -with alternate leaves and small white 
flowers in dense, 1-sided cymes, the fruits almost capitate. Calyx mostly 5- 
parted; corolla salverform, the 5-lobed limb shorter than the nearly cylindric 
tube, the lobes broad, valvate. Stamens short, included. Style simple. Drupe 
dry and bony, ovoid-conic, hollowed at the base, 2-pyrenous, the dissepiments 
solid. [Latin, related to Mallota.] One species, or perhaps 2, of tropical and 
subtropical distribution, the following typical. 

1. Mallotonia gnaphalodes (L.) Britton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 47. 1915. 

Heliotropium gnaphalodes L. Syst. ed. 10, 913. 1759. 
Tournefortia gnaphalodes R. Br.; R. & S. Syst. 4; 538. 1819. 

A somewhat fleshy shrub, 3-12 dm. tall, with silky-tomentose foliage, much 
branched and often forming large clumps, the twigs densely leafy. Leaves 
numerous, linear-spatulate, 4-10 cm. long, obtuse; inflorescence with 2-4 recurved 
branches; calyx campanulate, tomentose. its lobes 2-3 mm. long, oblong; corolla- 
tube somewhat surpassing the calyx, its limb 4-5 mm. broad; fruit ovoid, 5 mm. 
high, black, with 2 nutlets. 

Coastal sands, Porto Rico, Mona: Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies; Central America. 
Nigua de Plata, Te del Mar. Bay Lavender. Temporana. 

2. TOURNEFORTIA L. Sp. PI. 140. 1753. 

Trees, shrubs or vines, with alternate entire leaves, and small secund flowers 
in terminal, often forked cymes, the cyme-branches usually elongated. Calyx 
persistent, 5-parted. Corolla mostly salverform, the tube cylindric, swollen 
above, the lobes spreading. Stamens 5, borne on the corolla-tube, included; 
filaments short; anthers ovate to lanceolate. Ovary 4-celled; style terminal, 
2-lobed at the apex. Drupe small, the exocarp fleshy or corky, containing 4 
nutlets or fewer. [Commemorates Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, 1656-1708, 
renowned French botanist.] Over 100 species of tropical and subtropical regions. 
The name Nigua is applied to the species in Porto Rico. Type species: Tourne- 
fortia hirsutissima L. 

A. Drupe subglobose, or ovoid, not lobed. 

Woody vines or tall shrubs with large elliptic leaves. 

Branches and leaves hirsute. 1. T. hirsutissima. 



132 BORAGINACEAE 

Branches and leaves glabrous, or when young sparingly 
appressed-pubescent or puberulent. 
Corolla-tube stout, about 3 times as long as the calyx. 2. T. bicolor. 

Corolla-tube very slender, 4-5 times as long as the calyx. 3. T. filiflora. 
Low shrub with small scabrous leaves. 4. T. scabra. 

B. Drupe 2-4-lobed. 

Corolla-tube 4-7 mm. long; rather stout vines or shrubs. 

Corolla-tube 6-7 mm. long, its lobes flliform-appendaged. 5. T. laurifolia. 

Corolla-tube about 4 mm. long, its lobes acuminate. 6. T. peruviana. 

Corolla-tube only about 2 mm. long; slender vines. 

Leaves various, small, short-petioled, mostly 1-3 cm. long. 7. T. microphylla. 
Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, slender-petioled, mostly 4-8 
cm. long. 8. T. volubilis. 

1. Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Sp. PI. 140. 1753. 

A stout short-hirsute vine, up to 5 m. long or longer, or shrubby. Leaves 
elliptic or ovate-elliptic, thin, 8-20 cm. long, short-hirsute beneath, scabrate- 
hirsute above, the apex acuminate, acute or rarely obtuse, the base narrowed, or 
obtuse, the stout petioles 1-2 cm. long, inflorescence usually ample, corymbose, 
many-flowered, 6-15 cm. broad, the branches densely several-many-flowered, 
short in flower, in fruit 3-4 cm. long; sepals about 3 mm. long, ovate, acuminate; 
corolla white, its tube densely strigose, 4-6 mm. long, its lobes ovate, acute; 
drupe globose, white, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Thickets, river-banks and forest borders, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, 
in drv and moist districts; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — 
Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; Margarita; continental 
tropical America. Chiggery Grapes. Chiggernit. 

2. Tournefortia bicolor Sw. Prodr. 40. 1788. 

Tournefortia laevigata Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 416. 1791. 

A rather stout vine, 1-6 m. long or longer, sometimes shrubby, the young 
branches sparingly short-pubescent. Leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, or oblong- 
elliptic, thin, darker green above than beneath, 6-15 cm. long, glabrous or nearly 
so on both sides, smooth or scabrate above, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
rounded or narrowed, the petioles 1-3 cm. long; inflorescence corymbose, usually 
many-flowered, 6-15 cm. long, its branches short in flower, 2-5 cm. long in fruit, 
hispidulous or strigose; sepals about 2 mm. long, ovate, acute; corolla white, its 
tube strigose, 2-3 times as long as the calyx; drupe subglobose, about 4 mm. in 
diameter; flowers fragrant. 

Thickets, woodlands and forests, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in 
moist and wet districts; St. Thomas:- — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad; 
continental tropical America. 

3. Tournefortia filiflora Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 483. 1861. 

A shrub, 2-4 m. high, the young branches and the inflorescence puberulent 
or strigillose. Leaves elliptic, glabrous, 1-3.5 cm. long, paler green beneath than 
above, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles about 5 cm. 
long or shorter; inflorescence ample, strigillose, its branches slender, 2-6 cm. 
long; sepals about 2 mm. long, lanceolate; corolla white, its strigose tube slender, 
about 4 times as long as the calyx; drupe globose, about 4 mm. in diameter, white. 
[T. foetidissima of de Candolle, of Krebs, of Eggers, and of Stahl, not of Lin- 
naeus.] 

Woods and forests in moist and wet districts, Porto Rico, mostly at middle or 
higher elevations; St. Croix (according to West); St. Thomas (according to Krebs); 
St. Jan (according to Eggers): — St. Martin to St. Vincent. 

4. Tournefortia scabra Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 417. 1791. 

A low vine-like shrub, about 2 m. long or less, the slender branches often 
straggling, strigose when young. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, coriaceous, rigid, 



BORAGINACEAE 133 

2-4.5 cm. long, scabrous above, scabrous-pubescent beneath, the apex acute or 
obtuse, the base rounded or narrowed, the petioles 1.5-5 mm. long; inflorescence 
strigose-pubescent, about 5 cm. broad or smaller, its few branches 2-4 cm. long; 
sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, strigose, about 2 mm. long; corolla white or 
yellowish, its strigose tube about 4 mm. long; fruit ovoid, white, about 3 mm. 
long. [T. incana of Stahl, not of Lamarck.] 

Thickets at lower elevations in the dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico near 
the coast: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas. 

5. Tournefortia laurifolia Vent. Choix des Plantes 2. 1803. 

Messersehmidia laurifolia R. & S. Syst. 4: 543. 1819. 

A rather slender vine, 2-6 m. long, or shrubby, the young shoots and in- 
florescence sparingly strigillose. Leaves ovate to elliptic, membranous, glabrous 
on both sides, 5-12 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or 
narrowed, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence slender-ped- 
duncled, 2-3-branched, the slender branches about 10 cm. long or less, several- 
many flowered; sepals ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, about 2 mm. 
long; corolla greenish yellow, its strigillose tube about 6 mm. long, its ovate lobes 
acuminate, filiform-appendaged ; drupe 2-4-lobed, smooth, 7-8 mm. broad. 
[T. volubilis of Sess§ & Mocino, not of Linnaeus.] 

Wooded hills and forests, in wet or moist districts, mostly at middle or higher 
elevations, Porto Rico. Endemic. Erroneously recorded from St. Thomas by Ventenat 
and by de Candolle. Bejuco masa. 

6. Tournefortia peruviana Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 425. 1816. 

A rather slender vine, 2-5 m. long or longer, or shrubby, the young branches 
and the inflorescence strigillose or glabrate. Leaves ovate or elliptic, thin, 
glabrous on both sides, 4-8 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base mostly 
rounded or obtuse, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence several- 
branched, the slender branches 2-7 cm. long; sepals 1.5-2 mm. long, ovate, acute; 
corolla greenish or yellowish, its strigose tube about 4 mm. long, its lobes ovate, 
acuminate; drupe 2-4-lobed, 4-5 mm. broad, yellow. [T. scandens of Will- 
denow, not of Miller; T. laurifolia of Grisebach and of Bello, not of Ventenat.] 

Thickets, Coamo River Valley at Moreno and near Mayaguez, Porto Rico: — Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Mexico to Peru and Brazil. 

7. Tournefortia microphylla Bert.; Spreng. Syst. 1: 644. 1825. 

T. volubilis microphylla DC. Prodr. 9: 523. 1845. 

A slender woody vine, often somewhat fleshy, 1-3 m. long, the young 
branches and inflorescence strigillose. Leaves ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 
small, 1-3 cm. long, glabrous, or puberulent beneath, the apex obtuse, rounded 
or sometimes acute, the base rounded or narrowed, the petioles about 4 mm. 
long or shorter; inflorescence slender-peduncled, its few branches very slender, 
2-3 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm. long; corolla greenish, its tube about 
twice as long as the calyx, its lanceolate lobes acute; drupe usually 4-lobed, 
depressed, about 4 mm. broad, white, with 4 black spots. 

Hillsides and thickets at low elevations in the dry southern districts of Porto Rico; 
Mona; Icacos; Vieques, St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — His- 
paniola; St. Martin. Recorded from Antigua and from northwestern South America. 
A race with lanceolate acute leaves occurs on St. Croix and St. Thomas. 

8. Tournefortia volubilis L. Sp. PI. 140. 1753. 

Messersehmidia volubilis R. & S. Syst. 4: 541. 1819. 

A slender, woody vine, sometimes 3.5 m. long, the branches and. leaves 
pubescent, puberulent or glabrate. Leaves ovate to oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 



134 BORAGINACEAE 

2-8 cm. long, thin, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the 
base, the slender petioles 5-15 mm. long; inflorescence slender-peduncled, of 
several very slender branches 2-4 cm. long; sepals about 1 mm. long, ovate- 
lanceolate, acute; corolla greenish-white, twice as long as the calyx, its lobes 
linear-subulate, shorter than the tube; fruit 2-4-lobed, with 2-4 black spots, 
depressed, 2-3 mm. broad. [Tournefortia ferruginea of Grisebach, apparently 
not of Lamarck; ? T. canescens of Krebs.] 

Thickets at lower elevations in moist districts, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix (ac- 
cording to Eggers); St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; Texas; West Indies; continental 
tropical America. 

Tournefortia glabra L. was erroneously recorded by Krebs from St. 
Thomas [T. cymosa L.]. 

3. TIARIDIUM Lehm. Asperif. 13. 1818. 

A coarse annual herb, with broad alternate thin long-petioled leaves, and 
small blue 5-parted flowers in elongated bractless scorpioid spikes. Sepals 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute. Corolla salverform, its tube rather slender, 
longer than the limb, its broad lobes undulate. Stamens included. Style very 
short; nutlets united in pairs, conic, strongly ribbed, forming a mitriform fruit. 
[Greek, like a tiara, referring to the fruit.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Tiaridium indicum (L.) Lehm. Asperif. 14. 1818. 

Heliotropium indicum L. Sp. PI. 130. 1753. 
Heliophytum indicum DC. Prodr. 9: 556. 1845. 

Hirsute or hispid ; stem 3-9 dm. high. Leaves ovate or oval, obtuse, rounded 
or subcordate at the base, 5—15 cm. long, repand or undulate-margined, petioled; 
flowers 4-6 mm. broad, sessile in dense, terminal or also lateral, usually solitary, 
scorpioid spikes; sepals acute, shorter than the strigose corolla-tube; style very 
short, deciduous; fruit deeply 2-lobed, glabrous, about 2.5 mm. long. [Helio- 
phytum parviflorum of Bello, not of Linnaeus.] 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan ; Virgin Gorda : — Florida ; West Indies ; continental tropical America . Naturalized 
from the Old World tropics. Cotorrera. Indian Heliotrope. 

4. SCHOBERA Sc.op. Introd. 158. 1777. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and small 5-parted 
flowers in ebracteate scorpioid spikes. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla salverform, 
with a short tube, its lobes imbricated, obtuse. Stamens short, included. Nut- 
lets united in pairs, forming a didymous fruit. [Commemorates Gottlieb Schober, 
explorer.] About 10 species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Schobera angiosperma (Murr.) Britton. 

Heliotropium angiospermum Murray, Prod. Stirp. Goett. 217. 1770. 

Heliotropium parviflorum L. Mant. 2: 201. 1771. 

Heliophytum parviflorum DC. Prodr. 9: 553. 1845. 

Heliophytum portoricense Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 297. 1881. 

Annual, or sometimes of longer duration, loosely pubescent, branched, 2-8 
dm. high, or vine-like and 1 m. long. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, 7 cm. 
long or less, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, the 
petioles 5-15 mm. long; spikes solitary or 2 together, slender, 5-15 cm. long; 
sepals 'acute; corolla white, bearded in the throat, about 2 mm. broad, its tube 



BORAGINACEAE 135 

about as long as the calyx; fruit didymous, depressed, 3-4 mm. broad finely, 
pubescent. 

Banks, thickets, waste and cultivated grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; 
Mona; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — 
Florida; West Indies; continental tropical America. Scorpion-tail. Cotorrilla. 

5. HELIOTROPIUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 130. 1753. 

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate mostly entire leaves, and small blue or 
white flowers, in scorpioid spikes, or scattered. Calyx-lobes or sepals lanceolate, 
ovate, or linear. Corolla salverform or funnelform, its tube cylindric, its lobes 
imbricated, plicate or induplicate in the bud. Stamens included; filaments 
short, or none. Stigma conic or annular. Fruit separating into 4, 1-seeded 
nutlets. [Greek, sun-turning, i. e., turning to or with the sun.] About 100 
species, widely distributed. Type species: Heliotropium europaeum L. 

Plant glabrous, fleshy. 1. H. curassavicum. 

Plants pubescent or strigose, not fleshy. 

Annual; leaves oblong or oval or oblong-spatulate. 2. H. inundatum. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs. 

Shrub 4-20 dm. high. 3. H. ternatum. 

Low herbs or shrubs. 

Flowers in bracted spikes. 4. H. fruticosum. 

Flowers mostly solitary at the axils, peduncled, or in ter- 
minal racemes. 
Plant densely white-strigose. 5. H. crispiflorum. 

Plants green, loosely strigose or pilose. 

Leaves and flowers very nearly sessile. 6. H. guanicense. 

Leaves distinctly petioled; flowers slender- 

peduncled. 7. H. antillanum. 

1. Heliotropium curassavicum L. Sp. PI. 130. 1753. 

Annual, fleshy, more or less glaucous, diffuse, the branches 1.5-4.5 dm. long. 
Leaves linear, or linear-oblong, entire, inconspicuously veined, 2-5 cm. long, 
3-6 mm. wide, obtuse, narrowed into petioles, or the upper sessile; scorpioid 
spikes dense, bractless, mostly in pairs; flowers about 4 mm. broad; calyx- 
segments acute; corolla white with a yellow eye or changing to blue; stigma 
umbrella-shaped; anthers acuminate; fruit subglobose. [? H. portulacoides of 
Bello.] 

Saline soil along the coasts, Porto Rico; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. 
Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida to Texas; Bermuda; West Indies; 
continental tropical America; Old World tropical coasts. Seaside Heliotrope. Co- 

TORRERA DE LA PLATA. 

2. Heliotropium inundatum Sw. Prodr. 40. 17S8. 

Heliotropium cinereum H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 89. 1818. 

Annual, often branched from the base, 1-6 dm. tall, the stems and leaves 
gray-strigose. Leaves oblong to oval or oblong-spatulate, 2-5 cm. long, obtuse 
at the apex, narrowed at the base, short-petioled; spikes 1 or few, slender, at 
length 3-6 cm. long; calyx 2-3 mm. long, its lobes linear-lanceolate ; corolla white, 
about as long as the calyx, its lobes lanceolate; nutlets subglobose, about 1 mm. 
in diameter. [Lisianthus chelonioides of Stahl, not of Linnaeus.] 

Wet or moist open situations at low elevations, Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Trinidad; continental tropical America. Slender 
Heliotrope. Cotorrera de agua. 

3. Heliotropium ternatum Vahl, Symb. 3: 21. 1794. 

Tournefortia humilis L. Sp. PI. 141. 1753. Not H. humile Lam. 1791. 
Heliotropium humile R. Br. Prodr. 1: 497. 1810. 

A strigose-pubescent, bushy-branched shrub 2 m. high or less, the branches 
slender, ascending. Leaves lanceolate or linear, sessile, subverticillate in 3's. 



136 BORAGINACEAE 

or opposite, or alternate, 1-3 cm. long, 1.5-8 mm. wide, acutish, revolute-mar- 
gined, rough-strigose on both sides; flowers white, in short terminal spikes; 
calyx about 3 mm. long, its lobes ovate, acute; corolla-tube somewhat longer than 
the calyx, the limb 3-4 mm. wide; nutlets subglobose. [H. fruticosum of Krebs, 
of Eggers and of Millspaugh.] 

Thickets and hillsides in the dry southwestern districts, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; 
St Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba ?; Hispaniola; 
Saba (ex Kuntze) Antigua to St. Vincent; Bonaire; Curacao; Aruba; continental tropical 
America. Bushy Heliotrope. 

4. Heliotropium fruticosum L. Syst. ed. 10, 913. 1753. 

Hcliotropium campechianum H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 86. 1818. 
? Heliotropium humile Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 393. 1791. 

Herbaceous, apparently annual, erect, branched, strigose, 1.5-3 dm. high, 
the branches slender. Leaves linear-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, strigose, sub- 
sessile, or the lower short-petioled, 1-2.5 cm. long, the apex acute or obtuse, the 
base narrowed; flowers nearly sessile, in slender elongated spikes which usually 
bear some leaf-like bracts; sepals ovate, strigose, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla 
white, 1-2 mm. wide; nutlets subglobose. [? H. fiUforme of Grisebach, not of 
Kunth.] 

Fields and pastures in the dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico at low elevations : 
— Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Margarita, Curacao; Aruba; Guatemala to Colombia. 
The specific name fruticosum is misleading. 

5. Heliotropium crispiflorum Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 394. 1899. 

A low, much-branched shrub, about 3 dm. high or less, densely white-strigose, 
the branches very slender. Leaves mostly opposite, some of them alternate, 
2-7 mm. long, nearly sessile, linear to oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, the 
apex acute or obtuse, the base narrowed, both surfaces white-strigose; flowers 
short-pedicelled in very slender terminal racemes which sometimes bear some 
leaf-like bracts; sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, strigose, about 2 mm. 
long; corolla white, about 4 mm. broad, its lobes ovate, crisped, rounded; nutlets 
subglobose. 

Calcareous hillsides, dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico; Mona; Anegada: — 
Hispaniola. 

6. Heliotropium guanicense Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 395. 1899. 

Perennial, somewhat woody, much-branched from the base, the slender, 
loosely strigose branches about 10 cm. long or less, spreading as ascending. 
Leaves ovate to elliptic, 2-4 mm. long, loosely strigose on both sides, nearly 
sessile, the apex obtuse or acute, the base mostly narrowed; flowers solitary at 
the upper axils; peduncles 2 mm. long or shorter; sepals oblong, ovate or oblong- 
lanceolate, about 1 mm. long, narrowed below; corolla about 2 mm. broad, its 
lobes linear-lanceolate, nutlets very small, globose. 

Punta de Aguila, near Salinas de Cabo Rojo, Porto Rico. Endemic. Known only 
from this locality, on the southwestern coast, many kilometers from Guanica. 

7. Heliotropium antillanum Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 528. 1910. 

Herbaceous, apparently perennial, with several or many slender, prostrate 
or ascending, pilose stems 1-6 dm. long. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
3-9 mm. long, sparingly pilose, or glabrous, the apex obtuse or acute, the base 
narrowed, the petioles 1-1.5 mm. long; flowers solitary at or above the axils; 
peduncles 2-6 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, pilose, about 2 mm. long; corolla white 
with a yellow eye, 3-4 mm. wide, its lobes rounded ; nutlets very small. 

Northern coastal plain between Dorado and Vega Baja, Porto Rico, collected only 
by Stahl: — Cuba. 



VERBENACEAE 137 

Heliotropium peruvianum L., Garden Heliotrope, Heliotropo, 
Peruvian, often grown in Porto Rican and Virgin Island gardens for its fragrant 
flowers, is a perennial pubescent herb 5-8 dm. high, the leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute, 2-8 cm. long, the small, usually purple, fragrant flowers in terminal clusters. 

Cochranea anchusaefolia (Poir) Giircke, South American, recorded as 
found long ago by Gundlach near San Juan, perhaps in cultivation, is a hirsute 
perennial with oblong or oblong-lanceolate leaves 2-8 cm. long, the flowers violet- 
blue, about 5 mm. broad, spicate. [Heliotropium anchusaefolium Poir.] 

Borago officinalis L., Bora, Borage, European, found by Sintenis in 
cultivation near Lares, Porto Rico, is a rough-hispid herb with oblong or obovate 
leaves 5-12 cm. long, and showy blue flowers in terminal racemes. 

Family 6. VERBENACEAE J. St. Hil. 

Vervain Family. 

Herbs, shrubs or some tropical genera trees, with opposite verticillate, or 
rarely alternate leaves, and perfect irregular or regular flowers, in spikes, 
racemes, cymes or panicles. Calyx inferior, mostly persistent, usually 4-5- 
lobed or 4-5-cleft. Corolla-tube cylindric and the limb 4-5-cleft. Stamens 
4, didynamous, rarely only 2, or as many as the corolla-lobes, inserted on 
the corolla and alternate with its lobes; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longi- 
tudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 2-4-celled (rarely 8-10-celled), com- 
posed of 2 carpels, each carpel with 2 anatropous or amphitropous ovules, 
thus in 4-celled ovaries 1 ovule in each cavity; style terminal; stigmas lor 2. 
Fruit dry, separating at maturity into 2-4 nutlets, or a drupe containing 
the 2-4 nutlets. Endosperm little or none, or rarely fleshy; embryo straight. 
About 75 genera and 1,300 species, of wide geographic distribution. 

A. Inflorescence centripetal. 

1. Flowers capitate or spicate. 

a. Fruit with 4, 1-seeded nutlets or 1-seeded cavities. 

Calyx nearly tubular, enclosing the fruit. 1. Verbena. 

Ripe calyx broadly campanulate; fruit 2-4-horned. 2. Ghinia. 

b. Fruit with 2 drupelets or nutlets, or only one. 

♦Drupelets or nutlets 1-celled, 1-seeded. 
fStamens 4. 

Calvx very small, its tube membranous. 

Fruit drupaceous. 3. Lantana. 

Fruit dry or nearly so. 

Flowers in long slender spikes: bracts 

deciduous. 4. Aloysia. 

Flowers densely capitate or short-spicate; 

bracts persistent. 5. Lippia. 

Calyx tubular: fruit linear, dry; flowers spicate; 
low herbs. 
ttStamens 2; flowers in long spikes. 
**Drupelets 2-celled, 2-seeded. 

2. Flowers racemose; fruit drupaceous. 

Drupe with 2 nutlets; leaves alternate. 

Drupe with 4 nutlets; leaves opposite or whorled. 

B. Inflorescence centrifugal. 
1. Seeds laterally attached. 

a. Flowers regular ; stamens all alike. 

Drupe with several stones; shrubs. 

Stigma-lobes very short, subtruncate. 

Stigma-lobes filiform. 
Drupe with 1, 2-4-celled stone; tree with simple leaves. 

b. Flowers irregular; stamens in 2 dissimilar pairs. 

*Drupe with 1, 4-celled stone. 

Stamens 2 fertile, 2 sterile staminodes; trees with 

simple leaves. 
All 4 stamens fertile; trees with digitately com- 
pound leaves. 
**Drupe with 4 stones. 

Spiny shrub with long slender branches; stones of 
the drupe united in pairs. 



6. 

7. 
8. 


Bouchea. 

Valerianoides. 

Priva. 


9. 
10. 


Citharexylum. 
Duranta. 


11. 

12. 
13. 


Callicarpa. 
Aegiphila. 
Petitia. 


14. 


Cornutia. 


15. 


Vitex. 


16. 


Volkameria. 



138 VEKBENACEAE 

Unarmed herbs or shrubs, the stones of the drupe 
not united in pairs. 
Corolla-tube not very much longer than the lobes. 17. Clerodendrum. 
Corolla-tube very much longer than the short 

lobes. 18. Siphonanthus 

2. Seeds pendulous; marsh tree with capsular fruit. 19. Avicennia. 

1. VERBENA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 18. 1753. 

Herbs (some exotic species shrubby), mostly with opposite leaves, and bracted 
flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx usually tubular, 5-angled, unequally 5-toothed. 
Corolla salverform or funnelform, the limb spreading, regular or nearly so. Con- 
nective of the anthers unappendaged, or sometimes provided with a gland. Ovary 
4-celled; ovule 1 in each cavity; style usually short, 2-lobed at the summit, one 
of the lobes stigmatic. Fruit mostly enclosed by the calyx, at length separating 
into 4, 1-seeded linear or linear-oblong crustaceous nutlets. [Latin name of a 
sacred herb.] About 100 species, natives of America, or a single one indigenous 
in the Mediterranean region. 

l. Verbena scabra Vahl, Eclog. 2: 2. 1798. 

Annual, or perhaps of longer duration ; stem rather slender, erect, simple or 
branched, 1-1.5 m. high, pubescent with spreading hairs. Leaves 2-8 cm. long, 
ovate to lanceolate, papillose-scabrous above, pubescent on the veins beneath, 
regularly dentate nearly all around, acute or acuminate at the apex, slender- 
petioled; spikes very slender, spreading, often 15 cm. long, rather densely many- 
flowered; calyx about 2 mm. long, its lobes acute, converging over the fruit; 
corolla pinkish, about 4 mm. wide; nutlets nearly 2 mm. long. [V. urticaefolia 
of Bello and of Stahl, not of Linnaeus.] 

Fields, roadsides, river-banks, cultivated and waste grounds, Porto Rico: — south- 
eastern United States; Bermuda; Jamaica; Hispaniola; Central America. 

Verbena chamaedrifolia Juss., Gardbn Verbena, South American, 
planted for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is pubescent, with 
usually tufted stems about 3 dm. long, ovate or oblong, serrate leaves 2-5 cm. 
long, and red, scarlet or purple flowers in compact terminal clusters, the corolla- 
limb about 12 mm. broad. 



2. GHINIA Schreb. Gen. 19. 1789. 

[Tamonea Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 659, pi. 268. 1775. 

Not Aubl. l: 441, pi. 175. 1775.] 
Herbs or low shrubs, with slender stiff branches, opposite, nearly sessile, 
dentate or incised leaves, and small bracted flowers in terminal and axillary 
slender spikes or racemes. Calyx tubular, subtruncate, 5-ribbed, the ribs ex- 
current as short teeth. Corolla with a cylindric tube slightly enlarged above, 
and an oblique spreading 5-cleft limb. Stamens 4, didynamous, borne on the 
corolla-tube, included; anther-sacs parallel, the connective with a gland-like 
appendage. Ovary nearly completely 4-celled; ovule 1 in each cavity; style 
short; stigma oblong. Fruit small, hard, mostly 4-horned, 4-celled. Seeds 
usually 4, without endosperm. [Commemorates L. Ghini, 1500-1556, Italian 
physician and botanist.] Four or five species of tropical America. Type species: 
Tamonea spicata Aubl. 



VERBENACEAE 139 

1. Ghinia spinosa (Sw.) Britton & Wilson. 

Tamonea spinosa Sw. Prodr. 94. 1788. 

Ghinia verbenacea Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1089. 1800. 

Shrubby, much branched, about 6 dm. high or less, the slender branches 
finely pubescent and scabrous. Leaves puberulent, very short-petioled or sessile, 
the lower ones' oblong, 1 cm. long or less, incised-pinnatifid with obtuse or rounded 
lobes, the upper ones linear, entire, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; flowers distant, about 5 mm. 
long, in slender racemes, short-pedicelled, purple or whitish; fruiting calyx 
obconic, its teeth about 0.5 mm. long; horns of the glabrous shining fruit about 4 
mm. long. 

Rocky thickets and hillsides at lower elevations in dry parts of the southwestern 
districts of Porto Rico: — Antigua. Caedero. 

3. LANTANA L. Sp. PI. 626. 1753. 

Shrubs, or rarely herbs, with pubescent foliage, the stems sometimes armed 
with prickles. Leaves opposite or verticillate, toothed. Flowers in dense heads 
or spikes. Calyx membranous, with a truncate or sinuate border. Corolla-tube 
slender, often curved, sometimes slightly dilated above, the limb more or less 
2-lipped, the lobes 4 or 5. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments adnate to about 
the middle of the corolla-tube. Ovary 2-celled; stigma oblique; ovules solitary 
in each cavity. Fruit small, drupe-like. Nutlets 2-celled or separating into 2 
one-seeded nutlets. [Named from fancied similarity to Viburnum Lantana.] 
About 60 species, natives of tropical and warm regions, known as Cariaqctillo 
and Sage. Type species: Lantana Camara L. 

Corolla yellow to orange or changing to pink red or rose. 

Corolla orange, changing to red; stems smooth or prickly. 1. L. Camara. 
Corolla yellow to orange, changing to pink or rose; stems armed 

with curved prickles. 2. L. aculeata. 

Corolla white to lilac cr purple. 

Heads depressed-globose, involucrate; leaves opposite. 3. L. involucrata. 

Heads becoming much longer than thick, not involucrate, leaves 

mostly whorled in 3's. 4. L. trifolia. 

1. Lantana Camara L. Sp. PI. 627. 1753. 

Lantana scabrida Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew 2: 352. 1789. 

A branching shrub 0.6—1.5 m. tall, rigid-pubescent, unarmed, or prickly. 
Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, petioled, 2-12 cm. long, obtuse, acute, or short- 
acuminate, crenate-serrate, rounded or narrowed at the base; bracts oblong to 
lanceolate, 4-7 mm. long; calyx very thin, 3 mm. long; corolla orange-yellow or 
orange, changing to red, the tube about 1 cm. long, puberulent, slightly curved, 
barely enlarged above the middle, the limb 6-8 mm. wide; drupes black, about 
3 mm. in diameter. 

Hillsides, woods and thickets in both wet and dry districts, Porto Rico, ascending 
to higher elevations; Culebra; Vieques; Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; 
Virgin Gorda: — Florida; Bermuda; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad 
and Aruba; continental tropical America. Races differ in size and shape of leaves, in 
presence or absence of prickles and in size of flowers. The smaller-leaved plants are 
mostly in dry districts. Red Sage. Yellow Sage. 

2. Lantana aculeata L. Sp. PI. 627. 1753. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, or sometimes with longer, half-climbing stems, the 
slender, sparingly pubescent, 4-sided branches armed with stout flattened 
hooked prickles 2-4 mm. long. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, petioled, 5-8 
cm. long, crenate, reticulate- veined, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed to 
the base; peduncles 3-8 cm. long; heads several-many-flowered, not involucrate, 



140 VERBENACEAE 

the narrow bracts pubescent, 4-6 mm. long; corolla about 12 mm. long, yellow 
to orange, turning pink or rose, its limb 6-8 mm. broad. 

Roadsides, waste grounds and river-banks, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; Virgin Gorda: — Bermuda (introduced); Cuba; Hispaniola; Mar- 
tinique; Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Tobago. Prickly Sage. Pink Sage. 

3. Lantana involucrata L. Cent. PL 2: 22. 1756. 

Lantana odorata L. Syst. ed. 12, 418. 1767. 

A pubescent, much branched shrub, 6-15 dm. high, or occasionally a small 
tree 4 m. high, the branches stiff, nearly terete, the bark narrowly fissured. 
Leaves elliptic or ovate, petioled, 1-4 cm. long, crenulate, obtuse at the apex, 
narrowed or obtuse at the base, scabrous above, pubescent beneath; peduncles 
1-5 cm. long, slender; heads several-flowered, involucrate by several ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate bracts 3-6 mm. long; corolla lilac, violet or white, its tube 
6-8 mm. long; drupes blue, about 3 mm. in diameter. [L. reticulata of Eggers.] 

Hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, most abundant 
along and near the coasts; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; Muertos; Mona; Desecheo; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda.; West 
Indies; Central America; Galapagos. Races differ in size, shape and venation of leaves, 
in pubescence and in color of flowers. Santa Maria. Wild Sage. Button Sage. 



4. Lantana trifolia L. Sp. PL 626. 1753. 

Camara trifolia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 504. 1891. 

Rough-pilose, at least above, about 2.5 m. high or less. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, verticillate in 3's or some of them opposite, 
crenate-serrate, petioled, 5-12 cm. long, pubescent, rather thin, the apex acute 
or acuminate, the base narrowed; peduncles slender, shorter than the leaves; 
flower-heads dense, at first subglobose, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, in fruit elongating, 
oblong, 2-3 cm. long; bracts short, narrow; corolla pink, lavender or purple, its 
tube 5-6 mm. long; drupes purple or lavender, 2-3 mm. in diameter. 

Near Guayama, Porto Rico, and recorded from the western part of that island: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; St. Vincent; Tobago; Trinidad; continental 
tropical America. 

Lantana Sellowiana Link & Otto, Weeping or Trailing Lantana, South 
American, occasionally planted for ornament in Porto Rico gardens, has weak 
pubescent vine-like stems about 1 m. long, with oval or ovate leaves 2-3 cm. 
long, the lilac or purple flowers in peduncled heads, the corolla-limb about 8 mm. 
wide. 

4. ALOYSIA Ortega; Pers. Syn. 2: 139. 1807. 

Aromatic shrubs with opposite of verticillate leaves and small flowers in 
axillary or panicled slender spikes or racemes, their small bracts deciduous. 
Calyx angled, not flattened, 4-toothed, the teeth nearly equal. Corolla 2-lipped, 
the lips nearly equal in length. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary 2-celled. 
Nutlets 2, thin-walled. [Dedicated to Maria Louisa, wife of King Charles IV 
of Spain.] About 12 species, natives of warm-temperate and tropical America, 
the following typical. 

1. Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton. 

Verbena trifolia L'Her. Stirp. Nov. 1: 21. 1784. 
Zapania citriodora Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 59. 1791. 
Aloysia citriodora Ortega; Pers. Syn. 2: 139. 1807. 



VERBENACEAE 141 

Lippia citriodora H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 2: 269. 1817. 
Lippia triphylla Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 3 2 : 253. 1898. 

Stem roughish-puberulent above, branched, 1-3 m. high, the branches slen- 
der, striate. Leaves lanceolate, thin, resinous-dotted beneath, strongly aromatic, 
verticillate in 3's or 4's, short-petioled, nearly or quite entire, 4—7 cm. long, the 
apex acuminate, the base narrowed; spikes many-flowered, 4-6 cm. long, ver- 
ticillate in the upper axils and in a terminal Danicle; calyx densely puberulent, 
about 2 mm. long; corolla white, its tube somewhat longer than the calyx. 

Sparingly spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico. Native of South America. 
Widely cultivated in tropical regions for its foliage. Yerba Luisa. Lemon Verbena. 

5. LIPPIA L. Sp. PI. 633. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, or shrubs, with opposite, or rarely alternate leaves, and small 
bracted flowers, in spikes or heads. Calyx small, ovoid, campanulate, or com- 
pressed and 2-winged, 2-4-toothed or 2— 4-cleft. Corolla-tube cylindric, the 
limb oblique, somewhat 2-lipped, 4-cleft. Stamens 4, didynamous ; anthers ovate, 
not appendaged, the sacs nearly parallel. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules 1 in each cavity ; 
style short; stigma oblique or recurved. Fruit dry, with a membranous exocarp, 
at length separating into 2 nutlets. [Named in honor of Auguste Lippi, 1678- 
1703, a French naturalist.] Perhaps 100 species, most abundant in tropical 
America. Type species: Lippia americana L. 

Erect shrubs. 

Leaves 2-7 cm. long, finely crenate. 1. L. alba. 

Leaves 12 mm. long or less, crenate. 2. L. Helleri. 

Herbaceous, with trailing or ascending stems, sometimes somewhat 
woody. 
Trailing, herbaceous; leaves obovate to spatulate. 

Leaves faintly veined. 3. L. nodiflora. 

Leaves strongly veined. 4. L. reptans. 

Ascending, somewhat woody; leaves linear-lanceolate. 5. L. stoechadi folia. 

1. Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown. 

Lantana alba Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 

Lippia geminata H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 2: 266. 1818. 

Lippia geminata microphylla Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 495. 1861. 

Lippia lantanoides Coult. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 2: 328. 1892. 

An aromatic, densely puberulent shrub 1 m. high or less, usually much 
branched, the branches slender. Leaves ovate or oblong, 2-7 cm. long, acute 
or obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, crenate or crenulate, puberulent, 
rugose above, the petioles 3-8 mm. long; peduncles axillary, mostly much shorter 
than the leaves; heads subglobose, or short-oblong, 8-12 mm. long; bracts ovate, 
puberulent, acute, about 3 mm. long, nearly as long as the corolla ; calyx 2-toothed ; 
corolla purple, violet or white, its tube 4-5 mm. long, about 3 times as long as the 
calyx. 

Thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Vieques: — Bahamas (according to Grise- 
bach) ; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Trinidad; Mar- 
garita; continental tropical America. Sometimes cultivated. Poley. 

2. Lippia Helleri Britton, Torreya 3: 105. 1903. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, the very slender branches pubescent. Leaves obovate, 
6-12 mm. long, puberulent and resinous-dotted, crenate, the apex obtuse or 
rounded, the base narrowed or cuneate, the slender petioles 1.5-3 mm. long; 
heads axillary, several-flowered, about 8 mm. broad, on slender puberulent petioles 
3-6 mm. long; bracts broadly oblong, obtuse, densely puberulent, 2-3 mm. 
long; flowers white, tinged with purple; calyx 2-toothed, pubescent, corolla-tube 



142 VERBENACEAE 

about 4 mm. long, 3-4 times as long as the calyx. [L. cuneifolia of Sesse & Mocino 
not of Steudel; L. micromera of Urban, not of Schauer.j 

Hillsides and thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico. Cultivated for 
its aromatic foliage. Apparently endemic. Oregano. Mejorana. 

Lippia micromera Schauer, of northern South America, recorded as cul- 
tivated in Porto Rico, has narrower, nearly or quite entire leaves with revolute 
margins. 

3. Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 15. 1803. 

Verbena nodiflora L. Sp. PL 20. 1753. 
Phyla nodiflora Greene, Pittonia 4: 46. 1899. 

Minutely and rather densely puberulent, herbaceous, creeping, or the 
branches ascending, 3-9 dm. long. Leases thickish, spatulate, oblanceolate, or 
obovate, 1-6 cm. long, 0.6-2.5 cm. wide, inconspicuously veined, mostly obtuse, 
narrowed into a cuneate entire base, sharply serrate above the middle ; petioles 
2-8 mm. long, peduncles mostly much longer than the leaves; heads at length 
cylindric and 1-2.5 cm. long; corolla purple to white, little longer than the bracts. 

Fields, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; St. Thomas: — south- 
eastern United States; Bermuda; Jamaica; Cuba; Cayman Islands; Hisraniola; Guade- 
loupe; Martinique; warm-temperate and tropical parts of the Old World. Cidron. 
Cape-weed. 

4. Lippia reptans H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 2: 263. 1818. 

Lippia nodiflora reptans Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 508. 1891, 

Similar to L. nodiflora, densely appressed-strigillose, herbaceous, creeping, 
prostrate or ascending, 2-5 dm. long. Leaves obovate, 2-6 dm. long, obtuse or 
acutish at the apex, cuneate at the base, coarsely and sharply dentate above the 
base, usually prominently veined, the petioles 5-10 mm. long; peduncles mostly 
longer than the leaves; heads ovoid, becoming subcylindric and 2 cm. long or 
less; corolla white. [L. nodiflora of Eggers and of Millspaugh.] 

Banks, hillsides and plains at low elevations near the southern coast of Porto Rico; 
St. Croix: — West Indies; continental tropical America. 

5. Lippia stoechadifolia (L.) H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 2: 265. 1818. 

Verbena stoechadifolia L. Sp. PL 19. 1753. 

Phyla stoechadifolia Small, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gaid. 36: 162. 1909. 

Shrubby, loosely appressed-strigose, ascending or suberect, usually little 
branched, 2-4 dm. high. Leaves linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, rather 
firm in texture, 2.5-6 cm. long, strongly pinnately veined, sharply and evenly 
serrate, acute at the apex, narrowed into short petioles; peduncles axillary or 
lateral, mostly longer than the leaves; heads at first subglobose, at length 
oblong-cylindric, 1-2 cm. long, obtuse; bracts suborbicular, mucronate; calyx 
2-toothed, compressed; corolla about 4 mm. long, longer than the bracts, its tube 
twice as long as the calyx. 

Marshy borders of Lake Guanica, Porto Rico: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; continental tropical America. Occasionally grown as a medi- 
cinal herb in Porto Rico. 

6. BOUCHEA Cham. LinnaeaT: 252. 1832. 

Herbs or low shrubs, with opposite petioled toothed leaves, and small 
flowers in terminal bracted spikes or narrow racemes. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, 
5-ribbed, cylindric in fruit. Corolla-tube cylindric, slender, the limb obliquely 



VERBENACEAE 143 

spreading, 5-cleft, the lobes nearly equal. Stamens 4, didynamous, borne on the 
corolla-tube at or above the middle; filaments short; anthers ovate. Ovary 2- 
celled; ovules 1 or 2 in each cavity, erect; style filiform, subclavate above. Fruit 
linear or oblong, dry. enclosed in the calyx, separating into 2 linear nutlets. 
[Commemorates P. C. Bouchg and C. D. Bouche, German gardeners.] About 
15 species of tropical and warm temperate regions. Type species: Verbena 
Pseudogervao St. Hil. 

1. Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 502. 1891. 

Verbena prismatica L. Sp. PI. 19. 1753. 

Bouchea Ehrenbergii Cham. Linnaea 7: 253. 1832. 

Annual, erect, simple or few-branched, finely pubescent, 2-5 dm. high, the 
branches ascending. Leaves ovate, slender-petioled, 2-6 cm. long, serrate all 
around, acute at the apex, obtuse or subtruncate at the base; racemes narrow, 
elongated, often 2 dm. long or longer; pedicels very short, about 1 mm. long, 
erect; calyx narrowly cylindric, appressed to the axis of the raceme, about 10 
mm. long, its teeth linear-subulate, about one-third as long as the tube; corolla 
violet or purplish, about 10 mm. long; fruit a little longer than the calyx. 

Hillsides, fields and waste grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Culebra; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Saba; St. Eustatius; Antigxia; Barbados; 
Margarita; Curacao; continental tropical America. 

7. VALERIANOIDES [Boerh.] Medic. Phil. Bot. 1: 177. 1789. 

Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, toothed. 
Flowers spicate, solitary and sessile in the axils of bracts, or imbedded in furrows 
of the rachis. Calyx membranous or herbaceous, its lobes 5, usually unchanged 
at maturity. Corolla-tube sometimes slightly dilated above, the limb spreading, 
5-lobed. Stamens 2, included; anthers with unappendaged connectives; stami- 
nodia 2, small. Ovary 2-celled. Ovules solitary in each cavity. Fruit included 
in the calyx, separating into 2 nutlets. [Signifies similarity to Valeriana, but this 
is obscure.] More than 40 species, of tropical and subtropical America, known 
as Bretonica, Verbena or Vervain. Type species: Verbena jamaicensis L. 

Shrub; furrows as broad as the slender rachis. 1. V. cayennense. 
Herbaceous; furrows narrower than the rachis. 

Glabrous or puberulent. 2. V. jamaicense. 

Pilose-pubescent. 3. V. strigosum. 

1. Valerianoides cayennense (L. C. Rich.) Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. 510. 1891. 

Verbena cayennensis L. C. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 105. 1792. 
Stachytarpheta cayennensis Vahl, Enum. 1: 208. 1804. 

A shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, much-branched, the branches loosely pilose or gla- 
brate. Leaves opposite, ovate to elliptic, serrate or cuneate-serrate, 3-7 cm. 
long, scabrate above, sparingly pubescent on the veins beneath, the apex obtuse 
or rounded, the base narrowed or obtuse and more or less decurrent on the petiole; 
spikes about 2.5 dm. long or shorter, slender, the furrows about as broad as the 
rachis; bracts narrowly linear, setaceous-acuminate; calyx about 4 mm. long; 
corolla pale blue or white, about 5 mm. broad. 

Banks, hillsides and along rivers at lower elevations, Porto Rico, occasionally planted 
for ornament: — Jamaica; Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Barbados and Trinidad; South America. 
Recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas. A plant with fasciated spikes was observed at 
Dorado, Porto Rico. 



144 VERBENACEAE 

2. Valerianoides jamaicense (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 509. 1891. 

Verbena jamaicensis L. Sp. PL 19. 1753. 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Vahl, Enum. l: 206. 1805. 

Abena jamaicensis Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 117. 1893. 

Herbaceous, often purplish, 6-12 dm. high, sparingly pubescent or glabrate. 
Leaves alternate or opposite, oblong, ovate or oval, 2-8 cm. long, coarsely 
serrate, narrowed at the base, the petioles margined, as long as the blades or 
shorter; spikes stiff, often flexuous, 1.5-5 dm. long; the furrows narrower than the 
rachis; bracts lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-8 mm. long; calyx- 
teeth triangular or triangular-ovate; corolla blue, 8-11 mm. long, its tube slightly 
curved, the limb about 8 mm. broad. 

Banks, fields and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Culebrita; 
Vieques; St. Croix; Mona; Muertos; Culebra; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; 
Bermuda; West Indies; tropical continental America and Old World tropics. 

3. Valerianoides strigosum (Vahl) Britton. 

Stachytarpheta strigosa Vahl, Enum. 1: 207. 1804. 

V. jamaicense forma strigosum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 510. 1891. 

Herbaceous; stems densely pilose, rather stout, branched or simple, 3-6 dm. 
high. Leaves ovate to elliptic, 3-8 cm. long, pilose on both sides, crenate- 
serrate, the base narrowed and decurrent on the petiole; spikes rather stout, 
about 3 dm. long or shorter, somewhat curved, the furrows narrower than the 
rachis; bracts lanceolate, acuminate, pilose; corolla pale bluish-purple, its limb 
about 6 mm. broad. 

Banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Mona; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola: — Hispaniola; Antigua; recorded from St. Vincent and Trinidad. 

8. PRIVA Adans. Fam. PL 2: 505. 1763. 

Perennial or annual caulescent herbs. Leaves opposite, membranous, 
toothed, the flowers in slender peduncled racemes. Calyx- tube 5-ribbed ; lobes 5. 
Corolla salverform, its tube straight or incurved, slightly dilated above, its limb 
spreading, oblique, slightly 2-lipped, with 5 short lobes. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
Included; anthers with parallel or slightly divergent sacs. Ovary 2-celled, each 
cavity with more or less well-developed septa. Ovules 2, or by abortion 1, at 
base of each cavity. Fruit enclosed in the calyx, separating into 2 often prickly 
or muricate nutlets. [Name unexplained] About 10 species, of tropical dis- 
tribution. Type species: Verbena lappulacea L. 

Wholly herbaceous; corolla 4 mm. long; leaves 2-10 cm. long. 1. P. lappulacea. 

Woody below; corolla 6 mm. long; leaves 3 cm. long or less. 2. P. portoricensis. 

1. Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. Syn. 2: 139. 1806. 

Verbena lappulacea L. Sp. PL 19. 1753. 

Priva echinata Juss. Ann. Mus. Par. 7: 69. 1806. 

Herbaceous, annual, more or less pubescent. Stems 2-6 dm. tall, branching; 
leaves ovate, 2-10 cm. long, acute or acuminate, serrate, truncate or cordate at 
the base, the petioles much shorter than the blades; racemes loosely flowered, 
5-15 cm. long; pedicels 1-2 mm. long; calyx cylindric-prismatic, 2-3 mm. long, 
accrescent, pubescent; corolla slightly surpassing the calyx, salverform, with 
short rounded lobes; fruiting calyx ovoid-pyramidal, 5-7 mm. long; nutlets 2- 
seeded, spiny-tuberculate on the back. [Verbena mexicana of West.] 

Banks, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Bermuda; West 
Indies; continental tropical America. Bur-vervain. 



VERBENACEAE 145 

2. Priva portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 534. 1911. 

Somewhat woody below, annual, pilose at the nodes, 3-4 dm. high. Leaves 
triangular or ovate 0.5-3 cm. long, short-pilose above, crenate, the apex acute or 
obtuse, the base subtruncate, the petioles 2-12 mm. long; racemes 25 cm. long or 
shorter; pedicels 1-1.5 mm. long; calyx about 5 mm. long, densely pilose; corolla 
pale blue, its tube 6 mm. long, its lobes rounded or obovate; fruiting calyx 
subglobose; nutlets excavated on the inner face, 1-seeded, the prickles on the 
dorsal face in 2 rows. 

Thickets and woods near Guanica, Porto Rico, collected only by Sintenis. Endemic. 

Priva mexicana (L.) Pers., a Mexican species, was recorded by Krebs from 
St. Thomas, doubtless erroneously. 

9. CITHAREXYLUM L. Sp. PI. 625. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves and small flowers in terminal or 
axillary spikes or racemes, the pedicels subtended by minute bracts. Calyx 
narrowly campanulate, minutely 5-lobed, persistent. Corolla salverform, its 
limb slightly oblique, 5-lobed. Stamens 4 or 5, adnate to the corolla-tube, the 
fifth one mostly sterile or rudimentary; filaments filiform. Ovary sessile, in- 
completely 4-celled; ovules solitary, anatropous; stigma 2-lobed. Drupes berry- 
like, the fleshy pulp enclosing a bony stone which separates into 2, 2-seeded 
nutlets (pyrenes). [Greek, fiddle-wood; French, bois fidele.] About 20 species* 
of tropical America. Known as Fiddle-wood. Type species: Citharexylum 
spinosum L. 

Pyrenes 1-celled; flowering pedicels 2 mm. long; leaves coarsely 

reticulate-veined. 1. C. caudatum. 

Pyrenes 2-celled; flowering pedicels less than 2 mm. long; leaves densely 
reticulate- veined. 
Flowering pedicels less than 1 mm. long; drupe subglobose. 2. C fruticosum. 

Flowering pedicels 1-1.5 mm. long; drupe obovoid-oblong. 3. C. spinosum. 

1. Citharexylum caudatum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 872. 1763. 

Citharexylum Berterii Spreng. Syst. 2: 763. 1825. 
Citharexylum lucidum Cham. Linnaea 5: 97. 1830. 
Citharexylum surrectum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 497. 186i. 

A shrub, or a tree up to 20 m. high, the nearly terete, slender twigs glabrous. 
Leaves oblong, rather thin, 7-15 cm. long, mostly obtuse at the apex, narrowed 
at the base, shining above, dull beneath, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; racemes nar- 
row, elongated, 4-8 dm. long; pedicels 2-3 mm. long; calyx campanulate, about 
3 mm. long, nearly truncate; corolla white, its tube about twice as long as the 
calyx, its limb spreading, 4-5 mm. wide; drupe globose-oblong, black, shining, 
2-3 times as long as the calyx; nutlets 1-celled. 

Mountain forests at middle and higher elevations, Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Mexico. Higuerillo. 

2. Citharexylum fruticosum L. Syst. ed. 10, 1115. 1759. 

Citharexylum cinereum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 872. 1763. 
Citharexylum villosum Jacq. Icon. Rar. l: 12. 1786. 
Citharexylum subserratum Sw. Prodr. 91. 1788. 
Citharexylum pentandrum Vent. Descr. PI. Cels. 47. 1800. 
Citharexylum bahamense, Millsp. Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 450. 1905. 
Citharexylum fruticosum villosum O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 63. 
1909. 



146 VEKBENACEAE 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 10 m., with a trunk up to 2 dm. 
in diameter, the bark light brown, separating in strips when old, the twigs slender 
and angled, the foliage glabrous, pubescent or tomentose. Leaves oblong to 
obovate, various, 5-15 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide, acute, obtuse or emarginate, 
narrowed at the base, densely reticulate-veined, shining above, dull beneath, 
entire, or those of shoots coarsely serrate, the petioles 2.5 cm. long or less; racemes 
slender, spike-like, 5-12 cm. long; pedicels 1 mm. long or less; calyx narrowly 
campanulate, about 3 mm. long; corolla white, its tube somewhat longer than 
the calyx, its spreading limb about 6 mm. wide ; drupe subglobose, 6-10 mm. in 
diameter, reddish brown to black; nutlets 2-celled. [C. quadrangular e of Bello, 
of Stahl and of Cook and Collins, not of Linnaeus.] 

Woods, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Desecheo; 
Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Ane- 
gada: — Florida; Bahamas; West Indies, south to Guadeloupe and Dominica. The 
leaves are glabrous or nearly so in wet or moist districts, pubescent or tomentose in dry 
regions. Its red wood is hard and strong, with specifflc gravity of about 0.87, used for 
furniture and in construction. Reference to the original description of C. pentandrum 
by Ventenat, shows that the corolla is described as glabrous on the outside, not tomentose 
or pilose as stated bv Schulz (Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 56, 57). Leaves of young plants of 
C. fruticosum at Hato Arriba, near Arecibo, Porto Rico, are coarsely serrate, quite like 
those of C. pentandrum as illustrated by Ventenat. Pfndula. Palo de guittara. 
Old Woman's Bitter. 

3. Citharexylum spinosum L. Sp. PI. 625. 1753. 

Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq. Enum. 26. 1760. 

A tree, 8-20 m. high, the trunk up to about 1 m. in diameter, the glabrous 
twigs 4-angled. Leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, rather thin, glabrous, densely 
reticulate-veined, 7-20 cm. long, entire, or some of them on shoots, coarsely 
serrate, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the slender petioles 
1-3 cm. long; racemes slender, 2 dm. long or shorter; flowers fragrant, white; 
pedicels 1-1.5 mm. long; calyx about 2 mm. long, narrowed below; corolla 
glabrous without, about 8 mm. long, its lobes nearly orbicular; drupe obo void- 
oblong, about 10 mm. long, black, shining; nutlets 2-celled. 

Forests and slopes, St. Croix; St. Thomas; planted for shade in the Virgin Islands:— 
Saba to Trinidad and northern South America. The specific name spinosum is mislead- 
ing, as the tree is not spiny in any way. Susanna. 

10. DURANTA L. Sp. PI. 637. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, the branches sometimes spiny. Leaves opposite or 
whorled, entire or toothed. Flowers small, in terminal or axillary racemes. 
Calyx-tube campanulate or tubular, truncate or minutely 5-lobed. Corolla 
funnelform or salverform, its tube cylindric, straight or incurved, its limb spread- 
ing, oblique or of 5 equal lobes. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; anthers with 
unappendaged connectives, the sacs distinct. Ovary partially or imperfectly 
8-celled. Stigma oblique, sometimes unequally 4-lobed. Ovules solitary or 2 
in each cavity. Drupe included in the calyx, containing 4 nutlets. Seeds with- 
out endosperm. [In honor of Castor Durante, a physician of Rome.] About 8 
species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Duranta repens L. Sp. PI. 637. 1753. 

Duranta Ellisia Jacq. Enum. 26. 1760. 
Duranta Plumieri Jacq. Select. Am. 186. 1763. 

A shrub or small tree reaching a height of 6 m., with glabrate or finely pu- 
bescent foliage, and unarmed or spiny, slender, often drooping or trailing branches. 
Leaves numerous, ovate-elliptic, oval or obovate, 1.5-5 cm. long, obtuse or 



VERBENACEAE 147 

apiculate, entire or serrate above the middle, short-petioled ; racemes 5-15 cm. 
long, recurving; pedicels 1-5 mm. long; calyx 3-4 mm. long, angled, its lobes 
acute, shorter than the tube ; corolla lilac, the tube surpassing the calyx, the limb 
7-9 mm. broad; fruit yellow, globular, 7-11 mm. in diameter, enclosed by the 
accrescent yellowish calyx which is produced into a curved beak. 

Hillsides and thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; Vieques; Desecheo; 
Muertos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; Bermuda; West 
Indies; continental tropical America. Often planted for ornament. Lila. Lluvia. 

CUENTA DE ORO. PlGEON-BERRY. 

11. CALLICARPA L. Sp. PI. 111. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite leaves, and small blue-purple or white flowers 
in axillary cymes. Calyx short, campanulate, 4-toothed (rarely 5-toothed), or 
truncate. Corolla-tube short, expanded above, the limb 4-cleft (rarely 5-cleft), 
the lobes equal. Stamens 4, equal, exserted; anther-sacs parallel. Ovary in- 
completely 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity, laterally attached, amphitropous; 
style slender; stigma-lobes 2, subtruncate. Fruit a berry-like drupe, much 
longer than the calyx, containing 1-4 nutlets. [Greek, handsome fruit.] About 
35 species of Asia, Africa and America. Type species : Callicarpa americana L. 

1. Callicarpa ampla Schauer, in DC. Prodr. 11: 642. 1747. 

A tree, 6-15 m. high, or shrubby, the twigs and inflorescence densely white- 
scurfy, leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, subcoriaceous, 10-25 cm. long, shining 
above, densely white-scurfy and reticulate-veined beneath, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base narrowed, the stout petioles 2-3 cm. long, the margin entire 
or undulate; cymes large, corymbose; peduncles longer than the petioles; flowers 
white, nearly sessile; calyx about 2 mm. long, subtruncate; corolla-tube about as 
long as the calyx, its lobes rounded; stamens long-exserted, the anthers yellow. 

Woods and thickets in wet or moist parts of the central districts of Porto Kico, 
ascending to higher elevations. Endemic. Capa rosa. 

Callicarpa reticulata Sw., a little known species of Jamaica, was recorded 
by West from St. Croix many years ago; the record has not been substantiated. 

12. AEGIPHILA Jacq. Obs. 2: 3. 1767. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite entire leaves, and small flowers in axillary or 
terminal, usually panicled, cymes. Calyx nearly truncate, 4-toothed or rarely 
5-toothed, enlarged in fruit. Corolla-tube cylindric or expanded above, the 
limb 4-lobed, rarely 5-lobed, the lobes equal. Stamens 4, rarely 5; anther-sacs 
parallel. Ovary incompletely 4-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity; stigma-lobes 2, 
filiform. Fruit a small drupe containing 1-4 nutlets. [Greek, goat's friend.] 
About 30 species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Aegiphila martinicensis Jacq. Obs. 2: 3. 1767. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, or a slender tree about 5 m. high, the young twigs and 
the inflorescence finely strigose-puberulent, the branches glabrous ; leaves oblong- 
lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, thin, glabrous, 4-20 cm. long, the apex acuminate, 
the base narrowed or obtuse, the slender petioles about 15 mm. long or shorter; 
cymes forming terminal many-flowered panicles and often also axillary; bracts 
linear, short; pedicels very slender, 2-4 mm long; flowering calyx narrowly 
campanulate, about 2 mm. long, its teeth very short; corolla white or pale yellow, 



148 VERBENACEAE 

its tube 4-5 mm. long, its limb about 3 mm. broad, the lobes obtuse; drupes 
orange, subglobose, 8-10 mm. in diameter. 

Woods and thickets at lower and middle elevations in moist parts of the eastern 
and central districts of Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; Cayman 
Islands; St. Eustatius to Trinidad; continental tropical America. Capaillo. 

Aegiphila trifida Sw., recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, is en- 
demic in Jamaica. 

13. PETITIA Jacq. Enum. 1, 12. 1760. 

Trees or shrubs, with large opposite entire petioled tomentulose leaves, and 
small axillary cymose-paniculate flowers. Calyx campanulate, 4-toothed or sub- 
truncate. Corolla short-salverform, the limb spreading, 4-cleft, the lobes imbri- 
cated, equal. Stamens 4, borne near the top of the corolla-tube, equal; filaments 
very short; anthers ovate. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity; style 2-cleft 
at the apex. Fruit a small drupe, the endocarp 2-4-celled. [Commemorates 
Francois Petit, 1664-1741, a French physician.] Two or three species of the 
West Indies and Mexico, the following typical. 

1. Petitia domingensis Jacq. Enum. 12. 1760. 

Petitia Poeppigii Schauer, in DC. Prodr. 11: 639. 1847. 

A tree, up to 22 m. high, usually much smaller or sometimes a shrub, the 
slender twigs, the petioles and the inflorescence densely brownish-tomentuloso, 
the bark separating in strips. Leaves elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, 7-15 
cm. long, rather thin, acute or acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the 
base, dark green, dull and glabrous or nearly so above, rusty-tomentulose beneath, 
the slender petioles 7 cm. long or less; panicles many-flowered, as long as the 
leaves or shorter; calyx about 1.5 mm. long; corolla whitish, its tube about twice 
as long as the calyx, its limb 4-5 mm. broad; flowers fragrant; drupes nearly 
black, globose to obovoid, 4-5 mm. in diameter. 

Woods and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist districts; 
St. Croix (according to Eggers): — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Cayman Islands; Hispani- 
ola. The brown wood, used for rollers, for furniture and in construction, is hard and 
heavy. Capa amarillo. Bastard Stopper. 

14. CORNUTIA [Plumier] L. Sp. PI. 628. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, with 4-angled twigs, broad opposite tomentulose or 
pubescent leaves, and small blue or violet irregular flowers in terminal panicled 
cymes. Calyx small, campanulate, the 4 or 5 teeth short. Corolla-tube cylin- 
dric, slender, the limb spreading, 2-lipped, the upper Up entire, the lower 3-lobed, 
the lobes valvate. Perfect stamens 2; anther-sacs ovoid; staminodia 2, filiform. 
Ovary 4-celled, villous; ovules 1 in each cavity. Style with 2 short unequal 
lobes. Fruit a small globose drupe, the stone 4-celled. [Commemorates Jacques 
Phillipe Cornutus, French physician and botanist, died in 1651.] A few species, 
natives of tropical America. Type species: Cornutia pyramidata L. 

Leaves ovate to elliptic, acute or acuminate, whitish-pubescent 

beneath. 1. C. pyramidata. 

Leaves obovate, cuneate, obtuse, yellowish-pubescent beneath. 2. C. obovata. 

l. Cornutia pyramidata L. Sp. PI. 628. 1753. 

A shrub, 2-4 m. high, rarely a small tree up to about 6 m. high, the twigs 
and inflorescence densely whitish-tomentulose. Leaves ovate to elliptic, char- 



VERBENACEAE 149 

taceous, entire, 4-12 cm. long, the apex acute or short-acuminate, the base nar- 
rowed or cuneate, the upper surface pubescent or glabrate, the under surface 
densely whitish-tomentulose, the petioles about 1.5 cm. long or shorter; panicles 
many-flowered, narrow, 6-15 cm. long; flowers short-pedicelled ; cal5*x tomentu- 
lose, about 2 mm. long, subtruncate; corolla blue, tomentulose, its tube about 7 
mm. long, its limb 4-5 mm. broad; drupes puberulent, about 3 mm. in diameter. 

Woods on the Rio Blanco near Naguabo, Porto Rico, collected only by Eggers: — 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Grenada; Central America. 

2. Cornutia obovata Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 395. 1899. 

A tree, about 10 m. high, the twigs and panicles short-pilose. Leaves ob- 
ovate, or orbicular-obovate, subcoriaceous, 6-15 cm. long, rounded or subtruncate 
at the apex, cuneate at the base, sparingly short-pilose above, densely yellowish- 
tomentulose beneath, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; panicles oblong, 12 cm. long or 
longer, pedicels 1-3 mm. long; fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. broad; drupes violet, 4-5 
mm. long, globose-obovoid, tomentulose. 

Primaeval forest on Monte Torrecillo, near Barranquitas, Porto Rico, collected only 
by Sintenis in 1885. This species was not seen by us during two days' study of the 
Monte Torrecillo forest in 1915; this forest has been much reduced in area in recent years. 



15. VITEX L. Sp. PI. 638. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite, digitately compound leaves (rarely unifoli- 
olate), the flowers inpanicled cymes. Calyx small, mostly campanulate and 5- 
toothed. Corolla with a cylindric tube and a spreading, somewhat 2-lipped, 
5-cleft limb. Stamens 4, didynamous, exserted. Ovary mostly 4-celled with 
one ovule in each cavity; style 2-cleft. Drupe small, the stone 4-celled. [An- 
cient Latin name.] About 60 species, mostly natives of tropical regions, a few 
in the temperate zones. Type species: Vitex Agnus-castus L. 

1. Vitex divaricata Sw. Prodr. 93. 1788. 

A tree, with maximum height of about 20 m., the bark separating in strips, 
the twigs and inflorescence puberulent or glabrate. Leaves 3-foliolate or some 
of them 1-foliolate, slender-petioled, deciduous, glabrous, or puberulent beneath; 
leaflets elliptic to ovate or oblong-elliptic, thin, entire, 5-15 cm. long, the apex 
acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or rounded, the petiolules short; panicles 
axillary, several-many-flowered, pedicels short; calyx about 2 mm. long, sub- 
truncate; corolla violet or blue, densely puberulent, its tube 5-6 mm. long, its 
limb about as broad ; drupes obo void-ellipsoid, smooth, black, 8-10 mm. long. 

Woods, in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Cuba; St. Kitts and Guadeloupe to Trinidad; recorded from 
Guiana. The nearly white wood, used in cabinet work and in construction, is hard and 
durable, with specific gravity of about 0.75. Higuerillo. Pendttlo blanco. 

Vitex Agnus-castus L., Chaste-tree, European, planted for ornament, 
at least formerly, in Virgin Island gardens, is a tall shrub with palmately com- 
pound, opposite petioled leaves, their 5 or 7 leaflets narrowly lanceolate, acu- 
minate, 7-10 cm. long, dark green above, white-puberulent beneath; the small 
blue or white flowers are in narrow terminal panicles, the corolla about 8 mm. 
long. 

Vitex Negundo L., of tropical Asia, was listed by Krebs as grown in St. 
Thomas prior to 1851. 



150 VERBENACEAE 

16. VOLKAMERIA L. Sp. PL 637. 1753. 

A vine-like spiny shrub, with opposite petioled entire leaves, and white 
flowers in axillary cymes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla salverform, 
with a slender tube, the limb 5-lobed. Stamens 4, exserted, somewhat unequal. 
Style filiform. Stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a subglobose drupe, the nutlets united 
in pairs. [In honor of J. C. Volkamer, Nuremberg botanist, who died in 1720.] 
Only the following species, native of tropical America. 

l. Volkameria aculeata L. Sp. PI. 637. 1753. 

Clerodendron aculeatum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 500. 1861. 
Ovieda aculeata Baillon, Hist. PI. 11: 95. 1892. 

Climbing to a length of 3 m. or more, or nearly erect, the slender branches 
densely puberulent, armed with stout opposite spreading spines 8 mm. long or 
less. Leaves thin, slender-petioled, oblong to elliptic-obovate, obtuse or acute 
at the apex, narrowed to the base, 2-5 cm. long; cymes stalked, few-several- 
flowered; pedicels slender, puberulent, 6-14 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long, 
puberulent, its teeth triangular-ovate, acute; tube of the corolla about 18 mm. 
long, its limb about 12 mm. broad ; stamens purple; drupe 4-grooved, 6-8 mm. in 
diameter. [? Clerodendron longicollis of Borgesen & Paulsen.] 

Coastal thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. 
Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Inagua; West Indies south to 
Barbados; continental tropical America; naturalized in Bermuda. Boton DE Oro. 

ESCAMBRON BLANCO. PRICKLY MYRTLE. CRAB PRICKLE. 

17. CLERODENDRUM [Burm.] L. Sp. PL 637. 1753. 

Shrubs, vines or perennial herbs, with opposite entire leaves, and large 
flowers in terminal or axillary cymes or panicles. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-lobed. 
Corolla salverform or funnelform, the tube mostly longer than the 5-lobed limb. 
Stamens 4, borne on the corolla-tube, exserted, somewhat unequal. Stigma 
2-lobed; ovary 4-celled. Fruit a drupe, enclosing 4, 1-seeded nutlets. [Greek, 
tree of fortune.] Probably 100 or more species, mostly natives of tropical 
regions. Type species: Clerodendrum infortunatum L. 

1. Clerodendrum fragrans Vent, Jard. Malm. pi. 70. 1804. 

Ovieda fragrans Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 118. 1893. 

Half-shrubby, finely pubescent, 6-15 dm. high, the stout branches angled. 
Leaves very broadly ovate, 1-2 dm. long, acute at the apex, cordate or nearly 
truncate at the base; coarsely dentate, long-petioled ; flowers white, fragrant, 
in dense terminal cymes, the corolla about 2.5 cm. broad; calyx 5- cleft, its lan- 
ceolate lobes acuminate; corolla-lobes rounded. [C. fragrans pleniflora Schauer.] 

Roadsides and waste grounds, Porto Rico, escaped from cultivation at lower and 
middle altitudes; St. Thomas: — Florida; Bermuda; widely distributed in the West Indies. 
Native of the Old World tropics. Only the double-flowered race is known in Porto Rico, 
originally planted for ornament. Flor de muerto. Jasmin hediondo. Wild Jessa- 
mine. 

Clerodendrum speciosissimum Paxt., Santo Domingo, Malayan, grown 
for ornament in Porto Rico gardens, is shrubby, 1-1.5 m. high, with large 
orbicular-ovate, cordate-petioled, pubescent, dentate or entire leaves 1.5-3 dm. 
broad, the numerous scarlet flowers panicled. [(?. fallax LindL] 

Clerodendrum Thompsonae Balfour [C. Balfouri of gardeners], of 
western tropical Africa, occasionally grown for ornament in Virgin Island gardens 



VERBENACEAE 151 

under the name Danish Flag, is an evergreen vine with thin, ovate-elliptic, 
acuminate petioled leaves 5-10 cm. long, its showy flowers in terminal panicles, 
the white 5-angled calyx 1—1.5 cm. long, the corolla about 2.5 cm. long, its 
spreading limb crimson 

18. SIPHONANTHUS L. Sp. PI. 109. 1753. 

A tall erect glabrous virgate shrub, with verticillate, oblong-lanceolate, entire 
short-petioled leaves, and long white flowers in axillary cymes and forming a 
large terminal panicle. Calyx deeply 5-parted, somewhat fleshy, its broad lobes 
ovate. Corolla-tube very slender, greatly elongated, expanded at the top, 
curved, the limb somewhat irregularly 5-lobed, very much shorter than the 
limb. Stamens 4, unequal, exserted. Stigma 2-cleft. Drupe globose, fleshy, 
shorter than the persistent calyx-lobes, 2-4-lobed, usually with 4 nutlets. [Greek, 
referring to the long corolla-tube.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Siphonanthus indicus L. Sp. PI. 109. 1753. 

Clerodendron Siphonanthus R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew, ed. 2, 4: 65. 1812. 

Stem rather stout, simple or little branched, about 2 m. high or less, angled 
and grooved. Leaves, thin, 6-15 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the petioles only about 8 mm. long or shorter; calyx-lobes purplish, 6-10 mm. 
long, acute, rather longer than the broadly campanulate tube; corolla-tube 
about 10 cm. long and only 2 mm. thick, the limb 2-3 cm. broad, its lobes oblong 
and obovate ; drupes blue-black, 8-10 mm. broad. 

Rocky woods, St. Croix, apparently naturalized after planting for ornament: — south- 
ern United States; Antigua to Trinidad. Native of the East Indies. Turk's-turbine. 

19. AVICENNIA L. Sp. PI. 110. 1753. 

Evergreen trees, sometimes shrubby, with nodose twigs, opposite entire 
leathery leaves without stipules, and peduncled panicles of white bracted flowers. 
Calyx cup-shaped, silky, with 5 persistent lobes. Corolla campanulate, its short 
tube nearly cylindric, its limb spreading, 4-lobed. Stamens 4, adnate to the 
corolla-tube, the anthers introrse. Ovary sessile, 1-celled; ovules 4, on a central 
placenta ; style short, 2-lobed. Fruit capsular, oblique, apiculate. Seeds pendu- 
lous, without endosperm, usually germinating in the capsule. [In honor of 
Avicenna (980-1036) of Bokhara, a distinguished oriental physician.] Three 
known species of tropical and subtropical seacoasts. Type species: Avicennia 
officinalis L. 

1. Avicennia nitida Jacq. Enum. 25. 1760. 

Avicennia tomentosa Jacq. Enum. 25. 1760. 

A. officinalis nitida Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 502. 1891. 

A tree, up to about 16 m. high, with shallowly-fissured dark scaly bark, 
orange-red within, the young twigs finely pubescent. Leaves pubescent when 
young, soon becoming glabrous above, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3-8 cm. 
long, obtuse or apiculate at the apex, finely canescent beneath, narrowed at the 
base into short petioles; panicles 2-5 cm. long; corolla 10-14 mm. broad, its lobes 
rounded; capsule oblong or elliptic, 2-5 cm. long, light green, slightly pubescent. 

Coastal lagoons and swamps, Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida to Texas; Bermuda; West Indies; tropical continental America 
and Old World tropics. The dark brown wood is hard and very durable with a specific 
gravity of about 0.9 ; it is used for sills, posts and drains. Mangle bobo. Black Man- 
grove. Olive Mangrove. Salt Pond. 



152 LAMIACEAE 

f 

Petraea volubilis Jacq., Purple Wreath, South American, planted for 
ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a woody vine, up to 5 m. long 
or longer, the leaves elliptic to obovate, entire, roughish, 7-10 cm. long, the 
showy purple or lilac flowers in long terminal racemes, with 5 linear-oblong 
blunt spreading persistent sepals, the shorter corolla funnelform. 

Holmskioidia sanguinea Retz., Asiatic, occasionally planted for ornament 
in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a somewhat pubescent shrub, with 
elongated, vine-like branches up to 5 m. long or longer, the thin ovate entire 
acuminate leaves 5-8 cm. long, the flowers in terminal racemes, with a widely 
expanded, nearly orbicular, thin calyx about 2 cm. in diameter and a red to orange, 
nearly cylindric corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, the fruit small, 4-lobed. 

Tectona grandis L., Teak, East Indian, experimentally planted in Porto 
Rico and St. Croix, becomes a large tree, its wood very valuable; the large 
leaves are oval, short-petioled, shining above, white-canescent beneath, the 
flowers in large terminal panicles, the small whitish corolla funnelform, the fruit 
a small drupe. 

Family 7. LAMIACEAE Lindl. 

Mint Family. 

Aromatic punctate herbs, or shrubs (a few tropical species trees), mostly 
with 4-sided stems and simple opposite leaves; stipules none. Flowers 
mostly irregular, perfect, clustered, the inflorescence various, usually 
bracteolate. Calyx inferior, persistent, 5-toothed or 5-lobed (rarely 4- 
toothed), mostly nerved. Corolla with a short or long tube, the limb 4-5- 
lobed, mostly 2-lipped, regular in a few genera; upper lip 2-lobed, or some- 
times entire; lower lip mostly 3-lobed. Stamens borne on the corolla-tube, 
typically 4 and didynamous, sometimes 2, rarely equal; filaments separate, 
alternate with the corolla-lobes; anthers 2-celled, introrse, or confluently 
1-celled, or sometimes of a single sac. Disk usually present, fleshy. Ovary 
4-lobed, or 4-parted, superior, each lobe or division with 1 mostly anatropous 
ovule; style arising from the centre of the lobed or parted ovary, 2-lobed 
at the summit. Fruit of 4, 1-seeded nutlets. Seed erect (transverse in 
Scutellaria); endosperm scanty, or none; embryo mostly straight; radicle 
short, inferior. About 160 genera and 3,200 species, of wide distribution. 

A. Calyx with a crest on the upper side; corolla 2-lipped; stamens 

ascending. 1. Scutellaria. 

B. Calyx without a crest. 

1. Stamens erect or ascending. 
Corolla strongly 2-lipped. 

Stamens 4. 

Style-branches very unequal. 

Upper lip of the corolla much longer than the 

lower. 2. Leonotis. 

Corolla-lips nearly equal. 3. Leucas. 

Style-branches equal. 4. Leonurus. 

Stamens only 2. 5. Salvia. 

Corolla very nearly regular. 6. Mentha. 

2. Stamens declined. 

Lower lip of the corolla deflexed, saccate. 

Nutlets not winged. 7. Hyptis. 

Nutlets with a membranous fimbriate wing. 8. Marsypianthes. 
Lower Up of the corolla flat or concave. 

Lower lip of the corolla elongated. 9. Coleus. 

Corolla-lips nearly equal. 10. Ocimum. 

1. SCUTELLARIA L. Sp. PL 598. 1753. 

Bitter herbs, some shrubby. Flowers blue to violet, in bracted, mostly 
secund, spike-like racemes, or solitary or 2-3 together in the axils. Calyx cam- 



LAMIACEAE 153 

• 

panulate, gibbous, 2-lipped, the lips entire, the upper one with a crest or pro- 
tuberance upon its back and often deciduous in fruit. Corolla recurved-ascend- 
ing, dilated above into the throat, glabrous within, the limb 2-lipped; upper lip 
arched, entire or emarginate; lower Up spreading or deflexed, its lateral lobes 
small and somewhat connected with the upper, its middle lobe broad. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, all anther-bearing, ascending under the upper lip, the upper pair 
somewhat the shorter, their anthers 2-celled, ciliate; anthers of the lower pair of 
stamens 1-celled, also ciliate. Nutlets papillose or tuberculate. [Latin, a dish, 
from the appendage to the calyx.] About 100 species of wide distribution. Type 
species: Scutellaria peregrina L. 

1. Scutellaria havanensis Jacq. Enum. 25. 1760. 

Scutellaria cubensis A. Rich, in Sagra, Hist. Cub. 11: 158. 1850. 
Scutellaria longiflora Small, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 437. 1905. 

Perennial; stems very slender, often branched near the base, erect or as- 
cending, 3 dm. high or less, pubescent or puberulent. Leaves ovate or ovate- 
orbicular, short-petioled, 3-9 mm. long, puberulent on both sides, few-toothed 
or entire; flowers solitary in the axils on ascending peduncles 3-7 mm. long; 
flowering calyx about 1.5 mm. long; corolla dark blue, about 1.5 cm. long, the 
middle lobe of the upper lip emarginate, the lower lip 3-lobed; fruiting calyx 
about 3 mm. long. [S. purpurascens of Grisebach, not of Swartz.] 

Eocks and cliffs at middle and higher elevations, eastern and central districts of 
Porto Rico: — Florida; Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

2. LEONOTIS R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew, ed. 2, 3: 409. 1811. 

Annual or perennial caulescent herbs or shrubby plants, the leaves opposite, 
broad, toothed, petioled, the flowers in dense whorls, short-pedicelled. Calyx- 
tube 10-nerved, oblique at the mouth, its lobes 8-10, unequal, bristle-tipped. 
Corolla yellow, orange or scarlet, 2-lipped, the tube dilated above, curved; upper 
lip erect, rather long; lower lip with 3 lobes, the middle lobe scarcely longer 
than the lateral. Stamens 4, didynamous, ascending; filaments all anther- 
bearing; anthers 2-celled, their sacs diverging. Style-branches unequal. Nut- 
lets 3-angled, smooth. [Greek, lion's ear.] About 12 species, natives of Africa. 
Type species: Leonotis Leonitis (L.) R. Br. 

1. Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew, ed. 2, 3: 409. 1811. 
Phlomis nepetaefolia L. Sp. PI. 586. 1753. 

Annual, softly pubescent. Stems 3-20 dm. tall, rather stout, simple or 
branched; leaves ovate to ovate-deltoid, 4-12 cm. long, coarsely crenate, cuneate 
or subcordate at the base; flower-clusters dense, 4-6 cm. in diameter; pedicels 
1-2 mm. long; calyx puberulent, becoming about 2 cm. long, its tube reticulated 
above the middle, its lobes 8, awn-tipped ; corolla scarlet or orange-yellow, 2-2.5 
cm. long, villous-hirsute, its tube curved, the upper lip as long as the tube, the 
lower lip much shorter than the upper, with 3 narrow lobes; nutlets 3 mm. long, 
sharply angled. 

Fields, cultivated grounds and river banks, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola; Virgin Gorda: — southeastern United States; 
Bermuda; West Indies; tropical continental America and Old World tropics. Appearing 
in America as if introduced from the Old World. Molenillo. Quina del pasto, 

BOTON DE CADETA. LlON'S-EAR. 



154 LAM1ACEAE 

3. LEUCAS [Burm.] R. Br. Prodr. 504. 1810. 

Herbs, some Old World species shrubs, with opposite dentate leaves, the 
flowers in dense axillary verticillate clusters. Calyx tubular or tubular-cam- 
panulate, 10-nerved, 8-10-toothed. Corolla small, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, 
concave, entire or emarginate, the lower one 3-cleft. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
ascending, the anthers approximate in pairs. Style-branches unequal. Nutlets 
3-angled, smooth. [Greek, white.] Fifty species or more, mostly of the Old 
World tropics. Type species: Phlomis zeylanica L. 

1. Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br. Prodr. 504. 1810. 

Clinopodium martinicense Jacq. Enum. 25. 1760. 
Phlomis martinicensis Sw. Prodr. 88. 1788. 

Annual; stem erect, branched, densely pubescent, 2-5 dm. high. Leaves 
ovate to lanceolate, membranous, crenate-dentate, 4-10 cm. long, pubescent on 
both sides, the apex blunt or acute, the base narrowed, the petioles about 2 cm. 
long or shorter; clusters densely many-flowered, distant, about 2.5 cm. in di- 
ameter in fruit ; calyx oblique, recurved, pubescent, about 3 mm. long, its teeth 
setaceous, the upper much longer than the lower; corolla white, included, its 
lips nearly equal. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, St. Croix; Tortola: — St. Martin to Trinidad; con- 
tinental tropical America and Old World tropics. 

4. LEONURUS L. Sp. PI. 584. 1753. 

Tall herbs, with palmately cleft, parted or dentate leaves, and small white or 
pink flowers verticillate in dense axillary clusters. Calyx tubular-campanulate. 
5-nerved, nearly regular and equally 5-toothed, the teeth rigid, subulate or 
aristate. Corolla-limb 2-lipped; upper Up erect, entire; lower lip spreading or 
deflexed, 3-lobed, the middle lobe broad, obcordate or emarginate. Anthers 
2-celled, the sacs parallel or divergent, style-branches equal. Nutlets 3-sided, 
smooth. [Greek, lion's-tail.] About 10 species, of Europe and Asia. Type 
species: Leonurus Cardiaca L. 

1. Leonurus sibiricus L. Sp. PI. 584. 1753. 

Biennial, puberulent or glabrate; stem 6-18 dm. high. Leaves long- 
petioled, 3-parted into ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, cleft and incised 
segments, the lobes lanceolate or linear, acute, the uppermost linear, or lanceolate; 
calyx campanulate, 6 mm. long, glabrous or minutely puberulent ; corolla purple 
or red, densely puberulent without, 8-12 mm. long, its tube naked within; anther- 
sacs divergent. 

River-banks, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle eleva- 
tions; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Delaware and Pennsylvania; 
Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics and sub- 
tropics. Appearing in America, as if introduced from the Old World. Agripalma. 
Motherwort. Lion's-tail. 

5. SALVIA L. Sp. PI. 23. 1753. 

Herbs, or some species shrubs, with clustered flowers, the clusters mostly 
spiked, racemed or panicled. Calyx mostly naked in the throat, 2-lipped ; upper 
lip entire or 3-toothed; lower lip 2-cleft or 2-toothed. Corolla strongly 2-lipped; 
upper lip entire, emarginate or 2-lobed; lower lip spreading, 3-cleft or 3-lobed. 
Anther-bearing stamens 2 (the posterior pair wanting or rudimentary); con- 



LAMIACEAE 155 

nective of the anthers transverse, linear or filiform, bearing a perfect anther-sac 
on its upper end, its lower end dilated, capitate or sometimes bearing a small or 
rudimentary one. Nutlets smooth, usually developing mucilage and spiral 
tubes when wetted. [Latin, salvus, safe, from its healing virtues.] About 500 
species, of wide distribution, known as Moradilla, Sage and Salvia. Type 
species: Salvia officinalis L. 

Corolla blue or white, 4-8 mm. long. 
Diffusely spreading or prostrate. 

Leaves acute, mostly narrowed at base. 1. S. occidentalis. 

Leaves obtuse, trimcate at base. 2. S. thomasiana. 

Erect or ascending: leaves rounded or cordate at base. 3. 5. serotina. 

Corolla red or scarlet, 2-2.5 cm. long. 

Calyx 10-12 mm. long. 4. S. coccinea. 

Calyx about 2 cm. long. 5. S. splendens. 

1. Salvia occidentalis Sw. Prodr. 14. 1788. 

Salvia occidentalis bicolor Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 530. 1891. 

Annual; stems diffuse, decumbent or prostrate, branched, densely pu- 
bescent, at least above, 0.5-2 m. long. Leaves ovate, 2-5 cm. long, serrate, 
short-petioled, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed or subtruncate at the 
base; panicles narrow, 0.5-3 dm. long, the verticels few-flowered , the lower ones 
distant, the upper close together; calyx about 3 mm. long, densely glandular- 
pubescent, ribbed, the upper lip obtuse, the lobes of the lower lip acute; corolla 
blue, about 5 mm. long, its tube a little shorter than the calyx ; nutlets about 2 mm. 
long. 

Banks, fields and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist or 
wet districts; Vieques, St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tor tola: — Florida; West Indies; 
continental tropical America; recorded from Bermuda. Hap-weed. 

2. Salvia thomasiana Urban, Symb. Ant. 7: 359. 1912. 

Stem creeping, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes, very slender, about 3 
dm. long, the flowering branches about 1 dm. high, short-pilose and with short 
glandular hairs. Leaves triangular, crenate, the apex obtuse or obtusish, the 
base truncate, sparingly pubescent above, minutely pilose beneath, the larger 
ones about 2 cm. broad, with petioles 2 cm. long, the smaller short-petioled; 
inflorescence terminal, spiciform, the flowers 1-4 in the verticels; flowering 
pedicels 1-1.5 mm. long, in fruit 2.5 mm. long; calyx 3 mm. long in flower, about 
5 mm. long in front, glandular-pubescent, 9-nerved, the lobes about one-half as 
long as the tube, short-acuminate; corolla about 4.5 mm. long, [S. tenella of 
Schlechtendal and of Eggers, not of Swartz.] 

Known onlv from a specimen collected long ago on St. Thomas by Ehrenberg. 
Endemic. This' is, perhaps, the plant listed by Krebs as S. tenella. 

3. Salvia serotina L. Mant. 1: 25. 1767. 

Salvia micrantha Vahl, Enum. l: 235. 1804. 

Perennial, finely pubescent; stems 1.5-7 dm. high, much branched. Leaves 
ovate or orbicular-ovate, 1-4 cm. long, obtuse, crenate-serrate, rounded or sub- 
cordate at the base, slender-petioled ; panicles 2-10 cm. long; calyx longer than 
the pedicels, glandular-hirsute, becoming 5-8 mm. long; lips about one-third as 
long as the long-campanulate tube; corolla 6-10 mm. long, white or blue, its tube 
included; style glabrous; nutlets fully 2 mm. long. [S. dominica of Swartz, not 
of Linnaeus; 5. tenella of Grisebach and of Bello, not of Swartz.] 

Local along roadsides, Porto Rico; Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas: St. Jan; Tortola; 
Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies south to Grenada; Yucatan. 



156 LAM I ACE AE 

4. Salvia coccinea Juss. in Murray, Comm. Goett. 1 : 86. 1778. 

Salvia pseudococcinea Jacq. Coll. 2: 302. 1788. 
Salvia coccinea ciliata Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 490. 1861. 
Salvia coccinea pseudococcinea A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2 1 ! 368. 1878. 

• Annual, softly pubescent; stems erect, 3-7 dm. tall, simple or sparingly 
branched. Leaves ovate or deltoid-ovate, 3-6 cm. long, obtuse or acutish, crenate- 
serrate, truncate to subcordate at the base: panicles 5-20 cm. long; pedicels 2-6 
mm. long, slender; calyx minutely pubescent, 10-12 mm. long, its tube many- 
ribbed, the upper lip reniform, abruptly pointed, the lower lobes ovate, apiculate; 
corolla deep scarlet. 2-2.5 cm. long, puberulent, the tube contracted above the 
base, then gradually enlarged, the lower lip 7-8 mm. broad, merely notched at the 
apex; nutlets 2.5 mm. long, slightly variegated. 

Thickets, banks and roadsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan: — southern United States; Bermuda; West Indies; continental 
tropical America. Appearing in Bermuda, the Bahamas and Porto Rico as if intro- 
duced. Scarlet Sage. 

5. Salvia splendens Sellow; Nees, Neuwied Reise Bras. 2: 335. 1821. 

Puberulent or villous above, glabrous below, branched, somewhat woody, 
6-10 dm. high. Leaves ovate, dentate, 4-10 cm. long, glabrous on both sides, 
acuminate at the apex, rounded, narrowed or obtuse at the base, the slender 
petioles about 3 cm. long or shorter: panicles terminal, several-many-flowered, 
the pedicelled flowers in whorls of 2-6; calyx narrowly campanulate, scarlet, 
sparingly pubescent, about 2 cm. long with 3 ovate, acute or acuminate teeth; 
corolla scarlet, 3-4 cm. long. 

Escaped from cultivation to hillsides at middle elevations in Porto Rico; commonly 
planted for ornament in Porto Rico gardens. Native of Brazil. Widely cultivated for 
ornament. 

Salvia fulgens Cav., Mexican, recorded by Krebs as grown in St. Thomas, is 
another ornamental species with ovate leaves, white-woolly beneath, much cul- 
tivated. 

Salvia calaminthaef olia Vahl, a little-known plant, endemic in Hispaniola, 
was listed by Krebs from St. Thomas, doubtless in error. 

6. MENTHA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 576. 1753. 

Odorous herbs, with simple, mostly punctate leaves, and small whorled 
purple-pink or white flowers, the whorls axillary or in terminal spikes. Calyx 
10-nerved, regular, or slightly 2-lipped, 5-toothed. Corolla-tube shorter than 
the calyx, the limb 4-cleft, the posterior lobe usually somewhat broader than the 
others, entire or emarginate. Stamens 4, equal, erect, included or exserted, 
sometimes imperfect; filaments glabrous; anthers 2-celled, the sacs parallel. 
Nutlets ovoid, smooth. [Name used by Theophrastus; from the nymph Minthe.] 
About 30 species, of the north temperate zone. Type species: Mentha spicata L. 

Leaves short-petioled. 1. M. nemorosa. 

Leaves slender-petioled. 2. M. citrata. 

1. Mentha nemorosa Willd. Sp. Pi. 3: 75. 1801. 

Mentha sylvestris nemorosa Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12: 167. 1848. 

Perennial by leafy stolons; stem about 7 dm. high or shorter, pubescent or 
glabrous. Leaves mostly oblong or elliptic, 2-5 cm. long, serrate, short-petioled, 
mostly obtuse at the apex and rounded or obtuse at the base; flowers mostly in 
terminal spikes 7 cm. long or less ; calyx-teeth subulate, acuminate ; corolla pilose. 



LAM I ACE AE 157 

Forest borders and river-beds in the mountains of Porto Rico, determined by Urban 
from barren specimens. Hispaniola: — native of the Old World. The record by Eggers 
of M. aquatica L. along rivulets at Caledonia, St. Croix, based on barren specimens, may 
refer to this species; no species of the genus has been observed on St. Croix recently. 
Yerba buena. 

2. Mentha citrata Ehrh. Beitr. 7: 150. 1792. 

Mentha aquatica glabrata Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12: 171. 1848. 

Perennial by leafy stolons; stem weak, decumbent or ascending, 3-6 dm. 
long. Leaves slender-petioled, thin, ovate or ovate-orbicular, obtuse or the upper 
acute at the apex, sharply serrate, the larger about 5 cm. long; whorls of flowers 
in terminal short obtuse spikes, and commonly also in the uppermost axils; calyx 
glabrous, its teeth subulate, one-half as long as the tube, or longer; corolla 
glabrous. 

Sparingly escaped from cultivation in Porto Rico: — United States; Bahamas; Cuba; 
occasionally grown in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens. Native of the Old World. 

AGTJA FLORIDA. 

Mentha crispa L., Mentha piperita L., Peppermint, and Mentha 
viridis L., Spearmint, were listed by Krebs as growing in St. Thomas prior to 
1851. They are not known to exist within the limits of this Flora at the present 
time. 

7. HYPTIS Jacq. Coll. 1: 101. 1786. 

[Mesosphaerum P. Br. Hist. Jam. 257. Hyponym. 1756.] 

Herbs, mostly erect and branched, the leaves usually dentate, the flowers 
variously clustered. Calyx tubular, ovoid or campanulate, equally 5-lobed, the 
lobes acute or aristate. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip erect or spreading, the 
lower saccate and drooping. Stamens 4, declined, all antheriferous, the fila- 
ments distinct, the anthers 2-celled. Ovary 4-carpellary ; style basal. Nutlets 
smooth or rough. [Greek, bent backward.] About 300 species, mostly of tro- 
pical America, those of Porto Rico known as Marrubio. Type species : Hyptis 
verticillata Jacq. 

Flowers sessile, in dense spikes or heads. 

Spikes terminal, 2-7 cm. long. 1. H. americana. 

Heads subglobose, axillary, peduncled. 
Leaves slender-petioled. 

Erect, 12 dm. high or less; heads 2-3 cm. in diameter, 

long-peduncled. 2. H. capitata. 

Procumbent or ascending; heads 10-12 mm. In diameter, 

short-peduncled. 3. H. atrorubens. 

Leaves sessile or very short-petioled; plant erect; heads 10-12 

mm. in diameter. 4. H. lanlanifolia. 

Flowers pedi celled or subsessile, whorled or cymose-paniculate. 

Fruiting calyx 6-10 mm. long. 5. H. suaveolens. 

Fruiting calyx only 2-3 mm. long. 

Flowers in secund, panicled cymes. 6. H. pectinata. 

Flowers in panicled whorls. 7. H. verticillata. 

1. Hyptis americana (Aubl.) Urban, Repert. 15: 322. 1918. 

Nepeta americana Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 623. 1775. 
Hyptis spicigera Lam. Encycl. 3: 185. 1789. 
Hyptis gonocephala Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 212. 1866. 

Erect, rather stout, 2-7 dm. high, the stem and branches puberulent and 
short-prickly. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, slender-petioled, about 6 cm. long 
or shorter, glabrous or puberulent, serrate, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
mostly narrowed; flowers white or blue, in dense terminal oblong spikes 2-7 cm. 
long; bracts linear; fruiting calyx-tube narrowly campanulate, pilose, strongly 



158 . LAMIACEAE 

ribbed and transversely veined, 4-5 mm. long, the subulate teeth about 2 mm. 
long. [Mesosphaerum spicigerum of Cook & Collins.] 

Formerly found in a pasture near the road from Cabo Rojo to Mayagiiez, Porto Rico : 
— Cuba; Hispaniola; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Recorded 
rom Jamaica. 

2. Hyptis capitata Jacq. Icon. Rar. 1:11. 1781-86. 

Mesosphaerum capitatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 525. 1891. 

Stem erect or ascending, 5-12 dm. high, somewhat pubescent above, rather 
stout, the branches slender. Leaves ovate to elliptic, membranous, 6-15 cm. 
long, coarsely and irregularly serrate, sparingly pubescent when young, glabrous 
when old, the slender petioles about 4 cm. long or shorter; bracts narrowly oblong, 
short, at length reflexed; flowers white, in dense globose slender-peduncled 
axillary heads 1-2 cm. in diameter; peduncles 1.5-6 cm. long; fruiting calyx-tube 
ribbed and transversely veined, glabrous, 4-5 mm. long, its setaceous teeth about 
one-third as long. 

Fields, roadsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist 
districts; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; Hispani- 
ola; Cuba; Antigua to Trinidad; continental tropical America; Malaya. Blero. Wild 
Hops. 

3. Hyptis atrorubens Poit. Ann. Mus. Paris 7: 466. 1806. 

Mesosphaerum atrorubens Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 525. 1891. 

Stems slender, creeping or ascending, often rooting at the lower nodes, 
loosely pubescent, at least above, 1.5-6 dm. long. Leaves ovate to oblong- 
lanceolate, thin, 1.5-5 cm. long, loosely pubescent, crenate, the apex obtuse or 
acute, the base mostly obtuse, more or less decurrent on the slender petiole; 
flowers white, in dense globose peduncled axillary heads about 1 cm. in diameter; 
peduncles 5-15 mm. long; bracts ovate, acute, appressed, about 6 mm. long; 
fruiting calyx tubular, glabrate, ribbed, truncate, 4-5 mm. long, its setaceous 
plumose teeth much shorter than the tube. 

Fields, banks and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist dis- 
tricts: — Jamaica; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad; continental tropical America; 
tropical Africa. 

4. Hyptis lantanifolia Poit. Ann. Mus. Paris 7: 468. 1806. 

Mesosphaerum lantanifolinm Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 525. 1891. 

Stems slender, erect or ascending, pubescent or puberulent, 4-15 dm. high, 
the branches commonly elongated. Leaves ovate to oblong, 2-5 cm. long, 
pubescent, crenate-dentate, subsessile or the lower short-petioled, the apex acute 
or obtuse, the base obtuse or narrowed; flowers white, in dense globose axillary 
peduncled heads 10-12 mm. in diameter; peduncles slender, 2-6 cm. long: bracts 
ovate or ovate-oblong, short; fruiting calyx-tube about 4 mm. long, ribbed and 
transversely veined, the linear-setaceous teeth 2-3 mm. long. 

Fields, banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, in moist or wet districts, ascending to higher 
elevations, but not known to occur in the eastern mountains : — Cuba ; Hispaniola ; Trinidad ; 
continental tropical America. 

5. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Ann. Mus. Paris 7: 472. 1806. 

Ballota suaveolens L. Syst. ed. 10, 1100. 1759. 

Hyptis ebracteata R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew, ed. 2, 3: 391. 1811. 

Mesosphaerum suaveolens Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 525. 1891. 

Stem stout, often much branched, loosely pilose, 3-8 dm. high. Leaves 
ovate or ovate-orbicular, slender-petioled, 4 cm. long or less, acute or obtuse at 



LAMIACEAE 159 

the apex, obtuse or subcordate at the base, low-serrate, sparingly pubescent on 
both sides; flowers 2-5 together, nearly sessile, in short-peduncled. axillary 
clusters, or the clusters crowded in a terminal panicle and subtended by small 
leaves; calyx campanulate, strongly ribbed, at length 8-10 mm. long, its subulate 
teeth shorter than the tube; corolla 5-6 mm. long, bluish. [Hyptis spicigera of 
Bello, not of Lamarck.] 

Fields, thickets, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle 
elevations; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba: 
Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad and Aruba; continental tropical America; tropical 
Asia. Wild Spikenard. 

6. Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. Ann. Mus. Paris 7: 474. 1806. 

Xcpeta pectinata L. Syst. ed. 10, 109T. 1759. 

Mi sosphaerum pectinatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 625. 1891. 

Ballota parviflora Sesse & Mocino, Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 136. 1894. 

Stems erect, densely puberulent, 3-20 dm. high. Leaves ovate, 2-8 cm. long, 
serrate, acute at the apex, mostly obtuse or subcordate at the base, the petioles 
4.5 cm. long or less; flowers in secund spiked cymules, the inflorescence elongated; 
calyx 3-4 mm. long; puberulent, its subulate lobes nearly as long as the tube; 
corolla whitish, little longer than the calyx. [Hyptis spicata of Bello, not of 
Poiteau; H. polystachya of Stahl, not of Kunth.] 

Hillsides, banks, thickets, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, Mona; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; West Indies; conti- 
nental tropical America and Old World tropics. 

7. Hyptis verticillata Jacq. Icon. Rar. 1: 11. 1781-86. 

Stem erect, strict, virgate, often tall, 1-5 m. high, puberulent above or 
glabrate. with many slender, ascending branches. Leaves lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, thin, puberulent on the veins beneath, serrate, the larger lower ones 
6-10 cm. long, the upper much smaller, the apex acuminate, the base, narrowed, 
the slender petioles of the larger ones about 1 cm. long or shorter; flowers white, 
short-pedicelled, in separated small glomerules on the branches; bracts very 
small, narrow; fruiting calyx ovoid, faintly ribbed, 1.5-2 mm. long, its ovate teeth 
short, acute. 

Recorded as long ago collected in eastern Porto Rico by Schwanecke, and recorded 
from St. Thomas by Bentham, by Krebs and by Grisebach: — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Dominica; Martinique; Mexico to Colombia. 

Hyptis scoparia Poit., attributed by Bentham to Porto Rico, was from 
Hispaniola. 

Hyptis brevipes Poit., a species of Cuba, Trinidad and northern South 
America, was recorded by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, evidently in error. 

8. MARSYPIANTHES Mart,; Benth. Lab. 64. 1833. 

Pubescent, usually viscid, spreading or ascending herbs with small dentate 
leaves, the small bracted flowers mostly capitate. Calyx campanulate, enlarging 
in fruit, its 5 teeth equal. Corolla 2-lipped, the lower lip saccate. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, declined: anthers confluently 1 -celled. Style 2-cleft at the apex. 
Nutlets ovoid, flattened, with a membranous fimbriate wing. [Greek, pouch- 
flower.] Three known species, of tropical and subtropical America, the following 
typical. 



160 LAMIACEAE 

1. Marsypianthes Chamaedrys (Vahl) Kuntze, Eev. Gen. PI. 524. 1891. 

Clinopodium Chamaediys Vahl, Symb. 3: 77. 1794. 
Marsypianthes hyptoides Mart.; Benth. Lab. 64. 1832. 

Stems slender, much branched, usually prostrate, 2-8 dm. long. Leaves 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, thin, 1-4 cm. long, dentate, except at the base, the 
apex acute, the base narrowed or obtuse, the slender petioles 2-10 mm. long; 
heads axillary, short-peduncled, 1-2 cm. in diameter, several-many-flowered, 
villous; bracts linear-lanceolate; calyx- teeth ovate to lanceolate, at length 
spreading; corolla purple, rose or white, its tube about as long as the calyx. 

Sandy moist fields and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in wet 
or moist districts: — Cuba; Guadeloupe; Montserrat; Dominica; Martinique; St. Vincent; 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. Ortela. 

9. COLEUS Lour. Fl. Coch. 2: 372. 1790. 
Herbs or low shrubs, with broad, dentate crenate or incised leaves and rather 
small, blue or lilac flowers in verticillate clusters forming terminal spikes or 
racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, declined in fruit. Corolla 2-lipped, 
the lower lip elongated, concave, entire. Stamens 4, didynamous. declined, 
filaments sometimes united below ; anthers confluently 1-celled. Nutlets smooth. 
[Greek, a sheath, referring to the united filaments of some species.] Perhaps 90 
species, natives of the Old World tropics. Type species: Coleus amboinicus Lour. 

Leaves densely pubescent; flowers nearly sessile; plant shrubby. 1. C. amboinicus. 

Leaves puberiilent or glabrous; flowers pedicelled; herbaceous. 2. C. Blumei. 

1. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Fl. Coch. 2: 372. 1790. 

Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb. Hort. Beng. 45. 1814. 

Coleus aromaticus Benth. in Wall. PI. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1831. 

A pilose-tomentose fragrant, somewhat fleshy, straggling shrub, about 1 m. 
high or lower. Leaves broadly deltoid-ovate, crenate, 4-10 cm. long, tomentose- 
pilose on both sides, the apex acute or obtuse, the base subtruncate or subcordate, 
decurrent on the stout petiole ; verticils of flowers forming elongated interrupted 
racemes 1-3 dm. long; pedicels very short; calyx tomentose. about 2 mm. long; 
tube of the corolla about twice as long, its lower lip about as long as the tube. 

Occasionally escaped from cultivation, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Anguilla to Trinidad; 
Venezuela. Widely grown for its fragrant foliage in gardens and escaped therefrom in 
the West Indies. Native of southeastern Asia. Oregano de Espana. 

2. Coleus Blumei Benth. Lab. 56, 1832. 

Herbaceous, pubeiulent or glabrate, erect, 6-10 dm. high, the branches 
slender. Leaves various, ovate to orbicular-ovate, 6—15 cm. long, crenate, 
dentate or incised, green, purplish, red, yellow oi mottled, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base narrowed, obtuse or rounded, the perioles 1-4 cm. long; 
verticils of flowers forming terminal, loose, more or less pubescent racemes: 
pedicels 1.5-2.5 mm. long; calyx 2-4 mm. long; corolla blue or nearly white, its 
tube longer than the calyx, the lower lip about 5 mm. long. 

Occasionally escaped from cultivation, Porto Rico; St. Thomas; Tortola: — widely 
planted for ornament, in many races, and locally escaped in the West Indies and con- 
tinental tropical America. Native of Java. Verguenza. Coleus. 

Coleus laciniatus (Blume) Benth., Piriqueta, with Iaciniate leaves, 
is occasionally grown in Porto Rican gardens. [Plectranthus laciniatus Blume.]. 

Coleus rotundifolius Chev. & Perrot, was grown from tubers at the Trujillo 
Plant Propagation Station in 1925. The tubers are edible, known as Kamili; 
the species is probably native of tropical Africa. 



LAMTACEAE 161 

10. OCIMUM L. Sp. PI. 597. 1753. 

Herbs or low shrubs, with erect or ascending branched stems, usually dentate, 
petioled leaves and verticillate flowers. Calyx deflexed in fruit, its tube campanu- 
late or ovoid, 5-lobed, the lobes unequal, the lower somewhat united. Corolla 
white or nearly white, its tube usually shorter than the calyx, its lobes nearly 
equal. Stamens 4, didynamous, the lower pair appressed to the lower lip of 
the corolla; filaments naked or appendaged. Ovary 4-carpellary ; style basal. 
Nutlets smooth or rugose. [Greek, odorous.] About 40 species widely distri- 
buted in warm and tropical regions. Type species: Ocimum basilicum L. 

Flowers very short-pedicelled. 1. O. basilicum. 

Flowers manifestly pedicelled. 

Fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long. 2. O. sanctum 

Fruiting calyx 7-8 mm. long. 3. O. micranthum. 

1 Ocimum basilicum L. Sp. PI. 597. 1753. 

Annual, erect, branched, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous below, pubescent with re- 
curved short hairs above. Leaves elliptic, ovate or oblong, 2-4 cm. long, slender- 
petioled, sparingly low-dentate or entire, glabrous, the apex acute, the base nar- 
rowed; inflorescence 20 cm. long or shorter, the verticils somewhat separated, 
pedicels very short; calyx long-ciliate, about 5 mm. long in fruit; the upper tooth 
broad, the 2 lateral teeth ovate, the 2 lower ones subulate; corolla 4-5 mm. long; 
upper filaments with a tooth-like appendage at the base. 

Sparingly escaped from gardens to waste grounds in Porto Rico; commonly grown 
in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens as an aromatic herb: — Bahamas; Cuba; Martin- 
ique; Guadeloupe. Native of tropical Asia. Albaca. Basil. 

2. Ocimum sanctum L. Mant. 1: 85. 1767. 

Perennial, erect or ascending, branched, pilose, often purplish, about 7 dm. 
high or lower. Leaves ovate to elliptic, dentate, slender-petioled, 3-5 cm. long; 
the apex obtuse or acute, the base narrowed or rounded; verticils few-several- 
flowered, approximate, the racemes solitary or several, about 10 cm. long or 
shorter; pedicels 2-3 mm. long; fruiting calyx 4-5 mm. long, sparingly ciliate. the 
upper tooth obovate, the 2 lateral ones subulate-tipped, the 2 lower subulate; 
corolla about 3 mm. long; upper filaments pilose at the base. [0. amcricanum 
of Bello, not of Linnaeus, O. micranthum of Stahl, not of Willdenow.] 

Waste and cultivated grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico: — Cuba; Curacao; 
northern South America. Native of the Old World tropics. Albahaca. 

3. Ocimum micranthum Willd. Enum. 630. 1809. 

Annual, pubescent; stem erect, branched, 2-5 dm. high. Leaves ovate or 
oblong-ovate, 1-5 cm. long, serrate, acute at the apex, narrowed or subtruncate 
at the base, the petioles 5-20 mm. long; panicles 2-10 cm. long the verticils ap- 
proximate; flowers several in the clusters; pedicels 4-7 mm. long; calyx puberu- 
lent, 7-8 mm. long in fruit, the upper lip concave, the lower of 4 narrow subulate- 
tipped lobes; corolla about 4 mm. long, its tube dilated above, its upper lip with 

2 rounded lobes, the lower lip with 2 ovate lateral lobes and a notched middle one ; 
filaments naked; nutlets about 1 mm. long. 

Fields, hillsides, thickets and waste grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle eleva- 
tions; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; 
West Indies: continental tropical America. Albaca cimarrona. Wild Basil. 

Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rosemary, European, occasionally grown in 
Virgin Island gardens, is a shrub about 1 m. high, with densely leafy, white-to- 
mentose twigs, the linear entire leaves 2-3 cm. long, wdiite-tomentose beneath, 



162 SOLAN ACE AE 

their margins revolute, the blue or white flowers in axillary racemes, both calyx 
and corolla 2-lipped. 

Thymus vulgaris L., Thyme, European and Asiatic, recorded as formerly 
grown in the Virgin Islands, is shrubby, about 3 dm. high, with pubescent stems, 
entire obtuse dotted leaves only 4-10 mm. long and small glomerate purple 
flowers, the nerved calyx 2-lipped. It was recently grown at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station. 

Origanum Marjorana L., Mejorana, Sweet Marjoram, occasionally 
grown in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a perennial herb with to- 
mentose branches, the leaves gray-green, oval, obtuse, entire, about 1.5 cm. long, 
the small purplish flowers in dense oblong spikes, the calyx 2-lipped. 

Melissa officinalis L., Bee-balm, European, grown at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station in 1925, is herbaceous, perennial, with slender-pet ioled 
ovate dentate leaves, and whitish axillary flowers about 10 mm. long, the corolla 
2-lipped. 

Stachys Sieboldii Miquel, Chinese Artichoke, Asiatic, recently grown at 
the Trujillo Station for its edible tubers, is herbaceous, about 5 dm. high, with 
ovate cordate leaves and small whitish spicate flowers. 

Nepeta Cataria L., Catnep, European, experimentally grown at the Trujillo 
Station in 1924, is an herbaceous perennial, with crenate cordate leaves, the 
small whitish flowers whorled in spikes. 

Hyssopus officinalis L. t Hyssop, Hisopo, European, also grown at the 
Trujillo Station, is shrubby, 2-4 dm. high, with linear-oblong entire sessile leaves 
2.5 cm. long, the blue flowers whorled in terminal spikes. 

Family 8. SOLANACEAE Pers. 

Potato Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, vines, or some tropical species trees, with alternate or 
rarely opposite estipulate leaves, and perfect regular, or nearly regular, 
cymose or solitary flowers. Calyx inferior, mostly 5-lobed. Corolla gamo- 
petalous, mostly 5-lobed, the lobes mduplicate-valvate or plicate in the bud. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them, in- 
serted on the tube, all perfect or only 2 or 4 perfect in some genera; anthers 
various, 2-celled, apically or longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 
2-celled (rarely 3-5-celled) ; ovules numerous on the axile placentae, anatro- 
pous or amphitropous; style slender, simple; stigma terminal; fruit a berry 
or capsule. Seeds numerous; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons semiterete. 
About 75 genera and 1,750 species, most abundant in tropical regions. 

A. Embryo of the seed much curved. 
1. Ovary 2-celled. 

a. Corolla salverform to narrowly campanulate. 

Flowers solitary in the axils; small-leaved shrubs or vines. 1. Lycium. 
Flowers fascicled; large-leaved shrubs or trees. 2. Acnistus. 

b. Corolla rotate or open-campanulate. 

Berry mostly enclosed by the inflated calyx. 3. Physalis. 

Berry subtended by the calyx. 

Corolla not plicate. 4. Capsicum. 

Corolla plicate. • 

Anthers opening by terminal pores or slits. 

Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. 5. Solarium. 

Calyx truncate, mostly with 10 linear teeth. 6. Lyeianthes. 

Anther's longitudinally dehiscent. 7. Lycopcrsicon. 



SOLANACEAE 163 

2. Ovary 4-celled. 

Fruit fleshy, baccate; woody vines. »• bwartzta. 

Fruit dry, capsular or indehiseent; herbs or shrubs. 

Fruit* narrowly oblong, indehiseent. 9. Brugmansia. 

Fruit globose or ovoid, dehiscent. 10. Datura. 

B. Embryo straight or little curved. 

1. All the stamens perfect. 

Fruit baccate; shrubs and trees. 

Flowers 5-parted. 11- Cestrum. 

Flowers 6-parted. 12. Goetzea. 

Fruit capsular; mostly herbs. 13. I\icotiana. 

2. Only 2 or 4 stamens perfect. 

Annual herbs. 14. Broicallia. 

Shrubs or trees. 15- Brunfelsia. 

1. LYCIUM L. Sp. PI. 191. 1753. 

Shrubs, or woody vines, often spiny, with small alternate entire leaves, 
commonly with smaller ones fascicled in their axils, and white greenish or purple, 
solitary or clustered flowers. Calyx campanulate, 3-5-lobed or -toothed, not 
enlarged in fruit, persistent. Corolla-tube short or slender, the limb 5-lobed 
(rarely 4-lobed), the lobes obtuse. Stamens 5 (rarely 4) ; filaments filiform, some- 
times dilated at the base; anther-sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 2-celled; 
style filiform; stigma capitate or 2-lobed. Berry globose, ovoid or oblong. 
[Named from the country Lycia.] About 75 species, widely distributed. Type 
species: Lycium afrum L. 

1. Lycium americanum Jacq. Stirp. Am. 50. 1763. 

A glabrous intricately branched shrub, 1.5 m. high or lower, the branches 
and twigs slender. Leaves spatulate, fascicled, 4-10 mm. long, somewhat 
fleshy, the apex rounded, the base narrowed to the short petiole; flowers axillary, 
solitary ; peduncles about as long as the leaves or shorter, upwardly thickened in 
fruit; calyx about 3 mm. long, its lobes ovate; corolla white, about 8 mm. long, 
its lobes rounded; fruit globose or ellipsoid, 4-5 mm. long. 

Rocky plain, Anegada: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Anguilla; St. Martin. 

2. ACNISTUS Schott, Wien. Zeitsch. 4: 1180. 1829. 

Shrubs or trees, with broad entire leaves, the flowers in sessile lateral 
fascicles, the pedicels mostly slender. Calyx campanulate, persistent, truncate, 
or with 5 short teeth. Corolla subcampanulate or nearly funnelform, the 
spreading limb usually 5-lobed. Stamens usually 5, borne on the corolla-tube, 
the filaments slender or filiform, the anthers erect. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 
many; style filiform; stigma 2-lamellate. Fruit a globose berry. Seeds com- 
pressed, rugulose, the embryo carved. [Greek, derivation uncertain.] About 
12 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Cestrum cauliflorum Jacq. 

1. Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schlecht. Linnaea 7: 67. 1832. 

Atropa arborescens L. Cent. PI. 2: 10. 1756. 

Cestrum cauliflorum Jacq. Hort. Schoen. 3: 41. 1798. 

Acnistus cauliflorus Schott, Wien. Zeitsch. 4: 1180. 1829. 

(?) Acnistus frutescens Bello, Anal. Soc. Exp. Hist. Nat. 10: 299. 1881. 

Cestrum macrostemon Sesse & Moeino, Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 49. 1804. 

A shrub, or a small tree 5-10 m. high, the foliage glabrous or floccose- 
pubescent. Leaves elliptic to oblong or ovate-elliptic, thin, 5-15 cm. long, 
the apex acute or obtuse, the base mostly narrowed, the petioles 1-3 cm. long; 



164 SOLANACEAE 

fascicles several-flowered; pedicels 1.5-3 cm. long; calyx about 4 mm. long, 
its 5 teeth short; corolla greenish-white, about 12 mm. long, its short lobes 
ovate; berry yellow, 5-6 mm. in diameter. 

Woods and thickets in wet or moist parts of the central districts of Porto Rico, 
ascending to higher elevations; St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Saba; Guadeloupe and Mont- 
serrat to Trinidad; continental tropical America. Gallinero. Galan arboreo. 

3. PHYSALIS L. Sp. PI. 182. 1753. 

Herbs, sometimes a little woody below, with entire or sinuately toothed 
leaves. Peduncles slender, in our species solitary in the axils. Calyx cam- 
panulate, 5-toothed, in fruit enlarged and usually bladdery-inflated, mem- 
branous, 5-angled, or prominently 10-ribbed and reticulate, and wholly enclosing 
the pulpy berry. Corolla often with a brownish or purplish center, open-cam- 
panulate, or rarely campanulate-rotate, plicate. Stamens inserted near the 
base of the corolla; anthers oblong, opening by longitudinal slits. Style slender, 
somewhat bent; stigma minutely 2-cleft. Seeds numerous, kidney-shaped, 
flattened. [Greek, bladder, referring to the inflated calyx.] The number of 
recognized species is about 50, widely distributed. Type species: Physalis 
Alkekengi L. The plants are called Saca-buche, Ground-cherry and Popps. 

Fruiting calyx bladdery, closed at the top. 

Leaves narrowed at the base. 1. P. angulata. 
Leaves rounded or cordate at the base. 

Densely pubescent. 2. P. pubescens. 

Glabrous or nearly so. 3. P. turbinala. 

Fruiting calyx not bladdery, open at the top. 4. P. Eggersii. 

1. Physalis angulata L. Sp. PI. 183. 1753. 

Physalis Linkiana Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 448. 1852. 
Physalis angulata ramosissima O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 143. 
1909. 

Erect or spreading, 4-9 dm. high, glabrous. Leaves ovate, usually with 
cuneate base and long-acuminate teeth, 5-6.5 cm. long, slender-petioled. thin, 
the veins not prominent; peduncles slender, 2-3 cm. long, erect, in fruit often 
reflexed but seldom exceeding the fruiting calyx ; calyx-teeth triangular to lanceo- 
late, generally shorter than the tube ; corolla yellow, 5-10 mm. in diameter ; anthers 
purplish ; fruiting calyx about 3 cm. long, ovoid, not prominently angled, at last 
nearly filled by the yellow berry. 

Fields, river-banks, waste and cultivated grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; 
Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Ane- 
gada: — southern United States; Bermuda; West Indies; tropical continental America 
and Old World tropics. 

2. Physalis pubescens L. Sp. PL 183. 1753. 

Physalis barbadensis Jacq. Misc. 2: 359. 1781. 

Annual, pubescent and viscid. Stems tall and erect, or widely spreading, 
acutely 3-4-angled; leaves 3-6 cm. long, cordate, acute, or usually abruptly 
acuminate, sharply repand-dentate, pubescent with short hairs; peduncles short, 
at maturity sometimes 2 cm. long; calyx generally densely viscid-hirsute, its 
teeth lanceolate, acuminate; corolla 5-10 mm. in diameter, yellow, with a purplish 
eye; anthers purplish; fruiting calyx 2.5-3 cm. long, attenuate, reticulate, retuse 
at the base. [P. angulata dubia of Kuntze.] 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southern United States; Bermuda(? ); West Indies, south 
to Barbadoes; continental tropical America. 



SOLANACEAE 165 

3. Physalis turbinata Medic. Act. Acad. Theod. Palat. 4: 189. 1780. 

Annual, glabrous, or minutely puberulent when young. Stems rather 
stout, acutely angled and divaricately branched; leaves broadly ovate, obtuse or 
cordate and slightly oblique at the base, thin and dark green, repand-dentate, 
short-acuminate; peduncles short, in fruit about 1.5 cm. long, calyx-teeth lan- 
ceolate, acuminate corolla 8-10 mm. wide, yellow with a purplish eye; fruiting 
calyx 3-3.5 cm. long, long-attenuate, almost pyramidal, deeply retuse at the 
base. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — southern United States; Bermuda; West Indies; con- 
tinental tropical America. 

4. Physalis Eggersii O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 148. 1909. 

Annual, short-pilose. Leaves oblong-elliptic, about 4 cm. long, entire or 
sparingly repand-dentate, the apex acutish, the base narrowed, the petiole about 
1 cm. long; peduncles 4-7 mm. long in flower, about 11 mm. long in fruit; calyx 
in flower campanulate, in fruit open at the top, not angular nor bladdery, 10-12 
mm. long; corolla 7.5 mm. long, funnelform-campanulate, glabrous; stamens 5 
mm. long, the anthers yellowish; berry 7 mm. in diameter. 

Water Island, St. Thomas. Endemic. A species known only from the type speci- 
men collected by Baron Eggers, and to us only from the description. We searched 
Water Island for it in 1913, but found no plant answering the description. 

Physalis peruviana L., recorded by Eggers as found in fields at Rapoon, 
St. Thomas, prior to 1879, was, according to O. E. Schulz, erroneously deter- 
mined, not of this genus. It has been cultivated in Porto Rico for its large 
yellow edible berries. 

4. CAPSICUM L. Sp. PI. 188. 1753. 
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, with forking stems. Leaves flat, 
entire or.repand. Flowers solitary in the axils, or in small cymes. Calyx scarcely 
accrescent, somewhat 5-lobed. Corolla usually white, nearly rotate, its lobes 5- 
imbricated. Stamens 5, adnate to the base of the corolla; anthers bluish, the 
sacs opening lengthwise. Ovary 2-3-celled; stigma club-shaped or dilated. 
Berries red, yellow or green, often nodding, pungent. Seeds flattened. [Latin, 
capsa, a box, referring to the shape of the fruit in forms of the typical species.] 
A few species, natives of America. Type species: Capsicum annuum L. 

1. Capsicum frutescens L. Sp. PL 189. 1753. 

Capsicum baccatum L. Mant. 1: 47. 1767. 

Capsicum annuum baccatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 449. 1891. 

Capsicum annuum frutescens Kuntze, loc. cit. 1891. 

Shrubby, more or less pubescent. Stems 1-3 m. tall, sometimes vine-like, 
widely branching; leaves ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-5 cm, 
long, acute or acuminate, entire, abruptly narrowed or truncate at the base, 
petioles one-half as long as the blades or shorter; pedicels narrowly club-shaped; 
1-2 cm. long; calyx 2.5-3 mm. long, its lobes as long as the tube or somewhat 
shorter; berries globose to ellipsoid, 5-10 mm. long, red, obtuse. 

Thickets, woodlands, fields and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southeastern United States; 
Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Aji 
picante. Aji caballero. Bird Pepper. Wild Pepper. Red Pepper. Many 
races have been derived through cultivation from the wild pepper, their fruit very 
various in size, shape and flavor, some of them fruiting as herbaceous plants the first 
year. 



166 



SOLANACEAE 



5. SOLANUM L. Sp. PI. 184. 1753. 

Herbs or shrubs, often stellate-pubescent, sometimes climbing. Flowers 
cymose, umbelliform, paniculate, or racemose, often heterostylous. Calyx cam- 
panulate or rotate, mostly 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Corolla rotate, the limb plaited. 
5-angled or 5-lobed, the tube very short. Stamens inserted on the throat of the 
corolla; filaments short; anthers linear or oblong, acute or acuminate, connate or 
connivent into a cone, each sac dehiscent by a terminal pore, or sometimes by a 
short introrse terminal slit, or sometimes also longitudinally. Ovary usually 
2-celled; stigma small. Berry mostly globose, the calyx either persistent at its 
base or enclosing it. [Name, according to Wittstein, from sol amen, quieting.] 
A very large genus, perhaps 900 species, of wide geographic distribution. Type 
species: Solanum nigrum L. 



A. Anthers short, not attenuate at the apex; unarmed species. 

1. Leaves without long simple hairs. 

Leaves glabrous, or with a few simple hairs. 

Corolla white or bluish, 4 mm. long or less; herbaceous. 
Corolla blue, 7 mm. long or longer. 

Climbing vine; calyx subtruncate. 

Erect or ascending shrub; calyx 5-lobed. 
Pubescence of stellate or branched hairs. 

Flowers 4.5 mm. long; pubescence of branched hairs. 
Flowers 7-12 mm. long; pubescence stellate. 

Leaves scabrous-pubescent. 

Leaves velvety-pubescent. 

2. Leaves stellate-pubescent and with many long simple hairs. 

B. Anthers long, attenuate at the apex; plants mostly armed 

with prickies. 

1. Flowers polygamous. 

2. Flowers perfect. 

a. Inflorescence 1-5-flowered. 
Pubescence villous; berry orange or scarlet. 

Calyx not prickly; berry orange, 5-6 cm. in di- 
ameter. 
Calyx prickly; berry 1-2 cm. in diameter. 
Pubescence of stalked, stellate hairs; berry green, 1-1.5 
cm. in diameter. 

b. Inflorescence several-many-flowered. 

^Filaments connate, throughout; narrow-leaved 
species. 
Lateral leaf-veins 12-15 on each side of the mid- 
vein; leaves slender-petioled. 
Lateral leaf-veins 20-30 on each side of the midvein ; 
leaves short-petioled. 
Leaves narrowed at base; corolla violet: berry 

red. 
Leaves rounded or oblique at base; corolla 
white; berry black. 
♦♦Filaments distinct above; broad-leaved species. 
Leaves sessile or very short-petioled; berry 4-G 

mm. in diameter. 
Leaves manifestly petioled; berry 6-15 mm. in 
diameter. 
Calyx and pedicels glanduliferous; erect to- 

mentose shrub. 
Calyx and pedicels stellate-hirsute, not gland- 
ular; climbing glabrate shrub. 



1. S. nigrum. 

2. S. Seaforlhianum. 

3. S. conocarpum. 

4. Si Riedlei. 

5. S. rugosum. 

6. S. verbasd folium. 

7. S. mucron'atum. 



S. S. polygamum 



9. S. mammosum. 
10. S. ciliatum. 

11. S. guanicensc. 



12. S. racemosum. 

13. S. persicifolium. 

14. S. drynwphilum. 

15. S. jamaicense. 

16. S. torvum. 

17. S. lanccifolium. 



1. Solanum nigrum L. Sp. PI. 186. 1753. 

Solatium nodiflorum Dunal, Hist. Sol. 151. 1813. Not Jacq., 1788. 
Solanum americanum Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8, no. 5. 1768. 
Solanum nigrum lirginicum Sw. Obs. 83. 1791. 
Sulanum caribaeum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 48. 1852. 
Solanum nigrum americanum O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 160. 
1900. 

Annual, glabrous, or somewhat pubescent with simple hairs, 3-8 dm. high, 
leaves ovate, petioled, more or less inequilateral, 2-8 cm. long, thin, acute, 



SOLANACEAE 167 

acuminate or acutish at the apex; peduncles lateral, umbellately 3-10-flowered ; 
pedicels 6-14 mm. long; flowers 8-10 mm. broad; calyx-lobes oblong, obtuse, 
much shorter than the white or bluish corolla, persistent at the base of the berry, 
filaments somewhat pubescent; anthers obtuse; berries glabrous, globose, 8-10 
mm. in diameter, black, on nodding pedicels. 

Hillsides, river-banks, thickets, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Mona; 
Culebra; Vieques: St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — nearly 
throughout temperate and tropical regions, consisting of many slightly differing races. 
Black Nightshade. Pop-bush. Mata gali.ina. Yerba mora. 

2. Solanum Seaforthianum Andr. Bot. Rep. 8: pi. 504. 1807. 

An unarmed glabrous or sparingly pubescent vine, 1-6 m. long, the twigs 
angular, slender. Leaves thin, slender-petioled, various, pinnately divided, 
trifoliolate or simple, 5-10 cm. long, the segments ovate or elliptic, mostly acute 
or acuminate; inflorescence lateral or subterminal, several-many-flowered, panic- 
ulate; pedicels filiform, 4-6 mm. long; calyx only 1 mm. long, its margin sinuate 
or subtruncate; corolla violet-blue, lilac or rarely white, 7-10 mm. broad, its 
lobes ciliolate; anthers oblong, about 2 mm. long: berries globose, red, 6-10 mm. 
in diameter. [? S. scandens of Krebs.] 

Banks, woods and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, Vieques: 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; often planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands: — Jamaica; Cuba to Trinidad and Margarita; continental tropical America. 
Jasmin de Italia. Falsa belladonna. 

3. Solanum conocarpum Dunal; Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 418. 1814. 

An unarmed shrub with stout terete branches, glabrous, or sparingly pu- 
bescent with simple hairs when young. Leaves elliptic to obovate, 2.5-7.5 cm. 
long, entire, glabrous and shining when old, the apex rounded or emarginate, the 
base narrowed, the petioles only 2-4 mm. long; flowers few, usually geminate, 
lateral or subterminal; pedicels filiform, pilose, 4-6 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. 
long, 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, pilose; corolla blue, about 2 cm. broad, its lobes 
triangular-ovate; anthers about 3 mm. long; berry ovoid-conic, about 3 cm. 
long, yellow, described as edible. 

Coral Bay, St. Jan. Endemic. Recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas. Marron- 
bacoba. This species is known to us from descriptions only. 

4. Solanum Riedlei Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 109. 1852. 

Shrubby, unarmed, the twigs densely stellate-tomentose. Leaves oblong 
or elliptic, 7-16 cm. long, entire or repand, glabrous and shining above, floccose 
and with branched hairs beneath, the apex short-acuminate, the base inequilateral, 
the petioles 8 mm. long; inflorescence terminal, corymbiform, many-flowered, 
peduncled; pedicels about 4 mm. long, tomentose; calyx about 3 mm. long, its 
lobes ovate, obtuse; corolla red, about 4.5 mm. long in bud, its ovate acute lobes 
tomentulose; anthers oblong, 2 mm. long. [S. lanrifolium of Dunal, not of 
Linnaeus.] 

A species doubtfully attributed to Porto Rico, collected only by Riedle, and not 
known from elsewhere. The original specimen is preserved in the herbarium at Mont- 
pellier, illustrated by Dunal (Hist. Sol. pi. 8). 

5. Solanum rugosum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13': 108. 1852. 

Solatium asperum Vahl, Eclog. 2: 17. 1798. Not L. C. Rich. 1792. 

An unarmed shrub or tree up to 8 m. high, the twigs, leaves and inflorescence 
stellate-scabrous, the gray bark smooth. Leaves membranous, elliptic or elliptic- 
obovate, entire, large, 1.5-3 dm. long, the apex acuminate, the base decurrent. 
the petioles 4 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence corymbiform, terminal, stout- 



168 SOLANACEAE 

peduncled, rather densely many-flowered; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; whitish- 
tomentose; calyx 4-5 mm. long, its lobes ovate, acutish; corolla white, nearly 

2 cm. broad, stellate-tomentose, deeply lobed, its oblong-lanceolate lobes acute; 
anthers oblong, about 3 mm. long, berries yellow, globose, about 1 cm. in diameter. 

Thickets, woods and hillsides, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to 
higher elevations: — Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique; Guiana. Tabacon 
aspero. 

6. Solanum verbascifolium L. Sp. PI. 184. 1753. 

A stellate-tomentulose unarmed shrub, 1-3 m. high, rarely forming a small 
tree up to 10 m. high, with a trunk up to 1.5 dm. in diameter. Leaves ovate to 
elliptic, rarely obovate, 1-3 dm. long, entire or very slightly repand, acute, 
acuminate or obtuse at the apex, rounded or narrowed at the base, the stout 
petioles 7 cm. long or less; cymes terminal, several-many-flowered, long-pedun- 
cled; pedicels stout, 6-12 mm. long; calyx 5-7 mm. long, densely stellate, its 
lobes triangular-ovate; corolla white, 10-15 mm. wide, its lobes ovate-oblong; 
berry subglobose, 1-2 cm. in diameter, yellow. [S. callicarpifolium of Stahl, 
not of Kunth & Bouche.] 

Thickets and hillsides at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Mona; Muertos; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola :— Florida ; West Indies; Mexico and Central 
America; Old World tropics. Tabacon afelpado. Berengena de Paloma. Wild 
Tobacco. Turkey-berry. Referred by Urban to S. erianthum D. Don. 

7. Solanum mucronatum O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 191. 1909. 

An unarmed shrub about 2 m. high, the slender twigs umbellately clustered, 
stellate-pubescent with stiff hairs, or floccose-stellate. Leaves elliptic, 8-21 cm. 
long, entire, membranous, the apex acute and mucronate, the inequilateral base 
narrowed, the petioles 1-2 cm. long, the under surface prominently reticulate- 
veined and stellate-pubescent, the upper surface pubescent with long simple 
hairs and stellate hairs intermixed. Leaves at the bases of the twigs scale-like, 
linear, 3—4 cm. long. 

Mountain woodlands, Calabazas near Coamo, Porto Rico; St. Thomas; St. Jan 
(according to Schulz). A plant known from foliage only; perhaps not of this genus. 

8. Solanum polygamum Vahl, Symb. 3: 39. 1794. 

Solanum polygamum thomae Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 455. 1891. 

A stellate-tomentulose shrub 1-3 m. high, the twigs and leaf-midribs armed 
with straight slender prickles 4-10 mm. long, or some of them unarmed. Leaves 
oblong to ovate, chartaceous, 3-17 cm. long, entire or slightly repand, bright 
green above, yellowish beneath, the apex acute or obtuse, the base obtuse or 
subcordate, the petioles 0.5-4 cm. long, the venation impressed above; flowers 
white, polygamous; staminate inflorescence 1-20-flowered, umbelliform, the 
calyx about 2.5 mm. long with 4 or 5 obtuse lobes, the corolla 12-25 mm. broad 
with 4 or 5 acutish lobes, the 4 or 5 stamens with linear-oblong anthers about 

3 mm. long; perfect flowers subterminal, solitary, larger than the staminate, 
the often prickly calyx 7-15 mm. long, the corolla 2-3 cm. broad, the stamens 
5-7, the ovary densely tomentose; berry globose or depressed, stellate-hirsute, 
10-20 mm. in diameter, orange or red. [-S. inclusum and S. inclusum albiflorum 
of Eggers; <S. hirtum of Borgesen & Paulsen.] 

Dry woods between Punta Diablo and Salinas, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — recorded from Hispaniola and from 
Guadeloupe. Cakalaka-berry. 

<t. Solanum mammosum L. Sp. PI. 187. 1753. 

Subherbaceous, annual or perennial, 5-15 dm. high, armed with stout yellow 
prickles 1-2.5 cm. long, the branches and petioles stout, densely villous and 
viscid, with simple and glandular hairs. Leaves thin, large, suborbicular in 



SOLANACEAE 169 

outline, lobed and coarsely dentate, 6-20 cm. long, loosely villous, the apex and 
lobes acute, the base cordate, the petioles 2-10 cm. long; inflorescence lateral, 
nearly sessile, 1-few-flowered ; pedicels villous and glandular, slender, 5-10 mm. 
long; calyx about 5 mm. long, its linear acuminate villous lobes about 4 mm. 
long, its tube very short; corolla blue or violet, 3-4 cm. broad, deeply lobed, the 
lanceolate lobes recurved; filaments very short; anthers about 10 mm. long, 
linear-oblong, attenuate, yellow; berries ovoid, smooth, shining, orange, 4-6 cm. 
long, bluntly tipped. 

Roadsides, waste grounds and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations 
in moist districts; St. Thomas; St. Croix: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua to 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. Berengena de marimbo. Love-apple. 

10. Solanum ciliatum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 2: 21. 1797. 

Perennial, slightly woody, usually much branched, 6-12 dm. high, some- 
what pilose, or becoming glabrous, the branches, petioles, leaf-blades and 
peduncles armed with straight yellow prickles. Leaves thin, broadly ovate 
in outline, 7-15 cm. long, pinnately lobed or repand; cymes few-flowered, lateral; 
calyx about one-third as long as the corolla, armed with stout prickles, its lobes 
ovate, acute; corolla white, about 12 mm. broad; anthers ovate-lanceolate, 5-6 
mm. long; berry globose, scarlet, glabrous, 1-2 cm. in diameter. [Solanum 
aculeatissimum of authors, not of Jacquin.] 

Recorded by Eggers as formerly naturalized at Frederiksted, St. Croix: — southern 
United States; Bermuda; West Indies; continental tropical America. Cockroach 

BERRY. 

11. Solanum guanicense Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 399. 1899. 

Herbaceous, annual, armed with slender yellow prickles 15 mm. long or 
shorter, the twigs, petioles and inflorescence pilose with long-stalked stellate 
hairs, the leaves stellate-pubescent. Leaves broadly ovate in outline, mem- 
branous, pinnately lobed and coarsely dentate, rather stout-petioled, the apex 
and lobes acute or obtuse, the base cordate; inflorescence lateral, peduncled. 
1-2-flowered ; pedicels 5-10 mm. long, thickened and recurved in fruit; calyx 
about 6 mm. long, densely prickly, its lanceolate-acuminate lobes accrescent: 
corolla blue or white, about 2 cm. broad, its lobes short; anthers linear, about 
4 mm. long; berries globose, greenish, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Shore of Lake Guanica, Porto Rico: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Costa Rica. 

12. Solanum racemosum Jacq. Enum. 15. 1760. 

Solanum ignaeum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 270. 1762. 

Shrubby, prickly or unarmed, 1-3 m. high, stellate-puberulent, the branches 
slender, the prickles 6 mm. long or shorter. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
thin, entire, 6-20 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the 
petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter, the lateral nerves rather distant; inflorescence 
lateral or subterminal, racemiform, peduncled, several-many-flowered; pedicels 
6-15 mm. long, thickened upward, glabrate, reflexed in fruit; calyx about 2 mm. 
long, its ovate lobes obtuse; corolla white or violet, about 2 cm. broad, its lobes 
linear-oblong; anthers linear, about 8 mm. long; berries globose, smooth, red, 
shining, about 6 mm. in diameter. [S. bahamense of Eggers, not of Linnaeus.] 

Hillside thickets. Desecheo; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan:— St. Martin to Grenada 
and Barbados. Canker-berry. This species and the following one are closely related 
to each other and to S. bahamense L. 

13. Solanum persicifolium Dunal, Hist. Sol. 185. 1813. 

Solanu?n ignaeum parvifolium Vahl, Eclog. 1: 23. 1796. 
Solanum persicifolium angustifolium Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 185. 1852. 
Solanum persicifolium Bdloi O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 227. 1909. 
Solanum persicifolium parvifolium O. E. Schulz. loc. cit. ]909. 



170 SOLANACEAE 

Shrubby, 3 m. high or less, the stem and leaves prickly or sometimes un- 
armed, stellate-tomentulose, the prickles about 12 mm. long or shorter. Leaves 
oblong or linear-oblong, thin, entire, 5-12 cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base narrowed, the petioles 4-7 mm. long; inflorescence lateral, several- 
many-flowered, racemiform; pedicels thickened upward, reflexed in fruit, about 
10 mm. long; calyx about 1.5 mm. long, its lobes acute; corolla blue or violet, 
rarely white, 1.5-2 cm. broad; anthers 6-8 mm. long, linear; berries red; smooth, 
globose, about 5 mm. in diameter. [S. bahamense of Beflo, not of Linnaeus.] 

Coastal thickets and hillsides at lower elevations near the southern coast, and at 
Cabeza San Juan. Porto Rico: Culebra; Icacos: Vieques; St. Croix: St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada. Recorded from Hispaniola. Berengena de playa. 

14. Solarium drymophilum O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 227. 1909. 

A prickly or nearly unarmed snrub, or a small tree 3-6 m. high, with slender 
branches, the twigs, inflorescence and petioles stellate-hirsute, the prickles 
straight, yellow, about 10 mm. long or shorter. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, 
loosely stellate-pubescent above, densely stellate beneath, 8-20 cm. long, thin, 
entire, the apex acuminate, the base very obliquely obtuse or subcordate. the 
petioles 1 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence lateral and subterminal, racemiform, 
several-many-flowered; pedicels very slender, about 12 mm. long, reflexed in 
fruit; calyx about 2.5 mm. long, its lobes ovate; corolla white, villous, about 2 
cm. broad, its lobes narrow; anthers linear, about as long as the corolla-lobes; 
berries globose, black, shining, 5 mm. in diameter. 

Forests and hillsides at middle and higher elevations in moist or wet districts of 
Porto Rico. Endemic. 

15. Solarium jamaicense Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 

Solarium brevipilum Dunal, Hist. Sol. 191. 1813. 
Solatium cuneifolium Dunal, Hist. Sol. 193. 1813. 
Solatium Willdetioviaiium G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 427. 1838. 
Solatium portoricense Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 374. 1852. 

Shrubby, stellate-tomentulose and more or less prickly, 1-3 m. high, the 
branches flexuous and rather stout, the prickles short, recurved, 6 mm. long or 
less. Leaves broadly ovate or suborbicular, thin, 7-25 cm. long, angulately 
lobed or nearly entire, the apex acute, the base narrowed and decurrent on the 
short petiole; inflorescence lateral, sessile or nearly so, several-flowered, umbelli- 
form, much shorter than the leaves; pedicels 4-12 mm. long; calyx about 4 mm. 
long, its linear lobes recurved; corolla white, 10-15 mm. in diameter, its lobes 
lanceolate, acuminate; anthers oblong, about 5 mm. long; berries globose, red, 
shining, about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Banks, thickets and roadsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; Grenada; Trinidad; continental tropical 
America. 

16. Solarium torvum Sw. Prodr. 47. 1788. 

Solatium Maccai Rich. ; Spreng. Syst. 1: 690. 1825. 
Solatium daturacfolium Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 l : 261. 1852. 
Solanum torvum daturaefolium O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 236. 
1909. 

A stellate-tomentulose shrub, 1-4 m. high, the rather stout branches spar- 
ingly armed with short flattened, nearly straight prickles. Leaves lobed or sin- 
uate-margined, 7-25 cm. long, acute or obtuse, truncate or subcordate at the base, 
sometimes with a few prickles on the petiole and on the midvein beneath, the 
upper surface scabrous; cymes lateral, short-peduncled, several-flowered; flower- 
ing pedicels slender, glandular, 5-8 mm. long, thickening in fruit; calyx glandular 



SOLANACEAE 171 

about 4 mm. long, 5-cleft, its lobes ovate, acute; corolla white, 5-cleft, 10-15 mm. 
broad; berry globose, 10-14 mm. in diameter, yellow. [S. inclusum of Stahl, 
not of Grisebach.] 

Hillsides, banks and thickets, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations; Culebra; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; West Indies; 
continental tropical America ; Old World tropics. Berengen t a cimarrona. Turkey 

BERRY. 

17. Solanum lanceifolium Jacq. Coll. 2: 286. 1788. 

Solarium ambiguum Dunal, Syn. 32. 1816. 

Vine-like, sometimes 10 m. long and high-climbing, the twigs loosely stellate- 
pubescent and densely armed with recurved prickles 1-2 mm. long. Leaves 
ovate to lanceolate or elliptic, thin, entire or the base sinuate, 5-15 cm. long, 
the apex usually acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or rounded, the petioles 
1-6 cm. long, often densely prickly, the midvein commonly prickly beneath; 
inflorescence lateral, several-flowered; peduncles as long as the petioles or shorter: 
pedicels 10-16 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long, stellate-hirsute, eglandular; 
corolla white or violet, about 2 cm. broad, its lobes oblong-lanceolate; anthers 
linear, about 6 mm. long; berry globose, red or orange, shining, 6-9 mm. in 
diameter. 

St. Thomas (according to Krebs) ; Kings Hill, St. Jan : — Saba to Trinidad. Recorded 
from Hispaniola. 

Solanum Melongena L., Berengena, Egg-plant, Asiatic, grown for its 
fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is herbaceous, tomentose and prickly, 
with large, flaccid, lobed leaves, the purplish flowers 5-6 cm. broad, the large 
edible berry oval or globose, in some races up to 3 dm. long. [»S. insanum L. ; 
S. ovigerum Dunal; S. esculentum Dunal.] 

Solanum tuberosum L., Papa, Potato, Andean in origin, is grown for its 
edible tubers in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but in limited quantities, 
the climate being too continually warm for its commercial development. 

Solanum macrocarpum L., of Madagascar, cultivated on St. Croix (ac- 
cording to Schulz) is an herbaceous glabrous annual, with large lobed, nearly 
sessile leaves, blue or white flowers 4 or 5 cm. broad, the globose shining yellow 
berries 2 cm. in diameter. 

Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Sweet Pepper, Jerusalem Cherry, cul- 
tivated for its ornamental fruit in the Virgin Islands, is a glabrous shrub, about 
1 m. high or less, with narrow entire leaves, few or solitary white flowers and 
-rlobose yellow to scarlet berries 1-2 cm. in diameter. Its native habitat is un- 
known. 

Solanum Wendlandii Hook, f., Costa Rican, occasionally planted for orna- 
ment in Porto Rico, is a long vine with somewhat prickly branches, the leaves, at 
least the lower ones, pinnately parted, the clustered, lilac-blue flowers about 5 cm. 
broad, very showy. 

Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. [S. Richardii Spreng; .S*. Balhisii Dunal], 
listed by Krebs as found in St. Thomas prior to 1851, is a species of continental 
tropical America, Cuba and the southeastern United States, not known to exist 
in St. Thomas at the present time, but may have been there formerly as a weed 
or a waif. 



172 SOLAN ACE AE 

Solanum diphyllum L., of South America, Solanum incanum L., of 
the Old World tropics, Solanum polyacanthum Lam., of Cuba and Hispaniola 
and Solanum micracanthos Lam., of tropical America are all recorded by 
Krebs as formerly found in St. Thomas but nothing is known of any of them 
there at the present time. 

6. LYCIANTHES [Dunal] Hassler, Ann. Cons. Jard. 
Bot. Geneve 20: 180. 1917. 

Shrubs, rarely herbs, with simple, mostly entire leaves, and axillary flowers. 
Calyx campanulate, truncate, often 10-dentate, the teeth linear-subulate. Corolla 
rotate or broadly campanulate, plicate. Filaments short, equal or unequal; 
anthers mostly ellipsoid, dehiscent by small apical pores. Fruit a berry. [Greek, 
Lycium-flower.] Over 130 described species of tropical regions. Type species: 
Solanum lycioides L. 

1 . Lycianthes virgata (Lam.) Bitter, Abhand. Nat. Ver. Bremen 24 : 370. 1919. 

Solanum virgatum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 2: 14. 1797. 

Climbing or straggling, up to 5 m. long or longer, the young twigs slender, 
terete, stellate-tomentose. Leaves membranous, ovate to elliptic, 5-15 cm. 
long, more or less stellate-pubescent, the apex acute or acuminate, the oblique 
base rounded or narrowed, the petioles 2 cm. long or shorter; uppermost leaves 
opposite, one much smaller than the other; inflorescence several-flowered, sessile, 
the pedicels 10-20 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long, its 10 linear teeth about 
1 mm. long; corolla blue-violet, about 2 cm. in diameter, plicate; one stamen 
longer than the other four; anthers oblong, about 4 mm. long; berry red, globose, 
about 8 mm. in diameter. 

Woods and thickets in wet or moist parts of the central districts of Porto Rico, 
ascending to higher elevations: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Berengexa de paloma. 

7. LYCOPERSICON Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754. 

Annual, or rarely perennial, coarse herbs, with 1-2-pinnately divided leaves, 
and lateral irregular raceme-like cymes of small yellowish flowers opposite the 
leaves. Calyx 5-parted, or rarely 6-parted, the segments linear or lanceolate- 
Corolla rotate, the tube very short, the limb 5-cleft or rarely 6-cleft, plicate. 
Stamens 5 (rarely 6), inserted on the throat of the corolla; filaments short; 
anthers elongated, connate or connivent, introrsely longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary 2-3-celled; style simple; stigma small, capitate. Berry in the wild plants 
globose or pyriform, much modified in cultivation, the calyx persistent at its 
base. [Greek, wolf-peach.] About 4 species, of South America, the following 
typical. 

1. Lycopersicon Lycopersicon (L.) Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 966. 1882. 

Solarium Lycopersicurn L. Sp. PI. 185. 1753. 

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 
Lycopersicurn Humboldtii Dunal, Hist. Sol. 112. 1813. 

Lycopersicurn cerasiforme Dunal, Hist. Sol. 113. 1813. 

Viscid-pubescent, much branched, 3-9 dm. high. Leaves petioled, 1.5-5 
dm. long, the segments stalked, the larger 7-9, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, mostly 
acute dentate lobed or again divided, the several or numerous smaller ones inter- 



SOLANACEAE 173 

spersed; flowers 10-16 mm. broad; calyx-segments about equalling the corolla; 
berry the well-known tomato or love-apple. 

Spontaneous after cultivation and in waste grounds; Porto Rico; Vieques; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — native of continental tropical 
America. Widely cultivated and more or less spontaneous in tropical and temperate 
regions. Tomato. Love-apple. 

8. SWARTZIA Gmel. Syst. 2: 360. 1791. 

[Solandra Sw. Vet. Akad. Handl. 8: 300. 1787. Not L. 1759.] 

Climbing woody vines, with alternate petioled leaves and very large showy 
solitary terminal flowers. Calyx long-tubular, membranous, 2-5-cleft. Corolla 
funnelform, the tube cylindric below, expanded above, the limb with 5 broad 
imbricated spreading lobes. Stamens 5, borne at the base of the corolla, de- 
clined; filaments filiform; anthers oblong. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform; stigma 
2-lamellate; ovules many. Fruit a large berry. [Commemorates Olaf Swartz, 
1760-1817, distinguished Swedish botanist, professor in Stockholm.] A few 
species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Swartzia grandiflora Gmel. Syst. 2: 360. 1791. 

Solandra grandiflora Sw. Vet. Akad. Handl. 8: 300. 1787. 
Solandra macrantha Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 533. 1852. 

High-climbing on trees, up to 12 m. long or longer, glabrous, the twigs 
stout. Leaves elliptic or obovate, membranous, 6-12 cm. long, distantly pin- 
nately veined, the apex abruptly acute, the base rounded or narrowed, the 
slender petioles 2-4 cm. long; peduncle short; calyx 5-9 cm. long, its lobes acute; 
corolla cream-colored or yellow, or white, turning yellow, 16-20 cm. long, the 
cylindric part of the tube about as long as the calyx or longer, the limb up to 12 
cm. broad; stamens about 15 cm. long, included; berry ovoid, pointed, 4-5 cm. 
long. 

Woodlands and forests at higher elevations, central and western districts of Porto 
Rico, and planted for ornament in Porto Rico and at Louisenhoj, St. Thomas: — Jamaica; 
Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Vincent. Bejlco DE pedo. 

Swartzia longiflora (Tuss.) Britton & Wilson, of Cuba and Hispaniola, 
grown at the St. Croix Agricultural Experiment Station in 1925, appearing 
vigorous, has obovate cuneate leaves, the white corolla up to nearly 3 dm. long, 
the cylindric part of its tube much longer than the calyx. [Solandra longiflora 
Tuss.] 

9. BRUGMANSIA Pers. Syn. 1: 216. 1805. 

Shrubs or trees, with large alternate membranous petioled leaves, and very 
large, drooping, white yellowish or red flowers, solitary on curved peduncles. 
Calyx angled, spathaceous or 5-cleft. Corolla long-funnelform, cylindric 
below, campanulate above, the limb with 5 acuminate lobes. Stamens 5, 
included; filaments filiform. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform. Capsule spindle- 
form, unarmed. [Commemorates S. J. Brugmans, professor in Leyden.] A 
few species, of Mexico and South America. Type species: Brugmansia Candida 
Pers. 

1 . Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) Bercht. & Presl, Rostl. Solan. 45. 1823. 

Datura suaveolens H. & B.; Willd. Hort, Berol. 227. 1809. 

A shrub, 2-3.5 m. high, the twigs and leaves finely puberulent or glabrate. 
Leaves ovate to elliptic, distantly pinnately veined, large, about 3 dm. long or 



174 SOLANACEAE 

shorter, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or oblique, the petioles 
of the larger ones up to 12 cm. long, those of the upper leaves much shorter; 
peduncle 2-6 cm. long; calyx swollen, 9-13 cm. long, 5-cleft, its lobes acute; 
corolla white, 2.5-3 dm. long, the cylindrical part of the tube about as long as 
the calyx or longer, the campanulate part about as long as the tube, the limb 
spreading, with 5 subulate teeth; anthers about 3 cm. long; capsule fusiform, 
puberulent, tipped, 6-12 cm. long; seeds compressed, irregularly roughened. 

Along streams at lower and middle elevations in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico, 
and grown for ornament in gardens: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to St. 
Vincent; continental tropical America. Campana de Paris. Moon-plant. 

Brugmansia arborea (L.) Steud., Cornucopia, South American, occasion- 
ally planted for ornament in Porto Rico and recorded by Krebs as formerly 
grown in St. Thomas, differs in being densely pubescent and the calyx 2-cleft 
to about the middle. [Datura arborea L.; Brugmansia Candida Pers.] 

10. DATURA L. Sp. PI. 179. 1753. 

Tall narcotic herbs, some tropical species shrubs or trees, with alternate 
petioled leaves, and large solitary erect, short-peduncled, white purple or violet 
flowers. Calyx elongated-tubular or prismatic, its apex 5-cleft or spathe-like. 
in the following species circumscissile near the base, which is persistent and sub- 
tends the prickly capsule. Corolla funnelform, the limb plaited, 5-lobed, the 
lobes broad, acuminate. Stamens included or little exserted; filaments filiform, 
very long, inserted at or below the middle of the corolla-tube. Ovary 2-celled, 
or falsely 4-celled; style filiform; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Capsule 4-valved from 
the top, or bursting irregularly. [The Hindoo name, dhatura.] About 12 species 
of wide distribution, known in Porto Rico as Estramonio and Chamisco. Type 
species: Datura Stramonium L. 

Spines of the capsule subulate. „ „ 

Capsule erect. 1- D. Stramonium. 

Capsule nodding. 2. D. Metel. 

Spines of the capsule short, deltoid. 3. D. fastuosa. 

1. Datura Stramonium L. Sp. PI. 179. 1753. 

Datura Tatula L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 256. 1762. 

Annual, glabrous or the young parts sparingly pubescent; stem stout, 3-15 
dm. high. Leaves thin, ovate, acute or acuminate, mostly narrowed at the base, 
0.7-2 dm. long, irregularly sinuate-lobed, the lobes acute; flowers white or violet, 
about 1 dm. high; calyx prismatic, less than one-half the length of the corolla; 
capsule ovoid, erect, prickly, about 5 cm. high. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola- Virgin Gorda- — Bermuda; West Indies; temperate and tropical regions of the 
Old World and the New. Consists of numerous slightly differing races. Thorn-apple. 

2. Datura Metel L. Sp. PL 179. 1753. 

Annual, finely glandular-pubescent, 1-3 m. high. Leaves broadly ovate, 
acute, inequilateral, rounded or subcordate at the base, 1-2.5 dm. long; flowers 
white, 1.5-1.8 dm. high; calyx about one-half as long as the corolla; capsule glo- 
bose or ovoid-globose, nodding, obtuse, long-prickly and pubescent, 2.5-4 cm. 
in diameter. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola— southeastern United States; West Indies, south to Martinique; Margarita; 
Curacao- Aruba; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Prickly-bur. 



SOLAN ACE AE 175 

3. Datura fastuosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 932. 1759. 

Annual, nearly glabrous; stem erect, branched, 1-2 m. high. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate to elliptic, 5-17 cm. long, acute or acuminate, undulate or repand- 
dentate, the slender petioles 3-7 cm. long; calyx about 6 cm. long, its ovate 
lobes acute or short-acuminate; corolla violet without, white whitin, 14-18 cm. 
long; capsule ovoid, 4-6 cm. long, its short stout prickles corrugated at the base. 

Thickets and waste grounds, spontaneous after cultivation for ornament, Porto Rico; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Trini- 
dad; Colombia. Native of the Old World tropics. Chamiscomorado. Garden Datura. 

11. CESTRUM L.-Sp. PI. 191. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees, with alternate entire petioled leaves, the mostly yellow or 
white flowers in cymes or panicles. Calyx 5-lobed or 5-toothed. Corolla salver- 
form or funnelform, the tube long, slender, the 5 lobes spreading. Stamens 
borne on the corolla-tube, included; filaments filiform, often pilose below, some, 
times with a tooth-like appendage; anthers small, their sacs parallel. Ovary 
2-celled, usually short-stipitate ; ovules few; style filiform; stigma dilated, entire 
or 2-lobed. Fruit a small berry. Seeds oblong, smooth. [Greek, hammer, 
referring to the filaments.] Perhaps 150 species, natives of tropical America. 
Type species'. Cestrum noctumum L. 

Filaments bent, denticulate below. 

Corolla 2-2.5 cm. long; panicles large, longer than the leaves; 

berry white. 
Corolla less than 2 cm. long; panicles small, much shorter than 
the leaves; berry black. 
Petioles slender; corolla-lobes oblong; leaves elliptic to 

oblong or obovate, shining. 
Petioles stout; corolla-lobes broadly ovate or suborbicular; 
leaves broadly elliptic, dull. 
Filaments straight, not denticulate. 
Stigma exserted; corolla white. 
Stigma included; corolla greenish. 

1. Cestrum noctumum L. Sp. PI. 191. 1753, 

A shrub 2-4 m. high, the slender branches elongated, sometimes vine-like, 
glabrous. Leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 5-15 cm. long, glabrous when mature, 
the apex acuminate, the base narrowed or rounded, the petioles 8-20 mm. long ; 
panicles large, several-many-flowered, longer than the leaves; pedicels short or 
the lower ones 5-9 mm. long; flowers yellow or greenish yellow, fragrant; calyx 
tubular-campanulate, about 3 mm. long, its teeth short; corolla narrowly funnel- 
form, about 2.5 cm. long, the limb about one-fourth as long as the tube; filaments 
toothed near the base; berry ellipsoid, white, about 1 cm. long. 

Occasionally escaped from cultivation in Porto Rico; recorded by Eggers as in forests 
on St. Jan; often planted in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, the flowers opening 
in the evening: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique. Dama de noche. Lady- 

OF-THE-NlGHT. 

2. Cestrum laurifolium L'Her. Stirp. Nov. 4: 69. 1788. 

Cestrum laurifolium neglectum and intermedium Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 451. 

1891. 
Cestrum citrifolium Ritz. in Hoffm. Phyt. Bl. 1: 36. 1803. 

A glabrous shrub, 1.5-4 m. high. Leaves elliptic to oblong or obovate, 
subcoriaceous, shining above, 5-17 cm. long, the apex obtuse, acute or short- 
acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the slender petioles 4-15 mm. long; 
panicles small, few-flowered, much shorter than the leaves; calyx about 3 mm. 
long, narrowly campanulate in flower, broader in fruit, its teeth short and broad, 



1. 


C. 


noctumum. 


2. 


C. 


laurifolium. 


3. 


C. 


macrophyllum 


4. 
5. 


C. 
C. 


diurnum. 
alternifolium. 



176 SOLANACEAE 

ciliolate; corolla yellow or greenish yellow, narrowly funnelform, 10-17 mm. 
long, the limb about one-fourth as long as the tube, the lobes oblong-ovate, 
obtuse; filaments denticulate; berry subglobose or ellipsoid, 7-10 mm. long, 
purple-black when mature. [C. diurnum of Sesse & Mocino, of West, and of 
Eggers, not of Linnaeus.] 

Thickets, woods and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations, mostly 
in wet or moist districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: 
— Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad. Galan del monte. 

3. Cestrum macrophyllum Vent. Choix des Plantes 18. 1803. 

. Cestrum laurifolium macrophyllum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 451/ 1891. 

A shrub 3 m. high or less, or a small tree 4-5 m. high, glabrous throughout. 
Leaves broadly elliptic to obovate-elliptic, chartaceous, 8-18 cm. long, the apex 
obtuse, rounded or acute, the base narrowed or rounded, the stout petioles 10-25 
mm. long; panicles small, few-flowered, much shorter than the leaves; calyx 
campanulate. 2-2.5 mm. long; corolla 10-12 mm. long, its broadly ovate to sub- 
orbicular lobes obtuse; filaments denticulate; berry subglobose or ellipsoid, black, 
6-8 mm. long. [? C. latifolium of Bello, not of Lamarck; C. laurifolium of Stahl, 
not of L'Heritier.] 

Woods, banks and hillsides, in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico, ascending to 
higher elevations: — Hispaniola. Galan del monte. 

4. Cestrum diurnum L. Sp. PI. 191. 1753. 

? C. diurnum portoricense O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 5: 490. 1908. 

A shrub 1-2 m. high, the slender twigs and inflorescence glabrous or more 
or less pubescent. Leaves oblong or oblong-elliptic, membranous, light green, 
6-11 cm. long, acute at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base, the petioles 
slender, 3-12 mm. long; panicles several-flowered, about as long as the leaves or 
shorter, often with some leaf-like bracts; flowers fragrant; calyx campanulate, 
3-3.5 mm. long; corolla white, 12-18 mm. long, its lobes oblong, obtuse; stamens 
straight, edentate; berry black, ellipsoid, 6-7 mm. long. 

Banks and roadsides at lower elevations; Porto Rico, appearing as if introduced: — 
Jamaica; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Hispaniola; Mexico. Introduced into southern 
Florida. Grown in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens. 

5. Cestrum alternifolium (Jacq.) O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 270. 

1909. 

Ixora alternifolia Jacq. Enum. 12. 1760. 
Cestrum vespertinum L. Mant. 2: 206. 1771. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, the slender twigs pubescent. Leaves ovate, ovate- 
oblong or elliptic, membranous, 5-13 cm. long, pubescent on the veins beneath, 
or glabrate, the apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or narrowed, the 
petioles 5-8 mm. long; panicles few-several-flowered, umbelliform; calyx cam- 
panulate, about 3 mm. long, its teeth short and broad; corolla greenish purple, 
2-2.5 cm. long, its lobes narrowly oblong; stamens edentate; berry ellipsoid, 
9-15 mm. long, black. 

Recorded as found by Eggers in the Luquillo Mountains, Porto Rico; St. Thomas: — 
Guadeloupe to Trinidad; northern South America. 

A species of Cestrum forming a shrub about 2 m. high, with slender puberu- 
lent twigs, glabrous short-petioled lanceolate leaves 4-6 cm. long, the flowers in 
short peduncled panicles, the white corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, its tube glabrous, its 
short lobes densely tomentulose, was seen in a garden at St. Thomas in March, 
1925. 



SOLANACEAE 177 

12. GOETZEA Wydler, Linnaea 5: 423. 1830. 

A tree with alternate petioled coriaceous pinnately many-veined leaves, and 
rather large orange flowers in small cymes. Calyx campanulate, 6-cleft. Corolla 
funnelform, the limb 6-lobed, the lobes reflexed. Stamens 6, exserted, borne 
near the base of the corolla-tube; filaments filiform; anthers oblong. Ovary 
sessile, 2-celled, villous; style filiform; stigma 2-lobed; ovules few, pendulous. 
Fruit an obovoid coriaceous berry. [Named in honor of J. A. P. Goetze, German 
theologian.] A monotypic genus of Porto Rico. 

1. Goetzea elegans Wydler, Linnaea 5: 423. 1830. 

Ilex exandra Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat.' 10: 251. 1881. 

A tree, 8-10 m. high, the bark smooth, the twigs slender. Leaves ovate to 
elliptic, 2-7 cm. long, shining, the lateral venation nearly parallel, the secondary 
venation strongly reticulated, the veins puberulent on the under side, the apex 
acute, the petioles about 8 mm. long or shorter; cymes terminal (or also axillary ?) ; 
pedicels 6-12 mm. long; calyx about 6 mm. long, its narrow lobes acute; corolla 
about 2.5 cm. long, its lobes ovate, acute; stamens exserted; berry orange. 

Woodlands, Sierra de Luquillo and near Aguadilla and Quebradillas. Not recently 
observed by botanists. Endemic. Mata buey. 

13. NICOTIANA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 180. 1753. 

Viscid-pubescent narcotic herbs or shrubs, with large alternate entire or 
slightly undulate leaves, and white yellow greenish or purplish flowers, in ter- 
minal racemes or panicles. Calyx tubular-campanulate or ovoid, 5-cleft. 
Corolla-tube usually longer than the limb, 5-lobed, the lobes spreading. Stamens 
5, inserted on the tube of the corolla; filaments filiform; anther-sacs longitudinally 
dehiscent. Ovary 2-celled (rarely 4-celled) ; style slender; stigma capitate. 
Capsule 2-valved, or sometimes 4-valved at the summit. Seeds numerous, 
small. [Named for John Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who sent some 
species to Catherine de Medici, about 1560.] About 50 species, mostly natives 
of America, the following typical. 

1. Nicotiana Tabacum L. Sp. PI. 180. 1753. 

Annual, 1-2 m. high, little branched or simple-stemmed. Leaves oblong 
to oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 dm. long, sessile, acute or acuminate at the apex, 
narrowed at the base, the lower ones decurrent on the stem; calyx about 12 mm. 
long, its lobes ovate; corolla funnelform, about 5 cm. long, pink, its lobes tri- 
angular-subulate; capsule longer than the calyx. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation; Porto Rico, St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan: — native of South America. Widely cidtivated and spontaneous in temperate 
and tropical regions ; one of the most important crops of Porto Rico. Tabaco. Tobacco. 

14. BROWALLIA L. Sp. PI. 631. 1753. 

Annual, glabrous or viscid-pubescent herbs, with thin entire leaves, the blue, 
violet or white flowers solitary, lateral, or in terminal one-sided racemes. Calyx 
narrowly campanulate, 4-5-toothed. Corolla salverform, the somewhat ir- 
regular limb spreading, 5-lobed. Perfect stamens 4, didynamous, included, the 
fifth rudimentary or wanting. Ovary 2-celled, short-stipitate; style filiform; 



178 SOLANACEAE 

stigma 2-lamellate. Capsule enclosed by the calyx, its valves 2-cleft. Seeds 
reticulated; embryo straight or slightly curved. [Commemorates Johann Bro- 
wallius, 1707-1737, Swedish botanist.] A few closely related species natives of 
tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Browallia americana L. Sp. PI. 631. 1753. 

Browallia demissa L. Syst. ed. 10, 1118. 1759. 

Glabrous, or glandular-pubescent above, slender, branched, about 6 dm. 
high or lower. Leaves ovate, 2-6 cm. long or the upper much smaller, slender- 
petioled, the apex acute or acuminate, the base obtuse or rounded; pedicels 
slender, 5-15 mm. long; flowering calyx 3-4 mm. long, its teeth acute; corolla 
blue or violet, its slender tube 10-13 mm. long, its limb about 12 mm. broad; 
capsule 6-8 mm. long. 

River-banks near Mayaguez and Maricao, probably introduced: — Jamaica; Guade- 
loupe to Trinidad; continental tropical America; recorded from Hispaniola. Grown for 
ornament in Porto Rican gardens. Margarita. Pensamientos de pobre. 

15. BRUNFELSIA [Plum.] L. Sp. PI. 191. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees with entire, coriaceous or chartaceous leaves, the large 
showy flowers terminal, clustered, or often solitary. Calyx campanulate or 
tubular, 5-lobed or 5-cleft. Corolla salverform, the limb 5-lobed, spreading, the 
lobes obtuse or rounded. Stamens 4, didynamous, included, all anther-bearing 
or 2 sterile. Ovary 2-celled; ovules many; style incurved at apex; stigma 2- 
lamellate. Fruit globose or ovoid, fleshy or coriaceous, indehiscent or tardily 
partly dehiscent. Seeds rugose, the embryo a little curved. [Commemorates 
Otto Brunfels, German physician and botanist, died 1534.] About 30 species, 
natives of tropical America. Type species: Brunfelsia americana L. 

Corolla-tube 5-8 cm. long; leaves obovate to lanceolate. 
Calyx campanulate, 6-12 mm. long. 

Calyx 6-7 mm. long; corolla-tube slender, about 5 cm. long; 

fruit about 1.5 cm. in diameter. 1. B. americana. 

Calyx 12 mm. long; ccrolla-tube stout, 6-7 cm. long; fruit 

about 2.5 cm. in diameter. 2. B. lactea. 

Calyx tubular, 3-4 cm. long. 3. B. portoriiensis. 

Corolla-tube 10-14 cm. long; leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate. 4. B. densifolia. 

1. Brunfelsia americana L. Sp. PI. 191. 1753. 

Brunfelsia americana pubescens Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 432. 1861. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high or a small tree about 5 m. high, the twigs glabrous or 
pubescent. Leaves elliptic, oblong or obovate, chartaceous, glabrous on both 
sides or pubescent beneath, loosely reticulate-veined, 5-10 cm. long, the apex 
acute, obtuse, rounded or emarginate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 
3-8 mm. long; flowers terminal, fragrant, usually solitary, short-peduncled ; 
calyx campanulate, about 6 mm. long; corolla white with a purplish center, soon 
fading yellow, its tube 4.5-5.5 cm. long, its limb 3-4.5 cm. broad, the lobes 
rounded; fruit globose, yellow, 1-2 cm. in diameter. 

Woodlands at middle and higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; — St. Eustatius to Dominica. Fre- 
quently grown in gardens for ornament. Aguacero. Aleli. Rain-tree. 

2. Brunfelsia lactea Krug & Urban, Not. Berl. Bot. Gart. l: 323. 1897. 

A glabrous shrub, 1-3 m. high, or a tree up to about 12 m. high. Leaves 
scattered, or clustered at the ends of short twigs, various, elliptic to oval or 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 179 

obovate, coriaceous, 5-15 cm. long, reticulate-veined, the apex acute, acuminate 
or obtuish, the base obtuse or narrowed, the petioles 4-15 mm. long; flowers 
solitary, terminal, white, sometimes appearing lateral on short twigs; peduncles 
about 1 cm. long, calyx campanulate, 10-12 mm. long, its short ovate lobes 
rounded; corolla-tube rather stout, about 7 cm. long; corolla-limb about as broad 
as the length of the tube, its broad lobes rounded; fruit globose, 2-2.5 cm. in 
diameter. 

Forests at high elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico, ascending to the 
summits, and on Monte Torito near Cayey. Endemic. Vega blanca. 

3. Brunfelsia portoricensis Krug & Urban, Not. Berl. Bot. Gart. 1: 322. 1897. 

A glabrous shrub, 1-3 m. high, the rather stout branches densely leafy. 
Leaves various, narrowly oblong to oblanceolate or obovate, coriaceous, shining 
above, sometimes fascicled, 7-15 cm. long, 1-5 cm. wide, the apex acute or 
acuminate, narrowed to an obtuse base, the venation ascending, the stout 
petioles 3-6 mm. long; flowers umbellate or solitary, terminal or also axillary, 
short-pedicelled ; calyx nearly tubular, 3-4.5 cm. long, irregularly cleft nearly 
to the middle, its lobes acutish; corolla white, its rather stout puberulent tube 
6-8 cm. long, its limb about 5 cm. broad or broader; fruit subglobose, nearly 3 cm, 
in diameter. 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. 

4. Brunfelsia densifolia Krug & Urban, Not. Berl. Bot. Gart. 1: 324. 1897. 

A tree, 6-10 m. high, glabrous, the densely leafy branches virgate. Leaves 
linear-oblong to linear-oblanceolate, coriaceous, shining, 5-11 cm. long, about 1 
cm. wide or less, the apex acute or obtuse, the base long-attenuate, the petioles 
4-9 mm. long, the venation nearly parallel; flowers solitary, terminal, the pe- 
duncle 1 cm. long or shorter; calyx narrowly campanulate, about 7 mm. long, 
its short lobes rounded ; corolla white, fading yellow, its very slender tube 10-14 
cm. long, its short, obtuse or rounded lobes about 12 mm. long; stamens uni- 
laterally affixed, 2 fertile, 2 sterile; fruit ovoid, rounded, 2.5 cm. long. 

Serpentine hillsides at higher elevations in the western districts of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. Urban suggested that this very interesting tree might represent a distinct 
genus, Brunfelsiopsis Urban. 

Brunfelsia undulata Sw., endemic in Jamaica, was erroneously recorded 
by Krebs from St. Thomas. 

Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. Palo de tomate, Tree Tomato. 
[Solarium betaceum Cav.] a tree, native of Mexico, reaching a height of 8 meters 
or more, occasionally planted for its edible fruit in Porto Rico, has large entire 
ovate cordate leaves, pink cymose flowers and large red berries. 

Petunias of several races, with white to violet or variegated flowers, often 
double, are grown for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens. 

Family 9. SCROPHULARIACEAE Lindl. 

Figwort Family. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with estipulate leaves, and perfect, mostly com- 
plete and irregular flowers. Calyx inferior, persistent, of five, or occasion- 
ally four, distinct or partly united sepals, which are valvate or imbricate 
in the bud. Corolla gamopetalous, the limb 2-lipped, or nearly regular. 
Stamens 2, 4 or 5, didynamous, or nearly equal, inserted on the corolla and 



180 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 



alternate with its lobes; anthers 2-celled; the sacs equal, or unequal, or some- 
times confluent into one. Disk present or obsolete. Pistil 1, entire or 2- 
lobed; ovary superior, 2-celled, or rarely 1-celled; ovules anatropous or 
amphitropous, on axile placentae; style slender, simple; stigma entire, 2- 
lobed or 2-lamellate. Fruit mostly capsular and septicidally or loculicidally 
dehiscent. Seeds mostly numerous; endosperm fleshy; embryo small, 
straight or slightly curved; cotyledons little broader than the radicle. 
About 200 genera and 3,000 species, widely distributed. 

A. Posterior lobe of the corolla external in the bud; plants not 

parasitic. 

1. Corolla net saccate anteriorly. 

a. Stigma 2-lipped; inflorescence simply racemose; leaves 

glandular-punctate. 
♦Leaves alternate; corolla very nearly regular; stamens 5. 
**Leaves opposite; corolla irregular; stamens 2 or 4. 
tSeeds not transversely lined. 
JAnther-sac approximate. 
§Sepals 4. 
§§Sepals 5. 

Corolla yellow. 
Corolla white or blue. 
Stamens 4. 

Outer sepal veinless or obscurely 
veined; creeping plants. 
Sepals obtuse; styles distinct 

above. 
Sepals acute; styles wholly united. 
Outer sepal reticulate- veined ; erect 
plants. 
Stamens 2. 
Jt Anther-sacs separated; seeds longitudinally 
striate; stamens 4. 
Pedicels 2-bracteolate ; leaves clasping. 
Pedicels ebracteolate ; leaves petioled. 
ttSeeds finely transversely lined or wrinkled. 
Perfect atamens 4. 
Perfect stamens 2. 

Corolla much longer than the calyx. 
Corolla minute, 1-2 mm. long. 
Sepals united at the base only. 
Sepals united over half their length. 

b. Stigma capitate; inflorescence paniculate; leaves not 

glandular-punctate. 
Filaments 5, the posterior one scale-like; large-leaved 

herbs. 
Filaments 4; small-leaved herbs or shrubs. 

2. Corolla saccate anteriorly. 

B. Anterior lobes of the corolla external in the bud; plants mostly 

root-parasites. 
Corolla-tube campanulate or subglobose. 

Corolla-tube scarcely longer than the calyx. 

Corolla-tube much longer than the calyx. 
Corolla salverform. 



1. Capraria. 

2. Scoparia. 

3. Mecardonia. 



4. Aracuillamia. 

5. Biamia. 

6. Caconapca. 

7. Herpestis. 



8. Stemodia. 

9. Lendneria. 

10. Vandellia. 

11. Ilysanthes. 

12. Globifcra. 

13. Hemianthus. 



14. Scrophularia 

15. Russellia. 

16. Angelonia. 



17. Melasma. 

18. Agalinis. 

19. Buchnera. 



1. CAPRARIA L. Sp. PI. 628. 1753. 

Perennial herbs or shrubby plants. Leaves alternate, longer than broad, 
toothed. Flowers on axillary pedicels. Calyx of 5 narrow, almost equal sepals. 
Corolla white, campanulate, with 5 flat lobes. Stamens usually 5; anther-sacs 2, 
divergent, confluent. Stigmas dilated or 2-lobed. Capsule short, 2-grooved, 
loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds reticulated. [Latin, from capra, a nanny-goat.] 
About 4 species, of tropical and subtropical America, the following typical. 



1. Capraria biflora L. Sp. PI. 628. 1753. , 

Capraria biflora pilosa Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 427. 



1861. 



Stems 3-9 dm. tall, branching, sometimes pubescent. Leaves oblanceolate. 
cuneate or oblong, 1-4 cm. long, acute, sharply serrate above the middle; pedicels 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 181 

solitary or 2 together, shorter than the leaves; sepals linear-lanceolate to linear- 
subulate, 4-6 mm. long; corolla about 1 cm. long, the tube campanulate, the 
lobes lanceolate, about as long as the tube; capsule oval or oval-ovoid, about as 
long as the sepals. 

Banks, fields, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, Mona; Icacos; Culebra; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; Texas; 
Bermuda; West Indies; Mexico and continental tropical America. Goat-weed. Te 
del PAIS. 

2. SCOPARIA L. Sp. PL 116. 1753. 

Herbs or low shrubs, mostly branched, with opposite or verticillate, punctate 
leaves, and small bractless pedicelled flowers solitary or in pairs in the axils- 
Calyx 4-parted, the segments nearly distinct, imbricated. Corolla nearly 
rotate, 4-cleft, densely bearded in the throat, its lobes nearly equal, obtuse. 
Stamens 4, nearly equal; filaments filiform; anther-sacs distinct, parallel or di- 
vergent. Style clavate above; stigma truncate or notched; ovules many. Cap- 
sules septicidally dehiscent, its valves entire, membranous. Seeds many an- 
gular. [Latin, a broom.] About 20 species, of tropical and subtropical America, 
the following typical one also widely distributed in warm and tropical parts of 
the Old World. 

l. Scoparia dulcis L. Sp. PL 116. 1753. 

Annual, glabrous, often much branched, 3-10 dm. high, the branches slender. 
Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, opposite or verticillate in 3's or 4's, serrate or 
the upper ones entire, short-petioled, acute at the apex, narrowed or cuneate at 
the base, the lower 2-3 cm. long, the upper smaller; pedicels filiform, as long as 
the upper leaves or shorter, often borne in most of the axils; sepals oblong or 
oblong-obovate, acute, sometimes ciliolate, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla white, 
3-4 mm. wide; capsule ovoid-globose, a little longer than the sepals. 

Moist or wet grounds, Porto Rico, Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — southern United States; West Indies; continental tropical 
America and Old World tropics. Escobita amarga. Orozuz. Licorice weed. 

3. MECARDONIA Ruiz & Pavon, Syst. 164. 1798. 

Perennial, erect or diffuse, low herbs, with opposite serrate pinnately veined 
leaves, and solitary axillary slender-peduncled yellow flowers. Sepals 5, unequal, 
the upper one the largest. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip emarginate. Stamens 
4, borne on the throat of the corolla. Disk wanting. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 
septicidally dehiscent. Seeds numerous. [Commemorates Meca y Cardona, a 
founder of the Botanical Garden of Barcelona.] About 10 species of tropical 
and subtropical America. Type species: Mecardonia ovata Ruiz & Pavon. 

1. Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small, EL SE. U. S. 1065, 1338. 1903. 

Erinus procumbens Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 6. 1768. 

Lindernia dianthera Sw. Prodr. 92. 1788. 

Herpestis chamaedryoides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 2: 369. 1818. 

Monniera dianthera Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 98. 1900. 

Bacopa chamaedryoides Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 8: 88. 1903. 

Glabrous, usually branched from the base, the branches decumbent or sub- 
erect, 1.5-4 dm. long. Leaves ovate or oval, 1-2 cm. long, serrate, short-petioled, 
darkening in drying; peduncles slender, as long as the leaves or longer, sometimes 



182 SCROPHULARIACEAE 

3 times as long; upper sepal at length 8-10 mm. long; corolla about 10 mm. long; 
capsule oblong, 6-10 mm. long. 

Wet or moist grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix: — Florida; Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua; Grenada; Tobago; Trinidad; continental tropical 
America. Yerba de culebra amarilla. 

4. MACUILLAMIA Raf. Autik. Bot. 44. 1840. 

Aquatic or uliginous herbs, with small thin opposite sessile or short-petioled 
leaves and small axillary solitary peduncled flowers. Sepals somewhat unequal, 
obtuse, about as long as the capsule. Corolla white, tubular-campanulate, a 
little irregular. Stamens 4. Styles distinct at the apex. Capsule rounded, 
thin-walled. [Derivation not cited.] A few species of temperate and tropical 
America. Type species: Monniera rotundifolia Michx. 

1. Macuillamia repens (Sw.) Pennell, Proc. Acad. Phila. 75: 9. 1923. 

Gratiola repens Sw. Prodr. 14. 1788. 

Herpestis obovata Poepp. ; Schl. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 107. 1830. 
Herpestis repens Schl. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 107. 1830. 
Monniera obovata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 463. 1891. 

Stems glabrous or pubescent, fistulose, about 4 dm. long or shorter. Leaves 
obovate-elliptic, 7-nerved, sessile, 8-20 mm. long, the apex rounded, the base 
narrowed; peduncles slender, shorter than the leaves; sepals about 4 mm. long 
in fruit, the outer ovate, the inner lanceolate; corolla-tube scarcely longer than 
the calyx, the limb 4-parted, the upper lobe erect, emarginate, the others ovate, 
spreading; filaments subulate; anthers ovate; capsule 3-4 mm. long. [Herpestis 
rotundifolia of Grisebach, not of Pursh.] 

Ditches and wet meadows near Yabucoa and Calabazas, Porto Rico: — Cuba; His- 
paniola; Trinidad; South America. 

5. BRAMIA Lam. Encycl. 1: 459. 1785. 

Diffuse or prostrate herbs, with opposite, mostly entire, obtuse, palmately 
veined leaves, and small peduncled flowers, mostly solitary in the axils, the 
peduncles 2-bracteolate. Calyx subtended by 2 bracts, 5-parted, the upper 
segment the broadest. Corolla nearly regular, the tube cylindric, the limb nearly 
equally 5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, included. Style slender; stigma 
capitate, or 2-lobed. Seeds numerous. [From Brami, a Malabar name.] A few 
species of warm and tropical regions. Type species: Bramia indica Lam. 

1. Bramia Monnieri* (L.) Drake, PI. Polyn. Franc. 142. 1.892. 

Lysimachia Monnieri L. Cent. PI. 2: 9. 1756. 

Gratiola Monnieri L. Syst. ed. 10, 851. 1759. 

Herpestis Monnieria H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 2: 366. 1818. 

Bacopa Monnieria Wettst. in E. & P. Nat. Pflanzf. 4 3b : 77. 1891. 

Monniera calycina Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 462. 1891. 

Monniera Monniera Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 292. 1894. 

Perennial, glabrous, fleshy; stem creeping, rooting at the nodes, 1.5-5 dm. 
long. Leaves spatulate or cuneate-obcordate, sessile, rounded at the apex, entire, 
or sparingly denticulate, 6-20 mm. long; peduncles mainly in alternate axils, 
2-bracteolate at the summit, in fruit longer than the leaves; flowers pale blue, 

♦Spelled Monnieria by Drake. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 183 

about 1 cm. broad; upper calyx-segment ovate, acute; corolla obscurely 2-lipped; 
stamens nearly equal; capsule ovoid, acute, shorter than the calyx. 

Wet grounds at lower elevations, especially in subsaline soil, Porto Rico; Mona; 
Icacos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — southeastern United 
States; Bermuda; West Indies, continental tropical America and Old World tropics. 
Yerba de Culebra. 

6. CACONAPEA Cham. Linnaea 8: 28. 1833. 

Erect or ascending herbs, with opposite membranous serrate leaves, the small 
flowers axillary or in terminal leafy-bracted racemes. Sepals 5, unequal, the 
outer one ovate, reticulate-ridged, longer than the much narrower inner ones. 
Corolla violet or white, tubular-campanulate, 2-lipped, the upper lip broad, 
emarginate. Stamens 4; anther-sacs proximate. Capsule firm-walled, about 
as long as the calyx or shorter. [Name said to be Brazilian.] Twelve species or 
more, natives of tropical regions, mostly American. Type species: Caconapea 
gratioloides Cham. 

1. Caconapea stricta (Schrad.) Britton. 

Herpestis stricta Schrad.; Link, Enum. 2: 142. 1822. 
Monniera stricta Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 463. 1891. 
Bacopa stricta Robinson, Proc. Am. Acad. 44: 615. 1909. 

Glabrous, or puberulent above, erect or nearly so, often much branched, 
2-6 dm. high, the stem stout, the branches slender. Leaves thin, oblong-lan- 
ceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2-12 cm. long, serrate except near the base, the apex 
bluntly acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 3-25 mm. 
long; flowers fascicled in the axils or sometimes solitary, rarely in short inter- 
rupted racemes; pedicels very slender, puberulent, 3-6 mm. long, 2-bracteolate 
at the apex; fruiting calyx about 6 mm. long; corolla white or violet, its tube a 
little longer than the calyx; capsule shorter than the calyx. 

Wet grounds, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations; recorded from St. Thomas, 
presumably erroneously: — Hispaniola; Brazil; Erroneously recorded by Kuntze as 
Dclilea bi flora (L.) Kuntze, a plant not found in Porto Rico. 

7. HERPESTIS Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 186. 1807. 
Small creeping or aquatic herbs, with opposite entire leaves and solitary 
axillary short-peduncled flowers. Sepals 5, unequal, the outer one reticulate- 
veined, deeply cordate. Corolla white, tubular-campanulate, irregular. Sta- 
mens 2; anther-sacs approximate. [Greek, creeping.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Herpestis rotundifolia Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 187. i807. 

Glabrous, branched from the base and matted, the branches prostrate, 
rooting at the lower nodes, 1-2.5 dm. long. Leaves ovate or elliptic, sessile, 
5-12 mm. long, 5-7 -nerved, subamplexicaul, the apex rounded; peduncles 3-6 
mm. long, ebracteolate ; outer sepal strongly veined, ovate-orbicular, rounded, 
4-5 mm. long, much longer than the capsule; corolla scarcely longer than the 
outer sepal. 

Border of Laguna Yeguana, northern coastal plain of Porto Rico, 1922: — Southeast- 
ern United States; Cuba; Guadeloupe. 

8. STEMODIA L. Syst. ed. 10, 1118. 1759. 
Herbs or low shrubs, mostly glandular-pubescent and odorous, with opposite 
or verticillate sessile clasping leaves, the flowers solitary in the axils or in ter- 



184 SCROPHULARIACEAE 

minal, often leafy-bracted spikes or racemes. Pedicels 2-bracteolate. Calyx 
5-parted, the sepals imbricated, nearly distinct and equal. Corolla with a nearly 
cylindric tube and a 2-lipped limb, the upper lip notched or entire, erect, the 
lower 3-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; filaments filiform; anther- 
sacs distinct, stipitate. Capsule attenuate, 2-valved, the valves 2-cleft. Seeds 
striate, tuberculate, small. [Greek, double stamens.] About 20 species, of 
tropical and subtropical regions, the first following one typical. 

Corolla glabrous : bracelets lanceolate to ovate; leaves 1-2.5 cm. long. 1. S. marilima. 
Corolla glandular-pubescent; bractlets linear; leaves 3-9 cm. long. 2. S. duranlifolia. 

1. Stemodia maritima L. Syst. ed. 10, 1118. 1759. 

Pubescent or puberulent and somewhat viscid, usually much branched, 6 
dm. high or less, the branches decumbent or ascending, leafy. Leaves opposite, 
oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1-2.5 cm. long, serrate, sessile, acutish at the apex, 
cordate at the base ; flowers nearly sessile in the axils, solitary, shorter than the 
leaves; calyx about 2 mm. long, shorter than the lanceolate to ovate bractlets; 
corolla purplish, glabrous, longer than the calyx, its upper lip nearly entire. 

Thicket, lagoon near Salinas, Porto Rico; St. Thomas (ex Krebs) : — Bahamas; Ja- 
maica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Curacao; northern South America. 

2. Stemodia durantifolia (L.) Sw. Obs. 240. 1791. 

Capraria durantifolia L. Syst. ed. 10, 1116. 1759. 

Pubescent and glandular, erect, often much branched, 3-9 dm. high, the 
branches slender. Leaves oblong, oblong-lanceolate, oblanceolate, or the upper 
ones linear, acute, acuminate or obtuse, serrate, sessile and amplexicaul, those of 
the stem 3-9 cm. long, with narrowed bases, the upper much smaller; flowers 
nearly sessile, solitary in the axils, or forming narrow long leafy-bracted racemes ; 
bractlets linear, shorter than the calyx; sepals about 5 mm. long, lanceolate, 
acuminate; corolla blue or purple, glandular-pubescent, longer than the calyx. 

Wet grounds at low elevations, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua 
to Trinidad; Curacao; continental tropical America. Veronica. 

9. LENDNERIA Minod, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve II. 10: 

240. 1918. 

Herbs, with opposite or verticillate petioled leaves, and mostly small blue 
or white, axillary flowers, the pedicels ebracteate. Sepals nearly equal and 
alike. Corolla-tube nearly cylindric, the limb 2-lipped. Stamens 4, didynamous ; 
anther-sacs separated, stipitate. Capsule pointed. Seeds smooth. [In honor 
of Professor A. Lindner.] About 10 species of tropical America, the following 
typical. 

1. Lendneria verticillata (Mill.) Brttton 

Erinus verticillatus Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 5. 1768. 

Capraria humilis Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 354. 1789. 

Stemodia parviflora Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 4: 52. 1812. 

Lendneria humilis Minod, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve II. 10: 240. 1918. 

Annual, diffusely branched, glandular-pubescent, 5-15 cm. high. Leaves 
opposite, or verticillate in 3's or 4's, 10-16 mm. long, obtuse, crenate-serrate 
above the cuneate base, the petioles slender, about as long as the blades or 
shorter; flowers short-peduncled in the axils; sepals linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 185 

4-5 mm. long; corolla blue or purple, about as long as the sepals; capsule sub- 
globose, tipped, 2.5-3 mm. in diameter. 

Waste or cultivated ground, Rio Piedras, Porto Rico collected by Stevenson in 
1914. — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Vincent; 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

10. VANDELLIA Brown; L. Mant. 1: 12, 89. 1767. 

Low annual branched herbs, with opposite dentate pinnately veined leaves 
and small solitary axillary flowers. Calyx 5-toothed, the teeth somewhat ir- 
regular. Corolla 2-lipped, the posterior lip exterior in the bud. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, the filaments of two anterior ones with a basal tooth; anther-sacs 
approximate. Capsule narrow, longer than the calyx. [Commemorates Van- 
delli, professor in Coimbra.] A few species of tropical regions, the following 
typical. 

l. Vandellia diflusa L. Mant. 1: 89. 1767. 

Diffusely spreading, pubescent, branched, the 4-angled branches slender; 
6-15 cm. long. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, very short-petioled, low-dentate, 
8-20 mm. long, the apex rounded, obtuse or acutish, the base obtuse or rounded, 
peduncles very short; calyx-tube narrowly obpyramidal, 3-4 mm. long, its lan- 
ceolate acuminate teeth about 2 mm. long; corolla white, about 5 mm. long; 
capsule narrowly oblong, attenuate, tipped, 8-11 mm. long. 

Local in waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; St. Thomas (type locality, but 
not recently collected there) ; St. Croix (collected long ago by Ryan, according to Eggers) : 
— Jamaica; Cuba; Guadeloupe, Montserrat; Dominica; Grenada; Trinidad; continental 
tropical America; Old World tropics. 

11. ILYSANTHES Raf. Ann. Nat, 13. 1820. 

Annual or biennial glabrous slender herbs, with opposite, mostly dentate 
and sessile leaves, and small purplish peduncled flowers solitary in the axils. 
Calyx 5-parted, the segments linear. Corolla irregular, the tube somewhat 
expanded above, the limb 2-lipped; upper lip 2-cleft, erect; lower lip larger, 3- 
lobed, spreading. Fertile stamens 2, included, their anther-sacs divergent; 
sterile stamens 2, 2-lobed, one of the lobes capitate-glandular, the other glabrous, 
shorter. Style slender; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Capsule septicidally dehiscent, 
Seeds numerous, wrinkled. [Greek, mud-flower.] About 10 species, of wide 
distribution. Type species: [Ilysanthes riparia Raf.] 

1. Ilysanthes dubia (L.) Barnhart, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 376. 1899. 

Gratiola dubia L. Sp. PI. 17. 1753. 

Capraria gratioloides L. Syst. ed. 10, 1117. 1759. 

Ilysanthes gratioloides Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 419. 1846. 

At length diffusely branched, 0.7-2 dm. long. Leaves ovate, ovate-oblong, 
or the lower obovate, sessile, or slightly clasping at the base, remotely denticulate 
or entire, thickish, 3-7-nerved, 1-3 cm. long, the upper ones commonly much 
smaller; peduncles slender; flowers 6-10 mm. long; sepals linear, about one-half 
the length of the corolla; capsule narrowly ovoid-oblong, bluntish, 4-6 mm. high; 
seeds 2 mm. long, reddish. [I. riparia of Cook and Collins.] 

Wet grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — eastern United States; 
Cuba; recorded from Hispaniola; South America; introduced into France and Japan. 
Yerba graciosa. 



186 SCROPHULARIACEAE 

12. GLOBIFERA J. F. Gmelin, Syst. 2: 32. 1791. 

Creeping or ascending, small leafy annual glabrous herbs, with opposite 
obovate, oval or orbicular sessile entire leaves, and minute white or purplish 
short-peduncled flowers, solitary in the axils. Calyx 4-5-lobed or 4-5-parted. 
Corolla irregular, the tube short, the upper lip shorter than the lower, or wanting, 
the lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe the largest. Stamens 2, anterior; filaments 
short, somewhat dilated or appendaged at the base; anthers small, their sacs 
distinct, parallel, or slightly divergent. Style short; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 
globose, 2-celled by a membranous partition, or becoming 1-celled. Seeds nu- 
merous, minute. [Latin, globe-bearing.] A few American species, the following 
typical. 

1. Globifera umbrosa (Walt.) J. F. Gmelin, Syst. 2: 32. 1791. 

Anonymos umbrosa Walt. Fl. Car. 63. 1788. 

Micranthemum orbiculatum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 10. 1803. 

Stems very slender, creeping, or the tips ascending, tufted, 1-4 dm. long. 
Leaves orbicular, rounded or retuse. 4-10 mm. in diameter; peduncles very short, 
shorter than the calyx; calyx-lobes oblong, 1-1.5 mm. long; corolla about 1.5 mm. 
broad; capsule 1-1.5 mm. in diameter. 

Ditches and wet grounds, Los Mameyes, Porto Rico, collected by Eggers in 1883 : — 
southeastern United States; Cuba; Hispaniola: Guadeloupe; Grenada; Trinidad; Mexico; 
tropical South America. 

13. HEMIANTHUS Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 1: 119. 1817. 

Diminutive prostrate herbs, often rooting at the nodes, with opposite entire 
3-nerved leaves, and minute solitary, nearly sessile or peduncled flowers. Calyx 
deeply cleft, 4-lobed. Corolla (in our species) 1-lipped, the lip 3-lobed, its middle 
lobe somewhat longer than the lateral ones. Stamens 2, borne on the throat of 
the corolla; filaments short, with a basal appendage; staminodes none. Style 
2-cleft above the middle. Capsule globose, 2-valved, membranous. Seeds 
several or many, few-ribbed and transversely striate. [Greek, referring to the 
deficient corolla.] About 10 species, natives of temperate and tropical America. 
Type species: Hemianthus micranthemoides Nutt. 

1. Hemianthus callitrichoides Griseb. Mem. Am. Acad. II. 8: 522. 1862. 

Hemisiphonia antillana Urban, Symb. Ant. 6: 41. 1909. 

Glabrous; matted; stems filiform, 2-4 cm. long. Leaves elliptic, membra- 
nous, sessile, about 3 mm. long, rounded or obtuse at the apex; peduncles filiform 
1-3 mm. long; calyx about 1 mm. long; lobes of the corolla-lip oblong. 

In mountain streams, Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

14. SCROPHULARIA L. Sp. PI. 619. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, some exotic species shrubby, with mostly opposite leaves, 
and small purple greenish or yellow flowers, in terminal racemose or panicled 
cymes or thyrses. Calyx 5-parted or 5-cleft, the segments or lobes mostly obtuse, 
Corolla irregnlar, the tube globose to oblong, not gibbous nor spurred, the limb 
5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes longer, erect, the lateral ones ascending, the lower 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 187 

spreading or reflexed. Stamens 5, 4 of them anther-bearing and didynamous, 
declined, their anther-sacs confluent into one, the fifth sterile, reduced to a scale 
on the roof of the corolla-tube. Style filiform; stigma capitate or truncate. 
Capsule ovoid, septicidally dehiscent. Seeds rugose, not winged. [Named for 
its repute as a remedy for scrofula.] About 120 species of the northern hemi- 
sphere. Type species: Scrophularia nodosa L. 

1. Scrophularia minutiflora Pennell, Proc. Acad. Phila. 75: 18. 1923. 

Scrophularia micrantha Desv. in Ham. Prodr. 47. 1825. Not Urville, 1822. 

Annual, erect or decumbent, glabrous or sparingly pilose, simple or little 
branched, about 5 dm. high or less. Leaves membranous, ovate, slender-petioled, 
coarsely dentate, 3-8 cm. long, the apex acute, the base narrowed or subtruncate; 
inflorescence interruptedly racemose; flowers 1-7 in the clusters; pedicels nearly 
filiform, 3-10 mm. long; sepals linear-lanceolate, acute, about 2.5 mm. long; 
corolla white, about 3 mm. long, the tube subglobose, the 5 nearly equal lobes 
rounded ; stamens, staminodium and style filiform ; capsule ovoid, pointed, about 
4 mm. long. 

Shaded banks and forests, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations in moist or 
wet parts of the central and western districts: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Peregil cimarrona. 

15. RUSSELLIA Jacq. Enum. 6, 25. 1760. 

Shrubby or herbaceous plants, with opposite or whorled leaves, sometimes 
reduced to mere scales, and cymose or panicled, mostly showy flowers. Calyx- 
lobes ovate. Corolla tubular, or tubular-funnelform, the tube long, the lobes 
short, somewhat unequal. Stamens 4, with divergent anther-sacs ; no staminodes. 
Capsule ovoid to globose. [In honor of Alexander Russell, English physician 
and traveller, who died in 1768.] About 15 species, natives of tropical America. 
Type species: Russellia sarmentosa Jacq. 

1. Russellia equisetiformis Schl. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 377. 1831. 

Russellia juncea Zucc. Flora 15: Beibl. 99. 1832. 

A glabrous, much-branched shrub, 4-12 dm. high, with spreading or arching 
striate branches, the twigs very slender. Leaves of the stem and branches, or 
most of them, reduced to acute scales about 2 mm. long, those of sterile twigs 
spatulate, 1.5 cm. long or less; calyx about 4 mm. long; corolla bright red, about 
2.5 cm. long, its lobes ovate, 4-6 mm. long; capsule ovoid. 

Occasionally spontaneous in Porto Rico after cultivation for ornament; Tortola; 
commonly planted and luxuriant in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens: — Florida; 
Bermuda; Jamaica; Barbados. Native of Mexico. Lluvia de coral. Coral de 
Italia. Fountain-plant. Madeira Plant. 

Russellia sarmentosa Jacq., seen as a young plant at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station in 1925, has ovate crenate leaves 2-5 cm. long. 

16. ANGELONIA H. & B. PI. Aequin. 2: 92. 1809. 

Herbs, with opposite leaves, or the upper alternate, the often showy blue or 
violet flowers solitary in the axils, or in terminal racemes. Calyx 5-cleft or 5- 
parted. Corolla subrotate, irregular, 5-lobed, the 2 posterior lobes external in 
the bud, the short tube anteriorly saccate, the anterior lobes with a horn-like 



188 SCROPHULARIACEAE 

appendage at the base. Stamens 4, didynamous; filament short; anther-sacs 
divaricate. Ovules many. Capsule 2-valved. Seeds foveolate. [From the 
Venezuelan name Angelon]. About 25 species, natives of tropical America, the 
following typical. 

1. Angelonia salicariaefolia H. & B. PI. Aequin. 2: 92. 1809. 

Erect, glandular-pubescent and viscid, branched or simple. 3-6 dm. high. 
Leaves lanceolate to linear-oblong, serrate, 3-7 cm. long or the upper much 
smaller, subsessile, acute or acuminate; flowers in leafy-bracted, often elongated 
racemes; pedicels slender, about as long as the bracts or longer, recurved in fruit, 
densely glandular-pubescent; calyx oblique, 3-4 mm. long; corolla blue, 1.5-2 
cm. broad, its lower lobes oblong, rounded; capsule globose, about 6 mm. in 
diameter. 

Banks and roadsides in moist districts, Porto Rico: — Hispaniola; Trinidad; northern 
South America. 

Angelonia angustifolia Benth., of Cuba, Hispaniola and Mexico, Violeta, 
frequently grown in flower gardens in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is 
glabrous, with linear leaves, the flowers similar to those of A. salicariaefolia, the 
lower corolla-lobes obovate. 

17. MELASMA Berg. Descr. PI. Cap. 162. 1767. 

Pubescent or hirsute herbs, parasitic on roots, with opposite, mostly dentate 
leaves often darkening in drying, the small flowers axillary or forming terminal 
bracted spikes or racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft. Corolla-tube subcam- 
panulate, short, its limb oblique, spreading, the anterior lobes exterior in the bud. 
Stamens 4, didynamous; anther-sacs parallel. Style mostly elongated. Capsule 
subglobose. Seeds numerous, linear. [Greek, black.] About 20 species, natives 
of tropical regions. Type species: Melasma scabrum Berg. 

1. Melasma melampyroides (L. C. Rich.) Pennell. 

Pedicularis melampyroides L. C. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 111. 

1792. 
Alectra brasiliensis Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 339. 1846. 
Aleclra melampyroides Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 458. 1891. 

Annual, scabrous-hirsute, erect, simple or branched, 3-8 dm. high. Leaves 
triangular-lanceolate, subsessile, dentate, 2-5 cm. long, or the upper much smaller, 
the apex acuminate, the base truncate or subcordate; flowers solitary and sessile 
in the axils and forming a leafy-bracted terminal spike; calyx about 8 mm. broad, 
the corolla nearly or quite included, yellow. 

Wet grounds, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — Guadeloupe to Trinidad; 
northern South America. Recorded from Jamaica. Yerba de hierro. 

18. AGALINIS Raf. N. Fl. 2: 61. 1837. 

Erect herbs, mainly with opposite and sessile narrow leaves. Flowers 
showy, usually large, purple, pink or white, in loose bracted racemes. Calyx 
campanulate, 5-toothed or 5-lobed. Corolla somewhat irregular, campanulate, 
the tube broad, the limb 5-lobed, slightly 2-lipped, the anterior lobes exterior in 
the bud. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; filaments pubescent; anthers 
2-celled, their sacs obtuse or mucronate at the base; style filiform. Capsule 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 1S9 

loculicidally dehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds mostly angled. [Greek, remark- 
able flax.] Fifty species or more, natives of continental North America and the 
West Indies. Type species: Agalinis palustris Raf. 

1. Agalinis fasciculata (Ell.) Raf. N. Fl. 2: 63. 1837. 

Gerardia fascicidata Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 115. 1822. 
Gerardia domingensis Spreng. Syst. 2: 807. 1825. 

Erect, branched, 2-10 dm. high, puberulent and scabrous, the branches 
slender. Leaves narrowly linear, 1.5-3 cm. long, about 1.5 mm. wide or narrower, 
acute, scabrous, mostly with fascicles of shorter ones in their axils; pedicels 
snorter than or exceeding the calyx; calyx-tube about 3 mm. long, its 5 short 
teeth ovate, acute; corolla purple, 1.5-2.5 cm. broad, puberulent without, pu- 
bescent within; capsule globose, 4-5 mm. in diameter. 

Grassy banks and fields in wet or moist districts at lower and middle elevations, 
Porto Kico: — southern United States; Cuba (ex Urban) ; Hispaniola. Verba Veronica. 

Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell, of the eastern United States and Cuba, 
was doubtfully recorded by Pennell as occurring in Porto Rico, after study of a 
specimen from Guayama. It differs from A. fasciculata by having no fascicles 
of small leaves in the axils of the larger ones, and in the nearly glabrous stem. 

19. BUCHNERA L. Sp. PI. 630. 1753. 

Erect, perennial or biennial, strict hispid or scabrous herbs, blackening in 
drying, the lower leaves opposite, the upper sometimes alternate. Flowers 
rather large, white, blue, or purple, in terminal bracted spikes, the lower com- 
monly distant. Calyx tubular, or oblong, 5-10-nerved, 5-toothed. Corolla 
salverform, its tube cylindric, somewhat curved, its limb nearly equally 5-cleft, 
spreading, the anterior lobes exterior in the bud. Stamens 4, didynamous ; anther- 
sacs confluent into 1. Style slender, thickened or club-shaped above; stigma 
small, entire or emarginate. Capsule loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds numerous, 
reticulated. [Named for J. G. Buchner.] About 30 species, of warm and tem- 
perate regions. Type species: Buchncra americana L. 

1. Buchnera elongata Sw. Prodr. 92. 1788. 

Stems rough-hispidulous, 2-5 dm. high, simple or branched above, slender. 
Leaves scabrous, sparingly toothed or entire, the basal ones obovate or oblong, 
short-petioled, 1-3 cm. long, those of the stem oblong to linear, 1.5-8 cm. long; 
spikes slender, distantly flowered; calyx 5-6 mm. long, hispidulous, its upper 
lobes triangular, acute ; corolla blue or white, 9-12 mm. long, its tube somewhat 
pubescent ; capsules ovoid, 5-7 mm. long. 

Wet sandy soil near Bayamon, collected by Stahl and recorded from Miradero by 
Bello: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. Espiga de San Antonio. 

Maurandya erubescens (Don) A. Gray, Mexican, is a long pubescent vine, 
with petioled, triangular-hastate leaves and solitary axillary, long-peduncled 
rose-red flowers about 7 cm. long, the corolla saccate at the base. It is occasion- 
ally grown for ornament in Porto Rico. [Lophospermum erubescens Don.] 

Maurandya Barclayana Lindl., Fairy Ivt, also Mexican, recorded by 
Eggers as grown in the Virgin Islands, is a slender glabrous vine, with smaller 
leaves, the purple flowers 2.5-3 cm. long. 



190 LENTIBULARIACEAE 

Maurandya antirrhiniflora (H. & B.) Willd., Roving Sailor, Mexican, 
observed growing freely on walls at Louisenhoj, St. Thomas, in 1925, is a short 
slender glabrous vine, with slender-petioled, triangular-hastate leaves 1-5 cm. 
long and solitary axillary peduncled flowers, the purple corolla about 1.5 cm. long, 
the depressed-globose capsule about 1 cm. in diameter. [Usteria antirrhiniflora 
Poir.] 

Antirrhinum majus L., Snapdragon, European, grown for ornament in 
Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is perennial, with narrow leaves, and ter- 
minal racemes of large flowers, white to purple, 2-3 cm. long, the corolla saccate 
at the base, 2-lipped with a large palate. 

Family 10. LENTIBULARIACEAE Lindl. 

Bladderwort Family. 

Herbs growing in water or wet places. Leaves submersed and dis- 
sected, sometimes resembling rootlets and often bladder-bearing; or aerial, 
basal, entire; or, rarely wanting. Scapes naked or minutely scaly. Flowers 
irregular, perfect. Calyx of 2-5 herbaceous sepals. Corolla 2-lipped, the 
tube spurred or saccate. Stamens 2, adnate to the corolla-tube; anthers 
confluently 1-celled. Pistil solitary; ovary 1-celled, with a free-central 
placenta: stigma 2-lipped. Fruit a capsule. About 16 genera and 300 
species, of world-wide distribution. 

Bracts at the base of the pedicels without bractlets; calyx not enclosing 
the fruit. 
Bracts flat, attached at the base; aquatic plants. 1. Utricularia. 

Bracts peltate; terrestrial plants. 2. Setiscapella. 

Bracts with a pair of bractlets; calyx enclosing the fruit; terrestrial 

plants. 3. Stomoisia. 

1. UTRICULARIA L. Sp. PI. 18. 1753. 

Aquatic herbs, the submersed stems with finely divided leaves bearing 
minute bladders. Flowers racemose or solitary at the summits of the scapes, 
each pedicel with a single bract at its base. Corolla strongly 2-lipped, with a 
prominent 2-lobed palate. [Latin, utriculus, a little bag.] About 75 species, of 
wide distribution. Known as Bladderwort. Type species, Utricularia vul- 
garis L. 

1. Utricularia obtusa Sw. Prodr. 14. 1788. 

Stems radiating from the base of the scape. Leaves scattered, sparingly 
divided; segments capillary, with few minute bladders; scapes 3-16 cm. high, 
1-6-flowered ; pedicels divergent, 1-10 mm. long; corolla yellow, 8-12 mm. 
long, the lower lip truncate, the spur subulate, acute, exceeding the lower lip; 
capsule about 3 mm. in diameter. 

Creeping on the bottom in shallow water, at low elevations, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Martinique; continental tropical America. 

2. SETISCAPELLA Barnh. in Small, Fl. Miami 170. 1913. 

Terrestrial herbs, with short root-like branches from the base of the scape 
the delicate and evanescent leaves and minute bladders rarely seen. Flowers in 
zig-zag racemes or solitary at the summits of the wiry scapes, each pedicel with a 
single bract at its base; bracts and scales peltate. Sepals scarious, ribbed. 
Corolla 2-lipped, the lower lip divergently 3-lobed; palate prominently 2-lobed. 



BIGNONIACEAE 191 

[Latin, seta, bristle, and scapus, scape.] About 12 species, in Asia, Africa, and 
America. Type species, Utricularia subulata L. 

Scape with a pedicel in the axil of each bract ; spur obtuse, little if at all 

exceeding the lower lip. 1. S. subulata. 

Scape with empty bracts alternating with the pedicel-bearing ones; spur 

acute, much exceeding the lower lip. 2. S. pusilla. 

1. Setiscapella subulata (L.) Barnh. in Small, Fl. Miami 170. 1913. 

Utricularia subulata L. Sp. PI. 18. 1753. 

Stems and leaves usually evanescent before flowering time. Scapes 3-20 
cm. high, filiform, 1-12-flowered; pedicels ascending, one from the axil of each 
bract; corolla yellow, 6-12 mm. long; spur obtuse, appressed to the lower lip 
and nearly or quite equalling it in length. 

Wet sand, northern coastal plain of Porto Rico: — eastern United States; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; South America. Grasilla. 

2. Setiscapella pusilla (Vahl) Barnhart. 

Utricularia pusilla Vahl, Enum. 1: 202. 1804. 

Stems and leaves usually evanescent before flowering time. Scapes 2-15 
cm. high, Aliform, 1-12-flowered; pedicels ascending, one from the axil of each 
alternating bract; corolla yellow, 4-6 mm. long; spur acute, appressed to and 
much exceeding the lower lip. 

Wet sand, northern coastal plain of Porto Rico; also detected by Mrs. Britton, in 
February 1923, among mosses on the summit of Monte El Yunque: — Bahamas; Jamaica; 
Cuba; Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

3. STOMOISIA Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 108. 1838. 

Terrestrial herbs, with short root-like branches from the base of the scape, 
the delicate and evanescent leaves and minute bladders rarely seen. Flowers 
racemose or subscapose, or solitary at the summits of the slender scapes, each 
pedicel with a bract and a pair of bractlets at its base. Sepals thin and veiny. 
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, the upper lip with a distinct claw, the lower consisting 
chiefly of the helmet-shaped, laterally compressed palate. [Greek, hairy 
mouth.] About 50 species, of wide distribution. Type species: Utricularia 
c ornuta Michx. 

1. Stomoisia juncea (Vahl) Barnh. in Small, Fl. Miami 171. 1913. 

Utricularia juncea Vahl, Enum. 1: 202. 1804. 

Scapes strict, erect, 1-4 dm. high, 1-12-flowered, bearing several or numerous 
small acute scales. Bracts 1-2 mm. long, acute, the bractlets similar but nar- 
rower; pedicels scarcely exceeding the bracts; calyx yellowish, the upper lobe 
acuminate, 4-5 mm. long, the lower acute, much shorter; corolla yellow, the 
lower lip 8-10 mm. long; spur subulate, pendent, 5-8 mm. long; capsule 2-3 mm. 
in diameter, closely invested by the calyx-lobes. 

Wet sand, northern coastal plain of Porto Rico at Laguna Tortuguero and vicinity: — 
eastern United States; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad; Guiana. 

Family 11. BIGNONIACEAE Pers. 

Trumpet-creeper Family. 

Trees, shrubs or woody vines, a few species herbaceous, with opposite 
(rarely alternate) leaves, and mostly large, showy and clustered, more or 



192 BIGNONIACEAE 

less irregular flowers. Calyx inferior, gamosepalous. Corolla gamopetalous, 
5-lobed, somewhat 2-lipped, at least in the bud. Anther-bearing stamens 
2 or 4, inserted on the tube of the corolla and alternate with its lobes ; anthers 
2-celled, the sacs longitudinal^ dehiscent. Disk annular or cup-like. 
Ovary mostly 2-celled; placentae parietal, or on the partition-wall of the 
ovary; ovules numerous, horizontal, anatropous; style slender: stigma ter- 
minal, 2-lobed. Capsule 2-valved, or fruit indehiscent. Seeds flat, trans- 
verse, winged in many genera; endosperm none; cotyledons broad and flat, 
emarginate or 2-lobed; radicle short, straight. About 60 genera and over 
500 species of wide distribution in tropical regions, a few in the temperate 
zones. 

A. Fruit capsular, dehiscent. 

1. Climbing vines; capsule septifragal; leaflets 2-foliolate or 

3-foliolate. 
Tendrils without hooks, or wanting. 
Flowers with a disk. 

Calyx-limb not expanded. 

Capsule linear, elongated: corolla purple. 1. Arrabidaea. 

Capsule oblong; corolla white. 2. Disticlis. 

Calyx-limb expanded; corolla purple. 3. Amphilophium. 

Flowers without a disk; capsule linear, elongated; 

corolla white or purplish. 4. Cydista. 

Tendrils (often fugacious) with 3 horny hooks; capsule linear, 

elongated; corolla yellow. 5. Batocydia. 

2. Trees or shrubs; capsule loculicidal. 

Leaves palmately compound cr unifoliolate. 6. Tabebuia. 

Leaves pinnate. • 7. Tecoma. 

B. Fruit indehiscent; leaves simple. 
Trees; ovary 1-celled; fruit large. 

Fruit 2-celled; leaves alternate. 8. EnaUagma. 

Fruit 1-celled; leaves mostly fascicled. 9. Crescentia. 

Climbing, often radicant vines with opposite leaves; ovary 

2-celled; fruit small. 10. Schlegclia. 

1. ARRABIDAEA DC. Bibl. Univ. Genev. 17: 126. 1838. 

Woody vines, often high-climbing, with opposite petioled 2-foliolate or 3- 
foliolate leaves, the leaflets entire, the terminal one often represented by a tendril, 
and small, mostly purple flowers in terminal or axillary panicles. Calyx nar- 
rowly campanulate, 5-dentate or subtruncate. Corolla nearly salverform, the 
limb with 5 rounded lobes. Perfect stamens 4, nearly equal, included. Disk 
cup-like. Ovary sessile; ovules several or many; stigma 2-lobed; capsule linear; 
elongated, flattened. Seeds winged. [Commemorates Antonio de Arrabida, 
Brazilian botanist.] Perhaps 50 species of tropical America. Type species: 
Arrabidaea Sego DC. 

1. Arrabidaea Chica (H. & B.) Verlot, Revue Hort. 40: 154. 1868. 

Bignonia Chica H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 107. 1808. 
Adenocalymna portoricensis Stahl, Est. 6: 186. 1888. 

Glabrous, or puberulent above, with slender terete elongated branches. 
Leaves slender-petioled ; leaflets ovate, oval or oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous, 
entire, 4-8 cm. long, the apex acute, acuminate or obtuse, the base mostly obtuse 
or rounded, the slender petiolules about 15 mm. long or shorter; panicles several- 
many-flowered, mostly longer than the leaves; calyx densely puberulent, about 
5 mm. long, its teeth very short; corolla about 15 mm. long, its limb nearly 
regular; capsule elongated, smooth. 

Wooded limestone hills near Bayamon; Porto Rico, collected only by Stahl and by 
Sintenis: — Trinidad; continental tropical America. 



BIGNONIACEAE 193 

2. DISTICTIS Mart.; Meisn. PI. Vase. Gen. 1: 300. 1840. 

Woody vines, with opposite petioled 2- or 3-foliolate leaves, one of the 
leaflets often represented by a tendril, the large flowers in terminal panicles or 
racemes, the leaflets entire. Calyx broadly campanulate, subtruncate. Corolla 
tubular-funnelform, with a short cylindric base and a slightly 2-lipped, 5-lobed 
limb, the lobes rounded. Stamens 4, didynamous, inclined; anther-sacs divari- 
cate. Disk large, thick. Ovary sessile; ovules many, in few rows. Capsule 
oblong, pointed, coriaceous, compressed. Seeds flat, hyaline-winged. [Greek, 
two rows.] Two known species, the following typical one, the other Cuban. 

1. Distictis lactiflora (Vahl) DC. Prodr. 9: 191. 1845. 

Bignonia lactiflora Vahl, Symb. 3: 80. 1794. 

Bignonia odorata Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 293. 1881. 

Bignonia rigescens Jacq. Hort. Schoen. 2: 44. 1797. 

Distictis rigescens DC. Prodr. 9: 191. 1845. 

Macrodiscus lactiflorus Bureau; Baill. Hist. PI. 10: 36. 1891. 

Glabrous, or puberulent above, climbing, rather slender, about 6 m. long or 
shorter, the branches striate. Petioles 6-12 mm. long; leaflets 2, or 2 and a 
tendril, rarely 3, coriaceous, strongly reticulate-veined, ovate to oval or elliptic, 
3-6 cm. long, the apex obtuse, rounded or acute, the base rounded or subcordate; 
panicles few-several-flowered; calyx puberulent, 4-5 mm. long; corolla white with 
a yellow throat within, puberulent or glabrate, about 4 cm. long, the limb about 
3 cm. broad; capsule 7-10 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, narrowed at both ends. 

Thickets and hillsides at low elevations, Porto Rico, most abundant in the southern 
districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Paga Palo. Vinda. 
Liana fragrante. 

3. AMPHILOPHIUM H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 148. 1819. 

Climbing woody vines, with petioled opposite 2-foliolate or 3-foliolate leaves 
one of the leaflets often represented by a tendril, the rather large flowers in 
terminal panicles. Calyx-tube broadly campanulate, the limb widely expanded, 
undulate, with short erect interior lobes. Corolla-tube cylindric, straight, the 
limb 2-lipped. Stamens 4 didynamous, included. Anther-sacs divaricate. 
Disk annular, large. Capsule oblong, the valves coriaceous. Seeds in several 
rows, winged. [Greek, referring to the expanded crested calyx-limb.] About 
6 species, natives of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) H.B K. Nov. Gen. 3: 149. 1819. 

Bignonia paniculata L. Sp. PI. 623. 1753. 

High-climbing, slender, minutely lepidote, the branches ridged. Leaves 
mostly 2-foliolate, occasionally with a tendril; petioles about 6 cm. long or shorter; 
leaflets ovate-orbicular, rather thin, entire, 7-13 cm. long, lepidote, the apex 
abruptly acuminate, the base cordate or subtruncate, the petioles 2-4 cm. long; 
panicles several -many-flowered, 1-2 dm. long; pedicels short; calyx-tube about 
5 mm. long, the whitish limb 1.5-2 cm. broad; corolla purple, puberulent, about 
3 cm. long, the limb much shorter than the tube. 

Thickets at lower elevations in moist districts, Porto Rico: — Guadeloupe to St. 
Vincent; Mexico and northern South America. Liana de cuello. 



194 BIGNONIACEAE 

4. CYDISTA Miers, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. 3: 191. 1863. 

Climbing woody vines, glabrous or very nearly so, the leaves with two entire 
leaflets and with or without a tendril representing a third leaflet, the large 
flowers few in terminal or axillary racemes, the bracts and bractlets small or 
minute. Calyx campanulate, truncate or minutely denticulate. Corolla funnel- 
form-campanulate, its large lobes rounded. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; 
staminodium small. Disk none. Ovary linear, sessile; ovules many; style 
filiform, elongated; stigma acute. Capsule elongated-linear, acute. Seeds 
coriaceous-winged.' [Greek, wonderful.] An apparently monotypic genus. 

1. Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. 3: 191. 1863. 

Bignonia aequinoctialis L. Sp. PI. 623. 1753. 
Bignonia spectabilis Vahl, Symb. 3: 80. 1794. 

A vine up to 8 m. long or longer, the branches quadrangular, rather slender. 
Leaflets ovate to ovate-elliptic, coriaceous, 7-15 cm. long, dark green, minutely 
lepidote when young, soon glabrous, acute or acuminate, the base rounded, the 
petiolules 1-2 cm. long; petioles 1-5 cm. long; racemes up to 2 dm. long or shorter; 
pedicels 8-25 mm. long; calyx about 8 mm. long; corolla white or purplish, 7-8 
cm. long, the lobes about 2 cm. broad; capsule 2-3 dm. long, about 1 cm. wide, 
its valves tardily separating. 

Thickets at lower elevations in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St 
Thomas; St. Jan:— Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad; continental tropica 
America. Bejuco blanco. Liana de la sierra. Guard Withe. 

5. BATOCYDIA Mart. ; Britton, Mem. Brooklyn Bot. 
Gard. 1: 90. 1918. 

High-climbing woody vines, the leaves with 2 entire leaflets and a very slender 
deciduous 3-forked tendril, each fork bearing a small horny hook. Flowers 
large, bright yellow, solitary or few together in the axils. Calyx membranous, 
subcampanulate, reticulate- veined, its margin crenate-undulate, oblique. Corolla 
funnelform-campanulate, slightly curved, somewhat unequally 5-lobed. Sta- 
mens 4, didynamous, included. Staminodium linear, elongated. Disk annular. 
Ovary sessile; ovules many; style filiform; stigma rhombic-oblong, membranous. 
Capsule long-linear, dehiscent, the valves coriaceous. Seeds linear-oblong, 
winged. [Greek, glorious bramble.] An apparently monotypic genus. 

1. Batocydia Unguis (L.) Mart.; Britton, loc. cit. 191S. 

Bignonia Unguis L. Sp. PI. 623. 1753. 

Doxantha Unguis Miers, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. 3: 190. 1863. 

A vine, often 10-15 m. long, glabrous or very nearly so, the branches terete. 
Leaflets ovate to oblong, short-elliptic or obovate, membranous or chartaceous, 
3-6 cm. long, acute or obtuse, the base narrowed or rounded, the petiolules short; 
petioles 1-3 cm. long; peduncles very slender, 1-3 cm. long; calyx greenish, 
10-16 mm. long; corolla 5-8 cm. long, its lobes 1.5-2 cm. broad; capsules 3-4 dm. 
long, 12-14 mm. wide; seeds 2-3 cm. long, winged at the ends. 

Climbing on trees at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin to Trinidad; continental 
tropical America. Occasionally planted for ornament. Liana uSiada. U5Ja de gato. 
Cat-claw. 



BIGNONIACEAE 195 

6. TABEBUIA Gomez, Obs. 2: 7. 1803. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite petioled, digitately 1-7-foliolate or simple 
leaves, the large showy flowers in terminal corymbs or panicles. Calyx tubular, 
toothed or cleft. Corolla funnelform, salverform or funnelform-campanulate, the 
limb spreading, slightly 2-lipped or nearly regular, the 5 lobes rounded. Stamens 
4, didynamous, included; filaments slender, curved; anthers oblong or linear, 
glabrous. Ovary sessile; ovules many, in 2-several series. Capsule linear or 
linear-oblong, nearly terete, loculicidally dehiscent, its valves membranous or 
coriaceous, convex. Seeds numerous, winged. [Brazilian name.] Seventy-five 
species or more, natives of tropical America; those of Porto Rico known as Roble. 
Type species: Bignonia Tabebuya Veil. 

Flowers red to red-purple. 
Leaves simple. 

Leaves ovate to elliptic. 1. T. rigida. 

Leaves obovate or oblanceolate. 2. T. Schumanniana. 

Leaves 3-5-foliolate. 3. T. haemaniha. 

Flowers rose to white or pink; leaves 1-5-foliolate. 

Leaflets oblong to elliptic, oblanceolate or obovate, dull or 
faintly shining. 
Leaflets small, about 7 cm. long or shorter; capsule 5-11 

cm. long. 4. T. heterophylla. 

Leaflets large, up to 15 cm. long; capsule 10-20 cm. long. 5. T. pallida. 
Leaflets narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, strongly shining, 

loosely reticulate-veined. 6. T. lucida. 

1. Tabebuia rigida Urban, Syrnb. Ant. 1: 404. 1899. 

A tree, 8-20 m. high, or shrubby, the foliage minutely lepidote, the twigs 
flattened, somewhat 4-angled, Leaves simple, ovate to elliptic, subcoriaceous, 
5-15 cm. long, the apex acute or obtuse, the base rounded or narrowed, the 
petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; inflorescence terminal at the forks of the twigs, nearly 
sessile or on a peduncle about 5 cm. long or shorter, 1-several-flowered ; pedicels 
2-3 cm. long; bractlets linear-subulate, 1.5-3 mm. long, calyx densely lepidote, 
13-22 mm. long, its lobes short; corolla rose-red to red-purple, 3-4 cm. long, the 
limb 1.5-2 cm. broad, the lobes rounded; capsule about 15 cm. long. 

Forests, at higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico, ascending to the 
summits. Endemic. The wood is described as brown, hard and durable. Roble DE 

SIERRA. 

2. Tabebuia Schumanniana Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 404. 1899. 

A tree, 5-15 m. high, the foliage minutely lepidote, the twigs somewhat 
angled. Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, coriaceous, 7-17 cm. long, the apex 
rounded, obtuse or acute, the base obtuse, narrowed or subcordate, the petioles 
about 2 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence terminal, 1-few-flowered ; pedicels 
slender, 2-6 cm. long; bractlets linear-subulate; calyx densely lepidote, 9-17 mm. 
long, unequally short-lobed: corolla red, 3-4 cm. long, its limb 2-3 cm. broad, its 
lobes rounded; capsule 8-14 cm. long. 

Forests of the western mountains of Porto Rico at middle and higher elevations. 
Endemic. Roble Colorado. 

3. Tabebuia haemantha (Bert.) DC. Prodr. 9: 214. 1845. 

Bignonia haemantha Bert.; Spreng. Syst. 2: 832. 1825. 

Tecoma haemantha Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 194. 1866. 

Spathodea portoricensis Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 293. 1881. 

A shrub or a small tree 5-8 m. high, recorded as sometimes up to 15 m. high, 
the foliage minutely lepidote, or elepidote, the twigs somewhat compressed. 



196 BIGNONIACEAE 

Leaves 3-5-foliolate ; petioles rather stout, 2-5 cm. long; leaflets elliptic, oblong- 
elliptic, ovate or slightly obovate, coriaceous, 4-15 cm. long, glabrous or minutely 
and sparingly lepidote, stalked or the lower ones sessile, the apex rounded or 
acutish, the base rounded, obtuse or subcordate; inflorescence several-many- 
flowered, sometimes 15 cm. broad; pedicels 3-20 mm. long; calyx 9-15 mm. long, 
its lobes short; corolla red or crimson, 3-5 cm. long, its limb 1.5-2 cm. broad; 
capsule 6-11 cm. long. [Tecoma platyantha of Stahl, not of Grisebach; Bignonia 
quinquefolia of Mogino and Sesse, not of Vellozo.l 

Hillsides and woodlands at lower and middle elevations, western, central and south- 
western districts of Porto Rico, most abundant in dry regions, extending east to Guayama. 
Endemic. Roble Colorado. 

4. Tabebuia heterophylla (DC.) Britton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 4S. 1915. 

Raputia (?) heterophylla DC. Mem. Mus. Paris 9: 153. 1822. 
Tabebuia triphylla DC. Prodr. 9: 214. 1845. 
Tecoma Eggersii Kraenzlin, Repert. 17: 219, 1921. 

A shrub, 2-4 m. high, or a small tree 5-10 m. high, the foliage densely 
lepidote. Leaves 1-5-foliolate; petioles about 3 cm. long or shorter; leaflets 
elliptic to oblong or obovate, stalked or the lower sessile, mostly 3-7 cm. long, 
finely reticulate-veined, subcoriaceoiis. dull or faintly shining, the apex obtuse, 
rounded or abruptly acute, the base narrowed or obtuse; inflorescence 1-20- 
flowered; pedicels slender; calyx 10-12 mm. long; corolla pink, white, or white 
with a pink limb, 4-7 cm. long ; capsule 5-11 cm. long. [Tecoma Berterii of Grise- 
bach and of Eggers, not of de Candolle.] 

Woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico, mostly at lower elevations, in dry districts, 
often planted along roadsides; Mona; Culebra; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; 
Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Jamaica; Cayman Islands; St. Barts. Perhaps not specifically 
distinct from the following species, but this plant of dry districts has small leaflets, some- 
times smaller flowers, and shorter pods. Roble prieto. 

5. Tabebuia pallida Miers, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. 3: 199. 1863. 

Bignonia Leucoxylon L. Sp. PI. 624. 1753. Not Tabebuia leucoxyla DC. 

Tecoma pentaphylla Juss. Gen. 139. 1789. 

Tecoma Leucoxylon Mart.; DC. Prodr. 9: 219. 1845. 

Tabebuia pentaphylla Hemsl. Bot. C. A. 2: 495. 1882. Not Bignonia 

pentaphylla L. 1763. 
Tecoma Leucoxylon pentaphylla Bureau & Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 8 2 : 342. 

1897. 
Tabebuia pentaphylla Leucoxylon Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 480. 1891. 

A tree, 5-20 m. high, the gray bark shallowly fissured, the foliage and in- 
florescence lepidote. Leaves 3-5-foliolate or some of them occasionally 1 -folio- 
late; petioles about 10 cm. long or shorter. Leaflets elliptic to oblong or elliptic- 
obovate, 7-15 cm. long, faintly reticulate-veined, stalked, or the lower ones 
sessile, subcoriaceous, somewhat shining, acute or obtuse; inflorescence several- 
many-flowered; pedicels slender, about 2 cm. long or shorter; calyx about 10 
mm. long; corolla pink, rose or white, 5-7 cm. long, capsule 1-2 dm. long, about 
6 mm. thick. 

Woodlands, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in 
wet or moist districts; much planted along roads and streets and elegant when in bloom: 
St. Croix: St. Thomas: St. Jan: — Bermuda (naturalized); Hispaniola; Saba to Tobago; 
Central America; Venezuela. The wood is white, strong and hard, with specific gravity 
of about 0.8: it is valued for construction, for furniture and for musical instruments. 
Roble blanco. White Cedar. 

O.^Tabebuia lucida Britton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 48. 1915. 

A tree up to 5 m. high. Leaves 3-5-foliolate; petioles slender, lepidote, 
6 cm. long or less; petiolules of the larger, upper leaflets slender, lepidote, 8-20 



BIGNONIACEAE 197 

mm. long, the lower leaflets sessile or nearly so; leaflets thin-coriaceous, narrowly 
oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, shining, loosely re- 
ticulate-veined, and lepidote on both sides, rather abruptly acute or obtusish at 
apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base; flowers clustered; pedicels lepidote; calyx 
about 14 mm. long, 2-lipped; corolla pink, glabrous, about 5 cm. long, its cylindric 
tube 5-6 mm. long, its narrowly campanulate throat about 3 cm. long, its limb 
about. 1.5 cm. long, the lobes nearly entire. 

Limestone cliffs, Mona. Endemic. Roble de Mona. 

Tabebuia glomerata Urban, Porn, native of the southern West Indies, 
was seen at the Agricultural Experiment Station, Mayaguez, in 1924, as a fine 
tree about 10 m. high, in full bloom on February 24th, covered with its clustered 
bright yellow flowers about 6 cm. long and nearly bare of leaves; the 5-foliolate 
leaves are long-petioled, the leaflets obovate, 5-15 cm. long, the apex acuminate. 

Tabebuia argentea (Bur. & Sebum.) Britton [Tecoma argentea Bur. & 
Schum.], native of Paraguay, grown as young trees at the St. Croix and Mayaguez 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, planted in 1923, had attained a height of 
about 2 m. in 1925, with trunks about 5 cm. in diameter; it has 5-7-foliolate 
leaves, the long-stalked leaflets oblong, 6-15 cm. long, silvery-lepidote on both 
sides. The young tree at the St. Croix Station had its leaves persistent to the 
base of the trunk, the bark curiously sunken at the petiole-bases; it had already 
flowered, the corolla pink. 

7. TECOMA Juss. Gen. 139. 1789. 

Shrubs or -trees, with opposite, pinnate or rarely simple leaves, and large 
flowers racemose or panicled at the ends of the branches. Calyx tubular-cam- 
panulate, 5-toothed. Corolla funnelform-campanu'ate, the limb slightly 2- 
lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes nearly equal. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary sessile 
or nearly sessile; ovules mostly in one series on the placentae. Capsule linear, 
loculicidally dehiscent, many-seeded, the seeds winged. [From the Aztec name 
Tecomaxochitl.] About 10 species, natives of tropical and warm-temperate 
America, the following typical. 

1. Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 144. 1819. 

Bignonia stans L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 871. 1763. 
Stenolobium stans Seem. Journ. Bot. 1: 88. 1863. 
Gelseminum stans Kuntze, Kev. Gen. PI. 479. 1891. 

A shrub, or small tree up to about 8 m. high, glabrous throughout. Leaves 
1-3 dm. long, petioled; leaflets 5-13, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 
short-stalked, serrate, acute or acuminate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the 
base; racemes several-many-flowered; pedicels slender, 1 cm. long or less; calyx 
3.5 mm. long, its teeth triangular-ovate, acute; corolla bright yellow, 3.5-5 cm. 
long, the cylindric part of its tube about twice as long as the calyx, its lobes broad; 
capsule 1-2 dm. long, 5-6 mm. in diameter, beaked. 

Hillsides, southern dry districts, Porto Rico, much planted for ornament; Vieques: 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. .Tan; Tortola: — Florida; West Indies; continental tropical 
America. Roble amarillo. Ruibarba. Trumpet-flower. Yellow Elder. Yel- 
low Cedar. Ginger Thomas. 

8. ENALLAGMA [Miers]; Baill. Hist. PI. 10: 24, 54. 1891. 

Trees or shrubs, with simple alternate broad entire, short-petioled leaves, 
and terminal, few or solitary, long-peduncled flowers. Calyx closed in bud, cleft 



A 






: 



198 BIGNONIACEAE 

at anthesis. Corolla-tube swollen, the limb oblique, not deeply lobed. Stamens 
4, didynamous, included. Disk annular. Ovary sessile, 1-celled. Ovules 
many, on 2 parietal placentae. Fruit large, ellipsoid or subcylindric, indehiscent, 
woody or coriaceous, becoming 2-celled. Seeds many, compressed. [Greek, 
given in exchange.] A few species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Enallagma latifolia (Mill.) Small, Fl. Miami 171, 200. 1913. 

Crescentia latifolia Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 2. 1768. 

Crescentia cucurbitina L. Mant. 2: 250. 1771. 

Enallagma cucurbitina Baill. Hist. PI. 10: 24. 1891. 

Crescentia cucurbitina heterophylla Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 479. 1891. 

A glabrous tree, 5-10 m. high, the bark smooth or shallowly Assured, the 
twigs gray. Leaves elliptic to obovate, chartaceous, 7-20 cm. long, the apex 
mostly abruptly acute, the base narrowed, the petioles only 4-10 mm. long, 
peduncles 2-3 cm. long; calyx about 3 cm. long, cleft nearly to the middle or 
below; corolla 4-5 cm. long, purplish or yellowish with the limb brown-margined; 
fruit subglobose, 6-8 cm. long, the skin smooth. 

Woodlands, stream banks and hillsides at low elevations in moist districts, Porto 
Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan:- — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Trinidad; Central America; Venezuela. Higuerillo. Black Calabash. 

9. CRESCENTIA L. Sp. PI. 626. 1753. 
Trees, with glabrous simple, usually fascicled leaves, and large, solitary 
or clustered, lateral or axillary flowers. Calyx leathery, closed in bud, 2-parted 
or 5-cleft at anthesis. Corolla with a subcampanulate swollen tube and an oblique 
lacerate or 5-lobed limb. Stamens 4, didynamous, included or a little exserted. 
Disk annular. Ovary 1-celled, sessile; ovules many, on 2 parietal placentae. 
Fruit globose or ovoid, large, indehiscent, 1-celled, the shell hard. Seeds nu- 
merous, wingless, compressed, borne on spongy placentae. [Commemorates 
Petrus de Cresentius, a celebrated Italian, born in 1230.] About 5 species, 
natives of tropical America, the first following typical. 

Leaves spatulate, oblanceolate to obovate, obtuse or acute. 

Leaves chartaceous, fruit subglobose or ellipsoid. 1. C. Cujete. 

Leaves coriaceous, shining; fruit oblong-cylindric. 2. C. porloricensis. 

Leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, acuminate, spinulose-tipped or 

mucronate. 3. C. linearifolia. 

1. Crescentia Cujete L. Sp. PI. 626. 1753. 

Crescentia fasciculata Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 171. 1868. 

A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 10 m., the trunk up to 2 dm. 
in diameter, with long spreading branches. Leaves spatulate to oblanceolate, 
fascicled, 5-15 cm. long, obtuse, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, narrowed 
to the nearly sessile base; flowers stout-peduncled ; calyx 2-2.5 cm. long, its 
lobes broad, rounded or obtuse; corolla yellowish-purple, 5-6 cm. long, its lobes 
lacerate, much shorter than the tube; fruit subglobose to ellipsoid, 1-3 dm. in 
diameter, its rind hard. 

Hillsides and plains at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Desecheo; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola; much planted for its fruit, from which utensils are made: — Florida; 
West Indies; continental tropical America. The wood is light brown, tough and durable, 
with a specific gravity of about 0.8. Higuero. Calabash. 

2. Crescentia portoricensis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 457. 1916. 

A vine-like glabrous shrub, with long slender branches, the bark light gray. 
Leaves obovate or elliptic-obovate, fascicled at the nodes or some of them alter- 



BIGNONIACEAE 199 

nate, coriaceous, 5-15 cm. long, shining above, dull beneath, strongly reticulate- 
veined on both sides, the apex abruptly short-acuminate or obtuse, the base 
cuneate, the petioles 6-15 mm. long; flowers solitary; peduncle 1-2 cm. long, 
slender, in flower, thickened in fruit; calyx 2 cm. long, deeply 2-lobed; corolla 
subcampanulate, 4 cm. long, reticulate-veined, its broadly ovate entire lobes 
about one-fourth as long as the tube; fruit oblong-cylindric, 10 cm. long, 3.5 cm. 
in diameter, terete, pointed, the base truncate. 

Forest along Rio de Maricao, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

3. Crescentia linearifolia Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 172. 1868. 

Crescentia microcarpa Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 294. 1881. 

A tree, 5-7 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, glabrous throughout, the branches 
gray, leafy. Leaves densely fascicled at the nodes, linear to linear-oblanceolate, 
shining, rigid, 2-6 cm. long, or the lower much shorter, about 10 mm. wide or less, 
the apex sharply acuminate or mucronate, the base narrowed, the petioles very 
short; flowers solitary or few at the upper nodes; peduncles 5-10 mm. long; 
calyx broad, about 1 cm. long, deeply 2-3-cleft; corolla greenish, about 4 cm. 
long, its lobes lacerate; fruit globose or ellipsoid, 3-5 cm. long. 

Woodlands and hillsides near the southwestern coast, extending east to near Salinas, 
and at Cabeza San Juan, Porto Rico; St. Thomas; Sti Jan:— St. Martin. Higuerito. 

10. SCHLEGELIA Miquel, Bot. Zeit. 2: 785. 1844. 

Shrubs or vines, often radicant, with simple entire opposite short-petioled 
leaves, the mostly small flowers fascicled or solitary in the axils, or in terminal 
panicles. Calyx tubular-campanulate, truncate. Corolla nearly salverform 
or narrowly campanulate, its lobes short. Stamens 4, didynamous, included; 
staminodium subulate. Disk none or obsolete. Ovary 2-celled; ovules several 
or many, erect; style slender. Fruit globose, hard, indehiscent. Seeds oblong. 
[Commemorates H. Schlegel, Dutch zoologist.] About 6 species, natives of 
tropical America. Type species: Schlegelia lilacina Miquel. 

1. Schlegelia portoricensis (Urban) Britton. 

Schlegelia brachyantha portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 406. 1899. 

A vine or vine-like shrub, up to 6 m. long or longer, the twigs glabrous, 
terete. Leaves elliptic or elliptic-obovate, coriaceous, glabrous, 4-11 cm. long, 
short-petioled, the apex and base rounded or obtuse, or the base sometimes nar- 
rowed; flowers axillary or lateral, fascicled or solitary; pedicels pubescent when 
young, 2-bracteolate, 3-8 mm. long, glabrous when old; calyx about 5 mm. 
long, narrowed below; corolla white or pink, with purplish-veined throat, 15-18 
mm. long, the rounded lobes about one-fourth as long as the tube; fruit almost 
1 cm. in diameter. [S. axillaris of Stahl, not of Grisebach.] 

Forests and river-banks, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to the 
higher elevations. Endemic. Higuerito de Sierra. Tulipa. 

Bignonia (?) caryophyllea Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 293. 1881. 

This is a very interesting vine, Bejtjco de clavo, of which neither the 
flowers nor the fruit are known. It has petioled 2-foliolate leaves; the leaflets 
(one of them sometimes represented by a slender tendril) are ovate, membranous, 
serrate, 5-9 cm. long, the apex long-acuminate, the base rounded, the petiolules 
10-15 mm. long. Its roots are described as thick, aromatic, and were used to 
give color and good flavor to rum. Foliage was collected at Afiasco, Porto Rico, 
many years ago, and the plant has also been found in Cuba. 



200 BIGNONIACEAE 

Tecomaria capensis (Thumb.) Spach, Cape Trumpet-flower, South Afri- 
can, planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a shrub, some- 
times half-climbing, 1-3 m. long, with pinnately compound leaves 10-15 cm. 
long, the~5-9 acute, serrate leaflets 5 cm. long or less, the orange-red flowers in 
terminal panicles, the corolla 5 cm. long with a curved tube and a short spread- 
ing limb: the flattened linear capsule is about 5 cm. long. [Bignonia capensis 
Thunb. ; Tecoma capensis Lindl. ; ? Tecoma radicans of Krebs.] 

Spathodea campanulata Beauv., African Tulip-tree, Spathodea, of 
tropical Africa, a tree, up to 15 m. high or higher, with pinnate leaves of 7-17 
ovate acute leaflets 7-10 cm. long, and terminal clusters of large showy scarlet 
irregular flowers, the corolla 7-10 cm. long, is occasionally planted in Porto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands for ornament and shade, very conspicuous when in 
bloom in the late winter. 

Spathodea nilotica Seem., also of tropical Africa, was seen as luxuriant 
seedlings, grown under this name at the Forest Station, Rio Piedras in 1925. 

Macrocatalpa longissima (Jacq.) Britton, of Jamaica and Hispaniola, is 
recorded by Grisebach from St. Thomas, presumably erroneously; there is a 
Parish of St. Thomas in Jamaica. 

Urban records an undetermined vine of this family collected by Sintenis 
without flowers along the Rio Plata at Cidra near Cayey, with 2-foliolate leaves, 
the leaflets obovate, 3-4 cm. long, rounded or subtruncate. 

Jacaranda acutifolia H. & B., South American, grown by the Agricultural 
Experiment Stations of Porto Rico and St. Croix, forms a large tree, with bi- 
pinnate leaves, the ultimate leaflets oblong-lanceolate, 6-12 mm. long, acute, 
the violet or blue flowers in large panicles, the corolla 3.5-5 cm. long, the nearly 
orbicular capsule about 6 cm. long. [J. ovalifolia R. Br.; J. mimosaefolia D. 
Don.] 

Pyrostegia ignea (Vahl) Presl, Brazilian, introduced in 1924 at the Insular 
Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, is a climbing woody vine, the leaves of 2 ovate 
leaflets and a tendril, or sometimes of 3 leaflets, the showy orange-red flowers in 
axillary corymbs, the tubular corolla 6-7 cm. long,- with a short 2-lobed limb. 
It was flowering profusely in February 1925. [Bignonia ignea Veil. ; B. venusta 
Ker; Pyrostegia venusta Baill.] 

Pandorea Ricasoliana (Tanfani) Baill., South African, successfully es- 
tablished in 1924 at the Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, and at the 
Trujillo Plant Propagation Station, is a long slender woody vine, with odd- 
pinnate leaves, the serrate leaflets 9-11, the showy pink flowers about 6 cm. 
long, in terminal panicles. 

Phryganocydia corymbosa (Vent.) Bureau, of Trinidad and continental 
tropical America, a long woody vine, with leaves of two elliptic leaflets and often 
a tendril, the large flowers corymbose, the calyx spathaceous, the nearly salver- 
form corolla with a white tube 5-6 cm. long and a spreading lilac limb 4-5 cm. 
broad, is occasionally grown for ornament in St. Thomas. [Spathodea corymbosa 
Vent.] 

Adenocalymna alliaceum (Lam.) Miers, a woody vine, native of Guiana, 
with short-petioled, 2-foliolate leaves, the oblong or elliptic leaflets 6-16 cm. 
long, the racemose flowers 5-6 cm. long, the calyx minutely 5-denticulate, the 



PEDALIACEAE 201 

corolla funnelform, appeared to be well established at the Trujillo Plant Propa- 
gation Station in 1925 [Bignonia alliacea Lam.]. 

Parmentiera cerifera Seem., Palo de vela, Candle-tree, of Panama, 
planted at the Mayaguez Agricultural Experiment Station, was also seen as 
seedlings in the collection at Louisenhdj, St. Thomas in 1925. It forms a small 
tree, 5-6 m. high, its leaves 3-foliolate, its flowers borne on the old wood of stems 
and branches, its cylindric white fruit elongated. 

Kigelia pinnata DC, Sausage-tree, of tropical Africa, grown at the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Mayaguez, has pinnate leaves, long-peduncled, 
panicled, reddish flowers 7-8 cm. long, the long-pendulous fruit cylindric, in- 
dehiscent, 3-5 dm. in length. The tree attains a height of 10 m. or more. 

Bignonia radicans L., Trumpet-creeper, North American, grown on arbors 
at the hotel garden, Condado, seen there in fruit in March, 1925, is a long woody 
vine, with pinnate leaves of 7-11 ovate, serrate leaflets 3-7 cm. long, corymbose 
orange-red flowers about 6 cm. long, the fruit a nearly terete capsule 10-15 cm. 
long, narrowed at both ends, the flat seeds broadly winged. [Tecoma radicans DC] 

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Baill., Empress Tree, Chinese, planted at 
the Mayaguez Experiment Station in 1921, had reached a height of 4 m. in 
April 1925 and appeared vigorous. It forms a large spreading tree with large 
ovate long-petioled leaves, the conspicuous violet flowers about 6 cm. long, un- 
folding before the leaves, the coriaceous capsules ovoid, about 5 cm. long. [Big- 
nonia tomentosa Thunb.; P. imperialis Sieb. & Zucc] 

Paulownia Fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl., also Chinese, seen at the Forest Station, 
Rio Piedras, Porto Rico, grown from seedlings received under this name from 
the Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, in September 1924, had reached a 
height of 1.5 m. in March 1925 and was growing vigorously, closely resembling 
the preceding species. [Campsis Fortunei Seem.] 

Family 12. PEDALIACEAE Lindl. 

Pedalium Family. 

Mostly herbs, often mucilaginous, the leaves opposite or the upper 
alternate, and axillary, solitary or sometimes fascicled, perfect irregular 
flowers. Calyx 5-cleft or 5-parted. Corolla with a subcylindric tube and a 
usually short, obscurely 2-lipped, 5-lobed limb. Stamens mostly 4 and 
didynamous, included; anthers dorsifixed, the sacs parallel, or in some 
genera distinct. Disk fleshy. Ovary sessile-, 2-4-celled; ovules several or 
many, anatropous; style filiform. Fruit various. Seeds without endo- 
sperm. About 14 genera, including some 45 species, natives of the Old 
World. 

1. SESAMUM L. Sp. PI. 634. 1753. 

Herbs, usually erect, the lower leaves opposite, the upper alternate, or all 
sometimes alternate, the violet to white, short-peduncled flowers solitary in the 
axils. Calyx 5-parted. Tube of the corolla oblique at the base, somewhat gib- 
bous, the limb 5-lobed, slightly 2-lipped, the lobes spreading. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, borne near the base of the corolla; anthers sagittate. Ovary 2- 
celled; ovules many in each cavity, superimposed in a single series. Fruit an 
oblong, 4-sided loculicidal capsule. [Arabic name.] About 12 species, natives 
of tropical Africa and Asia, the following typical. 



202 MARTYNIACEAE 

1. Sesamum orientale L. Sp. PI. 634. 1753. 

Sesamum indicum L. Sp. PI. 634. 1753. 

Erect, simple or branched, more or less pubescent, 0.7-2 m. high. Leaves 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long, acuminate at the apex, mostly 
narrowed at the base, papillate beneath, the petioles 1-5 cm. long; peduncles 
about 4 mm. long; sepals linear-lanceolate, about 1 cm. long; corolla pale rose, 
2-3 cm. long; capsule linear-oblong, short-beaked, 4-grooved, 2-3 cm. long. 

Occasionally spontaneous in Porto Rico after cultivation for its seeds; Mona ; Vieques: 
St. Thomas: — cultivated nearly throughout the West Indies. Native of the East Indies. 
Ajonjoli. Benny-seed. Sesame. 

Family 13. MARTYNIACEAE Link. 

Unicgrn-plant Family. 

Herbs, with opposite leaves, or the upper alternate, and perfect ir- 
regular flowers. Calyx inferior, 4-5-cleft or 4-5-parted, or sometimes split 
to the base on the lower side. Corolla gamopetalous, irregular, the tube 
oblique, the limb slightly 2-lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes nearly equal, the 2 
upper ones exterior in the bud. Anther-bearing stamens 4, didynamous, 
or 2, or the posterior pair sterile; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally 
dehiscent. Ovary 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentae expanded into broad 
surfaces, or 2-4-celled by the intrusion of the placentae or by false parti- 
tions; ovules anatropous; style slender; stigma 2-lobed or 2-lamellate. 
Seeds compressed; endosperm none; embryo large; cotyledons fleshy, flat; 
radicle short, straight. Three genera and about 12 species, mainly tropical. 

Corolla funnelform-campanulate. 1. Martynia. 

Corolla nearly salverform, the cylindric tube elongated. 2. Craniolaria. 

1. MARTYNIA L. Sp. PL 618. 1753. 

Coarse glandular-pubescent and viscid strong-scented herbs, with long- 
petioled leaves, and large flowers in short terminal racemes. Calyx 1-2-bracte- 
olate at the base, campanulate, inflated, deciduous. Corolla funnelform-cam- 
panulate. Anthers gland-tipped, their sacs divergent. Ovary 1-celled, the 2 
parietal placentae intruded and expanded in the center of the cavity into broad 
surfaces bearing the ovules in 1 or 2 rows. Fruit an incurved beaked loculicidally 
2-valved capsule, the exocarp somewhat fleshy, the endocarp fibrous, woody, 
crested below or also above, 4-celled by the extension of the placentae. Seeds 
numerous, tuberculate. [Named for John Martyn, 1693-1768, Professor of 
Botany at Cambridge, England.] About 8 species, natives of America. Type 
species: Martynia annua L. 

1. Martynia annua L. Sp. PL 618. 1753. 

Martynia diandra Glox. Obs. Bot. 14. 1785. 

Viscid-pubescent, branched, 5-8 dm. high, the stem and branches rather 
stout. Leaves thin, flaccid, opposite, long-petioled, ovate-orbicular, 8-15 cm. 
long, sinuate-dentate, palmately veined, acute at the apex, cordate at the base; 
racemes short-peduncled, several-flowered ; pedicels 1-2 cm. long, slender, thick- 
ening and recurved in fruit; calyx very deeply 5-cleft, about 1.5 cm. long, its 
segments acute; stamens 2; corolla pink, or nearly white, 3-5 cm. long, its 



GESNERIACEAE 203 

rounded lobes purple-blotched; capsule obliquely ovoid, compressed, 2-2.5 cm. 
long, viscid, tipped with a hooked beak about 3 mm. long. 

River-banks, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: 
Tortola: — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigua; Martinique; St. Vincent; continental 
tropical America. Escorzonera. Una de gato. 

Martynia louisiana Mill., Unicorn Plant, North American, was experi- 
mentally grown at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station in 1924; it is a coarse 
annual glandular-pubescent herb, with large ovate-orbicular leaves, the yellowish, 
purple-mottled flowers 3.5-5 cm. long, the curved fruit long-beaked, 10-15 cm. 
long. 

2. CRANIOLARIA L. Sp. PI. 618. 1753. 

Viscid- villous annual herbs with broad, long-petioled cordate lobed leaves 
and large elongated white flowers in short terminal racemes. Calyx mem- 
branous, oblong, deeply cleft. Corolla nearly funnelform, the long slender curved 
cylindric tube expanded above the somewhat 2-lipped limb, 5-lobed, the lobes 
rounded, spreading. Perfect stamens 4; anther-sacs divaricate. Ovary 1-celled, 
with 2 intruded parietal placentae. Fruit short, compressed, the beak incurved, 
the exocarp fleshy. Seeds many, oblong. [Greek, skull-like.] Two known 
species, the following typical one, the other South American. 

1. Craniolaria annua L. Sp. PI. 618. 1753. 

Usually branched, rather stout, 5-8 dm. high. Petioles 6-14 cm. long; 
leaf-blades suborbicular in outline, 7-12 cm. broad, deeply cordate, palmately 
veined and 3-5-lobed, the lobes broad, acute or obtuse, remotely dentate; ra- 
cemes few-flowered, short-peduncled ; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; calyx about 4 cm. 
long; corolla-tube 10-15 cm. long, about 3 mm. thick, the expanded throat 2-3 
cm. long, the limb 3-5 cm. wide; fruit 2-3 cm. long, the incurved beak about 5 
mm. long. 

Sandy soil, northern coastal plane of Porto Rico: — Hispaniola; Trinidad; Margarita; 
South America. Escorzonera. 



Family 14. GESNERIACEAE Nees. 

Gesneria Family. 

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate or opposite leaves and terminal or axillary, 
solitary or clustered, perfect, irregular flowers. Calyx mostly gamosepalous, 
free from the ovary or partly adnate to it. Corolla gamopetalous, mostly 
2-lipped. Stamens 4 or 2, borne on the tube or the base of the corolla; 
anthers 2-celled; staminodia 1-3. Ovary 1-celled; placentae 2, parietal; 
ovules usually numerous, minute, anatropous; style simple, usually elongated. 
Fruit capsular. Seeds very small; embryo straight. A large family of 
about 100 genera and perhaps 800 species, mostly tropical. 

Ovary superior. 

Anthers distinct. 1. Crantzia. 

Anthers coherent. 2. Columned. 

Ovary inferior, at least in part. 

Stamens borne at the base of the corolla. 

Stamens not exserted, or scarcely exserted. 

Calyx not verrucose. 3. Gesneria. 

Calyx verrucose. 4. Duchartrea. 

Stamens long-exserted ; shrubs or small trees. 5. Pentarhaphia. 

Stamens borne on the corolla above the base. 6. Rhytidophyllum. 



204 GESNERIACEAE 

1. CRANTZIA Scop. Intr. 173. 1777. 
[Alloplectus Mart. Nov. Gen. 3: 53. 1829.] 
Shrubs, often epiphytic, with opposite leaves and axillary, clustered or 
solitary flowers. Calyx 5-parted, free from the ovary, the segments dentate, 
entire or crested. Corolla with a straight or curved tube and an oblique 5-lobed 
limb. Stamens borne at the base of the corolla; anthers distinct; staminodium 
free. Ovary superior; style long. Stigma dilated or 2-lobed. Fruit baccate. 
[Commemorates H. J. N. von Crantz, 1722-1799, Austrian botanist.] Thirty 
species or more, natives of tropical America. Type species: Besleria cristata L. 

1. Crantzia ambigua (Urban) Britton. 

Alloplectus ambiguus Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 408. 1899. 
Alloplectus ambiguus chlorosepalus Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 

Stems commonly clustered, and rooting at the lower nodes, 3-5 dm. long, 
quadrangular, villous, becoming glabrate. Leaves ovate, more or less unequal, 
one larger and one smaller at each node of the stem, 4-10 cm. long, crenate or 
entire, slightly fleshy, sparingly pubescent on both sides, acute or obtuse, the 
oblique base narrowed, obtuse or subcordate, the petioles 5-15 mm. long: flowers 
2-6 together in the axils, on slender pilose pedicels 5-15 mm. long; bracts 3-8 
mm. long; calyx-segments ovate-oblong, acuminate, green or red, 8-12 mm. 
long; corolla yellow, about 2 cm. long; berry snow-white, globose or ovoid, about 
7 mm. in diameter. [A. cristatus of Stahl, not of Martius; Columnea cristata 
of Kuntze.] 

On trees, in forests and on wooded lulls, in wet or moist districts of Porto Eico, 
ascending to higher elevations. Endemic. 

2. COLUMNEA L. Sp. PI. 638. 1753. 
Shrubs, often epiphytic and radicant, with opposite leaves, the red or 
yellow flowers axillary. Calyx 5-cleft or 5-parted, free from the ovary. Corolla 
with a straight or somewhat curved tube and a 2-lipped limb. Stamens borne 
at the base of the corolla, the anthers coherent, the staminodium free. Ovary 
superior, style slender ; stigma entire or 2-cleft. Fruit baccate. [Commemorates 
Fabio Colonna, 1567-1640, eminent Italian.] About 75 species, natives of tropical 
America. Type species: Columnea scandens L. 

1. Columnea Tulae Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 409. 1899. 

C. Tulae rubra Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 
C. Tulae flava Urban, loc. cit. 410. 1899. 

Stems 2-6 dm. long, rooting on trees, 4-sided, hirsute, becoming glabrate. 
Leaves oblong to elliptic, 2-5 cm. long, short-pubescent on both sides, entire or 
obscurely crenate, short-petioled, obtuse or acute, the base narrowed; flowers 
solitary in the axils; peduncles 9-15 mm. long; calyx-segments distinct nearly to 
the base, lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent, 10-12 mm. long; corolla red, scarlet 
or yellow, 4-5 cm. long, short-pilose, the unequally lobed limb much shorter than 
the tube; berry globose, white, about 10 mm. in diameter. [C. hispida of Cook 
and Collins ; included by de Candolle, by Grisebach and by Kuntze in C. scandens L. 

on trees in mountain forests, Porto Rico. Endemic. Tirey PARASITICA 

3. GESNERIA [Plum.] L. Sp. PI. 612. 1753. 
Herbs or low shrubs with membranous or chartaceous leaves, the rather 
small flowers few or solitary on axillary peduncles. Calyx-tube ribbed or terete, 



GESNERIACEAE 205 

adnate to the ovary, its lobes ovate to linear-. Corolla nearly tubular with a 
5-lobed, slightly 2-lipped limb. Stamens borne at or near the base of the corolla- 
tube, included or scarcely exserted. Disk annular; style slender. Capsule 
about as long as the calyx-tube. [Commemorates Conrad Gesner, 1516-1565, 
distinguished Swiss physician.] About 20 species, natives of tropical America. 
Type species: Gesneria humilis L. 

Leaves chartaceous; corolla yellow. 1. G. citrina. 

Leaves membranous. 

Peduncles little if at all longer than the leaves, 1-flowered, usually 

curved; corolla red. 2. G. cuneifolia. 

Peduncles much longer than the leaves, 1-6-flowered, scarcely 

curved; corolla yellow. 3. G. pauciflora. 

1. Gesneria citrina Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 477. 1900. 

Stems rather stout, woody, often curved, pendent or ascending, 2-8 dm. 
long. Leaves obovate to spatulate, chartaceous, alternate, pale green, glabrous, 
or sparingly pilose above, 3-6 cm. long, coarsely crenate-dentate above the middle 
the apex obtuse, the base cuneate, the petioles 4-12 mm. long; peduncles 2.5-7 
cm. long, very slender, curved, 1-flowered, glabrous or sparingly pilose; calyx- 
tube turbinate, 10-ribbed, about 3 mm. long, the linear-lanceolate, acuminate 
lobes about as long; corolla tubular, narrowed below, yellow, puberulent, about 
2 cm. long, the short rounded lobes nearly erect; filaments glabrous; capsule 
globose, 4-5 mm. in diameter. 

Limestone rocks, northern and northwestern districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

2. Gesneria cuneifolia (DC.) Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2: 144. 1894. 

Conradia cuneifolia DC. Prodr. 7: 526. 1838. 

Pentarhaphia cuneifolia Hanst. Linnaea 34: 294. 1865. 

Conradia reticulata Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 201. 1866. 

Gesneria portoricensis Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 288. Hyponym. 

1881. 
Gesneria reticulata Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 378. 1901. 

Stems short, somewhat woody, 2-15 cm. long. Leaves rosulate, membranous, 
oblanceolate to obovate, 4-14 cm. long, irregularly dentate, glabrous, reticulate- 
veined, sessile or very short-petioled, the apex rounded or acute, the base cuneate; 
peduncles 1-flowered, often curved, shorter than the leaves; calyx-tube obconic, 
ribbed, 4-5 mm. long, the triangular-lanceolate or triangular-ovate lobes about 
as long; corolla tubular, red, puberulent, about 2 cm. long, its short lobes rounded, 
erose; capsule about as long as the calyx-tube. 

Rocky woodlands and thickets in moist or wet districts of Porto Rico, ascending to 
the higher elevations: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Originally erroneously reccrded as from 
Mexico. Yerba de Cueva. Yerba parrera. 

3. Gesneria pauciflora Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 478. 1900. 

Stems slender, slightly woody, 5-20 cm. long, sometimes rooting at lower 
nodes, loosely pubescent when young. Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, mem- 
branous, 3-9 cm. long, appressed-pubescent when young, glabrous when old, 
pale beneath, irregularly and rather sharply dentate, the apex acute or obtuse, 
the base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 3-8 mm. long; peduncles very slender, 
longer than the leaves, 1-6-flowered, straight or slightly curved ; pedicels 1-3 cm. 
long; calyx-tube turbinate, pubescent, ribbed, 3-4 mm. long, its lobes linear- 
lanceolate, obtuse, about 4 mm. long; corolla light yellow, tubular, puberulent, 
about 2 cm. long, its short erect lobes rounded; capsule turbinate, about 5 mm. 
long. 

Rocky banks and rivulets, near Maricao, Porto Rico. Endemic. 



206 GESNERIACEAE 

4. DUCHARTREA Dene. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 6: 109. 1846. 

Resiniferous shrubs, with coriaceous dentate leaves and rather large flowers 
in long-peduncled corymbs. Calyx densely verrucose, its tube adnate to the 
ovary, its limb with 5 linear teeth. Corolla subcampanulate, the somewhat 
2-lobed limb oblique, 5-lobed. Stamens borne near the base of the corolla, not 
exserted; staminodia villous; anthers coherent in pairs. Style filiform; stigma 
2-lobed; ovules many. Capsule woody, about as long as the calyx-tube. [Com- 
memorates Pierre E. Duchartre, French botanist.] Four or five species, natives 
of Cuba and Porto Rico. Type species: Duchartrea viridiflora Dene. 

1. Duchartrea Sintenisii (Urban) Britton. 

Gesneria Sintenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 375. 1901. 

A shrub, 2-5 m. high, the twigs stout, granular, glabrous. Leaves obovate 
to elliptic, 1-2 dm. long, the apex obtuse, acute or short-acuminate, the base 
obtuse, pale beneath, the venation widely spreading, the stout petioles 1-2.5 
cm. long, the margins minutely crenulate or entire; peduncles axillary, as long 
as the leaves or shorter, few-several-flowered; calyx granular in flower, densely 
verrucose in fruit, the turbinate tube 5-6 mm. long, the linear-lanceolate lobes 
6-14 mm. long; corolla yellowish green, 15-17 mm. long, the limb about 15 mm. 
broad, the lobes rounded; capsule a little longer than the calyx-tube. 

Forests and summits of the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

5. PENTARHAPHIA Lindl. Bot. Reg. 13: under pi. 1110 1827. 

Shrubs or small trees, with coriaceous or chartaceous leaves, and large 
flowers mostly in long-peduncled small clusters or solitary. Calyx smooth, 
ribbed or subterete, its tube adnate to the ovary, its 5 teeth usually narrow. 
Corolla subcampanulate or narrower, its tube often somewhat curved, expanded 
above, the limb oblique, 2-lipped, 5-lobed; stamens borne at the base of the 
corolla, exserted; filaments filiform; anthers coherent. Disk annular. Style 
elongated. Capsule about as long as the calyx-tube. [Greek, referring to the 
5-ribbed calyx-tube.] Perhaps 30 species, natives of tropical America. Type 
species: Gesneria ventricosa Sw. 

1. Pentarhaphia albiflora Dene. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 6: 101. 1846. 

Gesneria albiflora Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 473. 1891. 

A shrub, 2-3 m. high, or a small tree, 4-5 m. high, the glabrous branches 
and twigs slender. Leaves oblong to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, glabrous, 
denticulate or entire, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 4-10 cm. long, the primary 
venation ascending, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 
7-15 mm. long; peduncles very slender, longer than the leaves, 2-4-flowered ; 
calyx-tube obconic in flower, campanulate in fruit, ribbed, 7-10 mm. long, its 
linear lobes about as long; corolla about 2 cm. long, remarkably various in color, 
white, yellow, brownish or mottled, or the limb purplish; capsule a little longer 
than the calyx-tube, its free tip pubescent. [Conradia pedu nodosa of Bello 
and of Stahl, not of de Candolle; Tupa acuminate of Stahl, not of de Candolle.] 

Thickets, woodlands, hillsides, river-banks and arroyos at lower and middle eleva- 
tions in moist and dry districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

6. RHYTIDOPHYLLUM Mart, Nov. Gen. 3: 38. 1829. 

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, usually elongated, short-petioled 
leaves, and rather large flowers in long-peduncled axillary cymose panicles. 



ACANTHACEAE 207 

Calyx-tube hemispheric or turbinate, not ribbed, adnate to the ovary, its lobes 
short. Corolla curved, narrowly campanulate, its limb oblique, 5-lobed. 
Stamens borne on the corolla above its base, included or scarcely exserted; 
anthers coherent, their sacs parallel. Disk annular; style slender. Capsule 
2-valved above. [Greek, wrinkled leaf.] About 10 species, natives of the 
West Indies. Type species: Gesneria tomentosa L. 

1. Rhytidophyllum auriculatum Hook. Bot. Mag. 64: pi. 8562. 1837. 

Rhytidophyllum stipulare Urban; Stahl, Est. 6: 260. 1888. 
R. auriculatum stipulare Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 384. 1901. 

A sparingly branched shrub, 1-2 m. high, the rather stout branches densely 
glandular-tomentulose. Leaves obliquely oblong-oblanceolate, inequilateral, 
membranous, viscid-pubescent, large, 1-2.5 dm. long, crenulate, the apex acu- 
minate or acute, the base narrowed, subcordate, the petioles stout, 1-3 cm. 
long, often with suborbicular stipule-like basal appendages; peduncles about as 
long as the leaves or longer, several-many-fiowered ; pedicels 0.5-3 cm. long; 
calyx-tube about 5 mm. long, tomentulose, its oblong, ovate or lanceolate lobes 
2-3 mm. long; corolla yellow to reddish, brown within, densely appressed-pu- 
bescent, about 1.5 cm. long. 

Wet rocky situations, western and northwestern districts of Porto Rico: — Hispan- 

iola. TIBEY AMARILLO. 

Achimenes longiflora DC, recorded as collected by Krug near Cabo Rojo, 
presumably cultivated, is a pubescent, Central American herbaceous plant, 3-6 
dm. high, with tuberiferous slender rootstocks, the opposite or verticillate leaves 
oval or ovate, serrate, the flowers solitary in the axils, the salverform corolla 
with a spreading violet limb. It is occasionally grown for ornament in Porto 
Rico. 

Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Benth. & Hook., Garden Gloxinia, Brazilian, 
occasionally grown in Porto Rico flower gardens, is low, herbaceous, with large 
opposite long-petioled broad villous leaves, the large and showy usually purpish 
flowers with a campanulate 5-lobed corolla [Gloxinia speciosa Lodd.]. 

Saintpaullia ionantha Wendl., African Violet, of tropical Africa, was ex- 
perimentally grown at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station, Porto Rico, in 
1925, introduced in 1924. 

Family 15. ACANTHACEAE J. St. Hil. 

Acanthus Family. 

Herbs, or some tropical genera shrubs or small trees, with opposite simple 
estipulate leaves, and irregular, or nearly regular, perfect flowers. Calyx 
inferior, persistent, 4-5-parted or 4-5-cleft, the sepals or segments imbricated. 
Corolla gamopetalous, nearly regularly 5-lobed, or 2-lipped. Anther bearing 
stamens 4, didynamous, or 2 only; anther-sacs longitudinally dehiscent. 
Disk annular, or cup-like. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 2-10 in each cavity, 
anatropous or amphitropous; style filiform, simple; stigmas 1 or 2. Capsule 
dry, 2-celled, loculicidally elastically 2-valved. Seeds not winged, borne on 
projections (retinacula) from the placentae, the testa close, mostly roughened, 
often developing spiral threads and mucilage when wetted. About 175 
genera and 2,000 species, natives of temperate and tropical regions. 



208 ACANTHACEAE 

A. Retinacula papilliform. 

Stamens 2; flowers small, densely spicate; seeds several or many; 

herb. 1. Nelsonia. 

Perfect stamens 4; flowers large, axillary or in terminal racemes; 

seeds 4; vines. 2. Thunbergia. 

B. Retinacula curved or hooked. 

a. Corolla-lobes contorted. 

Corolla 2-lipped. 3. Hygrophila. 

Corolla not 2-lipped. 

Flowers in bracted spikes. 4. Blechum. 

Flowers solitary or panicled. 5. Ruellia. 

b. Corolla-lobes imbricated, not contorted. 

♦Plants armed with axillary spines in our species. 

Stamens 4; corolla-lobes spreading. 6. Barleria. 

Stamens 2; corolla 2-lipped. 7. Anthacanthus. 

**Plants unarmed. 
fPerfect stamens 4. 

Corolla 2-lipped. 8. Lepidagathis. 

Corolla not 2-lipped. 9. Gerardia. 

ttPerfect stamens 2. 

Staminodia 2. 10. Odontonema. 

Staminodia none. 

Flowers involucrate. 11. Diapedium. 

Flowers exinvolucrate; spicate or paniculate. 

Bracts of the spikes imbricated. 12. Drejerella. 

Bracts of the spikes not imbricated. 

Flowers large, densely spicate or solitary; 

shrubs. 13. Justicia. 

Flowers small, filiform-spicate or paniculate; 

herbs. 14. Stethoma. 

1. NELSONIA R. Br. Prodr. 480. 1810. 

A diffuse, softly villous herb, with opposite entire leaves and small blue to 
purple flowers in terminal and axillary bracted spikes. Calyx 4-lobed, the upper 
lobe 2-toothed or 2-cleft. Corolla with a slender tube and a 2-lipped limb, the 
upper lip 2-cleft, the lower 3-lobed. Stamens 2; filaments short; anther-sacs 
mucronulate at base. Ovules several in each ovary-cavity; stigma 2-lobed. 
Capsule oblong, beaked. [Named for David Nelson, an English gardener.] A 
monotypic genus. 

1. Nelsonia brunellioides (Lam.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 493. 1891. 

Justicia brunellioides Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 40. 1791. 
Justicia nummularis olia Vahl, Enum. 1: 122. 1804. 
Nelsonia nummularifolia R. & S. Syst. 1: 173. 1817. 

Stems slender, prostrate, branched 1.5-6 dm. long. Leaves ovate, 1.5-7 
cm. long, obtuse or acutish, the base rounded or short-decurrent on the petiole, 
the petioles 2-20 mm. long; spikes dense, peduncled or sessile, 2-6 cm. long; 
bracts ovate, acute or acuminate, imbricated, about 6 mm. long; calyx about 5 
mm. long, the upper lobe ovate, the others lanceolate; corolla-tube 4-5 mm. 
long, the upper lobe about 3 mm. long; capsule sessile, glabrous, 4 mm. long, 
4-seeded, the seeds globose. 

Moist sandy soil, northern coastal plain, near Mayaguez, and between Caguas and 
Cayey, Porto Rico:- — Mexico and central America; Brazil; Old World tropics. 

2. THUNBERGIA Retz. Phys. Sallsk. Handl. 1: 163. 1776. 

Herbs or herbaceous vines, with opposite, mostly hastate or cordate leaves, 
and large 2-bracted flowers solitary in the axils, or in terminal racemes. Bracts 
foliaceous, large. Calyx short, annular. Corolla with an oblique, more or less 
flattened tube enlarged above, and a spreading 5-lobed limb, the lobes rounded, 
contorted, nearly equal. Stamens 4, didynamous, borne near the base of the 



ACANTHACEAE 209 

corolla-tube, the filaments thickened below, the anthers with an apiculate con- 
nective. Disk fleshy. Ovary fleshy ; style dilated at the apex ; ovules 2 in each 
cavity. Capsule coriaceous, globose, abruptly beaked, loculicidally dehiscent- 
[Commemorates Karl P. Thunberg, 1743-1828, eminent Swedish traveller and 
botanist.] About 40 species, natives of the Old World tropics. Type species: 
Thunbergia capensis Retz. 

Petioles not winged-margined. 1. T. fragrans. 

Petioles wing-margined. 2. T. alata. 

1. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. PI. Corom. 1: 47. 1795. 

Thunbergia volubilis Pers. Syn. 2: 179. 1806. 

A slender, finely pubescent vine, often 2 m. long, usually climbing. Leaves 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, remotely few-toothed toward the base 
or entire, acuminate at the apex, subtruncate, hastate or cordate at the base, the 
slender petioles 1-4 cm. long; peduncles rather stout, 2-7 cm. long; bracts lan- 
ceolate or ovate-lanceolate, pubescent, acuminate, 1.5-2 cm. long; calyx deeply 
cleft, much shorter than the bracts; corolla white, 2.5-3 cm. long, its lobes crenate, 
nearly as long as the tube: capsule depressed-globose, pubescent, about 8 mm. 
in diameter, tipped by a stout subulate beak 1-1.5 cm. long. 

Roadsides, thickets and waste grounds, naturalized after cultivation for ornament, 
Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies. Native of the Old 
World tropics. White Thunbergia. 

2. Thunbergia aiata Bojer; Sims. Bot. Mag. pi. 259 1. 1825. 

A pubescent vine, usually not more than 1 m. long, trailing or climbing. 
Leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, 4-8 cm. long, remotely few-toothed or entire, 
acute at the apex, cordate or hastate at the base, the wing-margined petioles as 
long as the blades or shorter; peduncles slender, mostly longer than the petioles; 
bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, pubescent, about 1.5 cm. long, 
calyx cleft to about the middle; corolla yellow or white, usually with a purple 
eye, 2.5-4 cm. long; capsule depressed-globose, pubescent, 8-10 mm. in diameter, 
its stout beak about 1 cm. long. [T. capensis of Krebs.] 

Roadsides, waste and cultivated grounds, naturalized after cultivation for ornament, 
Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies; Mexico and con- 
tinental tropical America. Native of eastern Africa. Winged Thunbergia. Reda- 
dera. 

Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., East Indian, grown for ornament in 
Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a long woody vine, with thick, broadly 
ovate, cordate dentate petioled leaves 1-2 dm. long, and long-peduncled flowers, 
the calyx truncate, the large corolla with a yellowish limb and purple throat. 

3. HYGROPHILA R. Br. Prodr. 479. 1810. 

Herbs, with opposite entire leaves, often with cystoliths, the flowers sessile 
and fascicled or solitary in the axils. Calyx 5-cleft, the narrow segments nearly 
alike. Corolla-tube subcylindric, the limb strongly 2-lipped, the upper lip 2- 
toothed, the lower 3-lobed, its lobes sinistrorsely contorted. Perfect stamens 4, 
didynamous, borne on the corolla-tube; anthers 2-celled, their sacs unappendaged . 
Ovules mostly 4-several in each ovary-cavity. Capsule narrowly oblong. 
[Greek, swamp-loving.] About 30 species, natives of tropical regions. Type 
species: Hygrophila angustifolia R. Br. 



210 ACANTHACEAE 

1. Hygrophila brasiliensis (Spreng.) Lindau in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 183. 
1900. 

Ruellia brasiliensis Spreng. Syst. 2: 822. 1825. 
Hygrophila portoricensis Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 92. 1847. 

Stems 4-angled, rather stout, branched, 0.5-2 m. high, the young branches 
pubescent. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, strongly pinnately veined. 
Stem stout, erect, 4-sided, usually branched, 0.5-2 m. high, the branches pu- 
bescent when young. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 6-15 cm. long, 
pinnately veined, somewhat pubescent on the veins beneath, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 0.5—3 cm. long; flowers fascicled in 
the axils; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, about 8 mm. long; corolla white, 
10-12 mm. long, the tube about as long as the limb; capsule glabrous, about 12 
mm. long, 12-18-seeded. 

Borders of streams and lagoons: — Cuba; Hispaniola; continental tropical America. 
Yerba de hicotea. 

4. BLECHUM P. Br.; Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 269. 1807. 

Perennial herbs, with repand-dentate or entire, petioled leaves, and small 
flowers in dense terminal spikes, the large foliaceous bracts imbricated. Calyx 
5-parted, the slightly unequal segments linear-subulate. Corolla with a slender 
tube little expanded above and a spreading, nearly equally 5-lobed limb, the 
lobes rounded. Stamens 4, didynamous, borne at or above the middle of the 
corolla-tube; anthers oblong, their sacs parallel. Ovules few or several in each 
ovary-cavity; style with a subulate apex. Capsule ovate or suborbicular with 
a short, narrowed base. Seeds orbicular. [Name Greek, originally applied to 
some different plant.] About 4 species, natives of tropical America. Type 
species: Ruellia Blechum L. 

1. Blechum Blechum (L.) Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 100. 1900. 

Ruellia Blechum L. Syst. ed. 10, 1120. 1759. 
Barleria pyramidata Lam. Encycl. 1: 380. 1785. 
Blechum Brownei Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 270. 1807. 
Blechum Brownei subcordatum Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. 483. 1891. 
Ruellia parvifiora Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 147. 1894. 
Blechum pyramidatum Urban, Repert. 15: 323. 1918. 

Annual, puberulent, erect or ascending, 2-7 dm. high, branched, the branches 
slender. Leaves ovate, thin, petioled, 2-7 cm. long, acute at the apex, obtuse 
or narrowed at the base; spikes dense, 4-sided, 3-6 cm. long; bracts ovate, pin- 
nately veined, 1-1.5 cm. long, loosely strigose and ciliate, acutish at the apex, 
rounded at the base; corolla whitish, a little longer than the subtending bract; 
capsule oblong, puberulent, about 6 mm. long. [? Blechum Brownei laxum of 
Kuntze.] 

Banks, fields, woods and thickets, sometimes in cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at 
lower and middle elevations; Mona; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola: — West Indies; continental tropical America. Yerba de papagayo. 

5. RUELLIA L. Sp. PI. 634. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, or shrubs, mostly pubescent, with entire or rarely dentate 
leaves and large flowers, solitary or clustered in the axils, or cymose in terminal 
panicles. Calyx 5-cleft or 5-parted, the segments narrow. Corolla funnelform 
or salverform, the tube usually narrow, slightly enlarged above, the limb spread- 



ACANTHACEAE 211 

ing, 5-lobed, the lobes obtuse. Stamens 4, didynamous. Anther-sacs not 
mucronate at the base. Apex of the style recurved; stigma simple, or of 2 unequal 
lobes. Capsule oblong or club-shaped. Seeds compressed, ovate or orbicular, 
attached by their edges to the rstinacula. [Named for I. De la Ruelle, 1474- 
1537, an early French herbalist.] About 200 species, mainly of tropical America. 
Type species: Ruellia tuberosa L. 

Low; pubescent; corolla purple, 4-6 cm. long. 1. R. tuberosa. 

Tall; glabrate; corolla 2.5-3 cm. long, scarlet. 2. R. coccinea. 

1. Ruellia tuberosa L. Sp. Pi. 635. 1753. 

(?) Rxiellia clandestina L. Sp. PL 634. 1753. 

Cryphiacanthus barbadensis Nees, Del. Sem. Hort. Vrat. 1841. 

Roots narrowly fusiform, clustered; stem erect or ascending, branched or 
simple, 2-6 dm. high, finely pubescent. Leaves ovate or oblong, 10 cm. long or 
less, undulate, finely pubescent, narrowed into margined petioles; cymes several- 
flowered, peduncled; bracts narrow, small; calyx hispid-pubescent, its linear 
lobes 12-20 mm. long; corolla purple, 4-6 cm. long, its tube rather abruptly 
expanded above; capsules puberulent, about 1.5 cm. long. [Ruellia dichotoma 
of Sesse & Mocino, not of Bertero.] 

Dry sandy or gravelly soil at low elevations, Porto Rico, in the eastern and southern 
districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — southeastern 
United States; West Indies; continental tropical America. Many-roots. 

2. Ruellia coccinea (L.) Vahl, Symb. 3: 83. 1794. 

Barleria coccinea L. Sp. PL 637. 1753. 

Arrhostoxylon coccineum Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 9: 63. 1847. 

Stemonacanthus coccineus Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 452. 1861. 

Herbaceous, somewhat woody, 0.5-2 m. high, branched, the young branches 
puberulent. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, crenate, 3-9 cm. long, pubescent 
or glabrate, the apex acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or rounded, the 
petioles 0.5-3 cm. long; flowers solitary or few in the axils, sessile or peduncled. 
leafy-bracted ; calyx-segments narrowly linear-lanceolate, pilose, unequal, 6-8 
mm. long; corolla scarlet, puberulent, 2.5-3 cm. long, the somewhat curved tube 
about twice as long as the limb, the lobes rounded ; capsule puberulent, stipitate, 
about 1 cm. long. 

Shaded banks, thickets and woodlands, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations 
in wet or moist districts; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Hispaniola; 
recorded from Guadeloupe and Dominica. Showy and conspicuous when in flower. 
Mara villa. 

Ruellia strepens L., a North American species, is recorded by de Candolle 
as found on St. Croix by Isert, presumably an error in locality. 

Ruellia serpens L., recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, is wholly dubious, 
as Linnaeus published no such species; R. serpens Nees is a Javan plant. 

6. BARLERIA L. Sp. PI. 636. 1753. 

Shrubs or herbs, with opposite entire leaves, our species with axillary spines 
and yellow flowers. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, 2 of the segments larger than the others. 
Corolla-tube about as long as the spreading limb or longer, the limb with 5 rounded 
lobes. Stamens 4, didynamous, borne on the base of the corolla-tube, unequal. 
Disk small. Style elongated; stigma obtuse; ovules 2 in each ovary-cavity. 



212 ACANTHACEAE 

Capsule ovoid to oblong. Seeds flattened, ovate or suborbicular. [Commemor- 
ates Jacques Barrelier, 1634-1673, French botanist.] Perhaps 100 species or 
more of tropical regions, mostly of the Old World. Type species: — Barleria 
Pr to nit is L. 

Bracts suborbicular to ovate, aristulate. 1. B. lupulina. 

Bracts lanceolate, aristate. 2. B. Pnomtis. 

1. Barleria lupulina Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 1483. 1832. 

Shrubby; stem branched, glabrous, 0.5-1 m. high, armed with 2 acicular 
spines at the leaf-axils, the spines about 2 cm. long or shorter. Leaves narrowly 
oblong, dark green, glabrous, 6-15 cm. long, the apex narrowed and aristulate, 
the base narrowed, the petioles about 1 cm. long or shorter; flowers in dense 
thick terminal bracted spikes 4-7 cm. long; bracts suborbicular to ovate, pu- 
berulent, aristulate; calyx about 1 cm. long; corolla bright yellow, 2-3 cm. long; 
capsule 10-15 mm. long. 

Waste grounds, St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Jamaica; Hispaniola; Antigua; Montserrat; 
Martinique; St. Vincent; Grenada; Barbados. Native of Madagascar. 

2. Barleria Prionitis L. Sp. PI. 636. 1753. 

Shrubby, branched, glabrous, or the leaves pubescent when young, 3-12 
dm. high, armed with acicular spines at the axils, the spines about 2 cm. long or 
shorter. Leaves elliptic to oblong, narrowed at both ends, acute or acuminate, 
3-9 cm. long, light green, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; flowers sessile 
in the axils and in terminal bracted spikes; bracts oblong-lanceolate, aristate, 
1.5-2 cm. long; calyx 12-15 mm. long; corolla yellow, 3-4 cm. long; capsule 
pointed, about 2 cm. long. 

Roadside, Mayaguez. Porto Rico, 1923, escaped from cultivation: — Jamaica; Gua- 
deloupe; Grenada; Barbados. Native of tropical Asia and Africa. 

Barleria aristata L., East Indian, grown in 1925 at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station, in spineless, with cristate bracts. 

7. ANTHACANTHUS Nees; DC. Prodr. 11: 460. 1847. 

Slender, much-branched shrubs armed with opposite axillary, curved or 
straight spines, the leaves small, entire, often fascicled in the axils, the solitary 
or fascicled flowers axillary, slender-peduncled. Calyx 5-cleft. Tube of the 
small corolla cylindric, somewhat enlarged above, the limb spreading, unequally 
5-lobed. Stamens 2; filaments short; anthers oblong, 2-celled; staminodia 2, 
clavate or filiform. Style filiform ; ovules 2 in each cavity of the ovary. Capsule 
oblong, stipitate. Seeds 4 or fewer, compressed, tubercled. [Greek, spiny 
flower.] About 6 species, natives of the West Indies, the following typical: 

1. Anthacanthus spinosus (Jacq.) Nees, in DC. Prodr. 11: 460. 1847. 

Justicia spinosa Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 

Jasminum coeruleum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 410. 1891. 

A shrub, erect or diffuse, 2 m. high or less, the long slender branches pu- 
bescent or glabrous, the stiff subulate spines more or less recurved, 4-12 mm. 
long^ Leaves coriaceous, glabrous or nearly so, ovate to oblong, elliptic or ob- 
lanceolate, 3-20 mm. long, obtuse, acute or emarginate at the apex, narrowed or 
obtuse at the base, the midvein rather prominent, the lateral venation obscure, 
the petioles very short; flowers few or solitary at the axils; peduncles 6-10 mm. 



ACANTHACEAE 213 

long; calyx 3-4 mm. long, its lobes lanceolate, acute; corolla purple or violet, 
puberulent or glabrous, its tube about 8 mm. long, its oblong lobes about as 
long as the tube; style filiform, about 10 mm. long; capsule about 2 cm. long; 
seeds wrinkled, 2-3 mm. in diameter. [A. drmatus of Bello and of Krebs, not of 
Nees; A. microphallus and A. jamaicensis of Eggers.] 

Hillsides, woods and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Culebra, 
Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; recorded from Antigua and Martinique. Prickly Bush. 
Espinosa. 

Anthacanthus acicularis (Sw.) Nees, attributed by West and by Lindau 
to St. Croix, appears to be restricted to Jamaica. 

8. LEPIDAGATHIS Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 400. 1801. 

Herbs or low shrubs often with cystoliths, with opposite entire leaves and 
small bracted densely spicate flowers. Calyx unequally 5-parted, the 2 lower 
segments connate. Corolla with a slender subcylindric tube and a 2-lipped 
limb, the upper lip 2-cleft or emarginate, the lower 3-lobed. Stamens 4 didy- 
namous; filaments short; anther-sacs blunt. Ovules 2 in each ovary-cavity; 
style entire. Capsule oblong, pointed, with 4 seeds or fewer. Seeds nearly or- 
bicular, flat. [Greek, referring to the bracted inflorescence.] About 50 species, 
mostly of the Old World tropics, a few American. Type species: Lepidagathis 
cristata Willd. 

1. Lepidagathis alopecuroidea (Vahl) R. Br.; Griseb. PI. Br. W. I. 453. 1861. 

Ruellia alopecuroidea Vahl, Eclog. 2: 49. 1798. 

Teliostachya alopecuroidea Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 9: 72. 1847. 

Herbaceous; stem usually branched, erect, decumbent or ascending, 
4-angled, short-pilose, 1-5 dm. long, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes. 
Leaves thin, ovate to elliptic, repand or entire, 3-8 cm. long, the apex acute or 
obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; spikes mostly 
terminal, many-flowered, 2-8 cm. long, 10-15 mm. thick; flowers clustered in 
the spikes; bracts lanceolate to oblong, venose, ciliate, about 6 mm. long; calyx- 
segments 4-6 mm. long; corolla white to violet, about as long as the calyx; capsule 
sessile, glabrous, 4-seeded, about 4 mm. long. 

Wet shaded banks, woodlands and forests, Porto Rico: — Hispaniola; Antigua to 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. Pata de gallina. 

9. GERARDIA [Plum.] L. Sp. PI. 610. 1753. 

[Stenandrium Nees, in Lindl. Introd. Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 444. 1836.] 

Low and small pubescent perennial herbs, acaulescent or nearly so, the leaves 
in a basal tuft, the pink, white or purple flowers spicate on bracted scapes. Calyx- 
lobes 5, narrow, nearly equal. Corolla with a slender tube, enlarged into a slightly 
curved throat, the oblique 5-lobed limb spreading, the lobes unequal and im- 
bricated. Stamens 4, didynamous, included, the anthers 1-celled. Ovules 2 in 
each cavity of the ovary; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule fusiform or narrowly oblong. 
Seeds flattened, rough or pubescent. [Commemorates John Gerard, 1545-1607, 
famous English herbalist.] About 25 species, of tropical and subtropical America, 
the following typical. 

Rootstock elongated; roots Aliform, bearing oblong tubers 1..G. tuberosa. 

Rootstock very short; roots thickened. 2. G. portoricensis. 



214 ACANTHACEAE 

1. Gerardia tuberosa L. Sp. PI. 610. 1753. 

Ruellia rupestris Sw. Prodr. 93. 1788. 

Stenandrium rupestre Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 283. 1847. 

Stenandrium tuberosum Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 576. 1911. 

Acaulescent ; rootstock elongated; roots filiform, bearing oblong tubers 1-1.5 
cm. long. Leaves entire, slender-petioled, elliptic to oblong, spreading; loosely 
pilose, 2-4 cm. long, the apex rounded, the base obtuse or narrowed ; scapes- 
slender, pilose, about as long as the petioles or shorter, few-several-flowered ; 
bracts nearly linear, 6-7 mm. long; calyx-segments about 3 mm. long; corolla 
pinkish, 8-10 mm. long, the tube about as long as the limb; capsule about 5 mm. 
long, glabrous. 

Forests and hillsides at lower and middle elevations in moist or wet districts, Porto 
Rico; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Hispaniola; St. Martin; Guadeloupe. 

2. Gerardia portoricensis Britton & Wilson, spec. nov. 

Acaulescent, with numerous thickened roots, the rootstock very short. 
Leaves soft-pubescent, the blades oblong or elliptic, 2-2.5 cm. long, 0.8-1.2 mm. 
wide, the apex obtuse or acutish, the base obtuse, the slender petioles 1-2 cm. 
long; only very young inflorescence seen. 

Limestone hills near Gtianica and Guayanilla, Porto Rico. Type from Salinas de 
Guanica (Brilton & Boynton 8288). Endemic. 

10. ODONTONEMA Nees, Linnaea 16: 300. 1842. 

Large herbs, or shrubs, with broad opposite entire leaves, and large flowers 
in terminal narrow panicles, the bracts small. Calyx short, 5-parted, the seg- 
ments narrow. Corolla with a slender tube and a 2-lipped or nearly regular 
limb. Perfect stamens 2, the anthers 2-celled, the sacs blunt; staminodia 2. 
Ovules 2 in each ovary cavity; style filiform. Capsule oblong, stipitate, with 
4 seeds or fewer. [Greek, toothed-thread.] About 20 species, natives of tropical 
America. Type species: Odontonema lucidum Nees. 

1. Odontonema nitidum (Jacq.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 494. 1891. 

Justicia nitida Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 

Thyrsacanthus nitidus Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 327. 1847. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, with slender glabrous branches. Leaves oblong to 
elliptic, thin, 1-2 dm. long, 2-7 cm. wide, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the glabrous or sparingly pilose petioles 1-2 cm. long; panicles slender, simple or 
branched, longer than the leaves; pedicels 5-10 mm. long, calyx about 3 mm. 
long, its segments lanceolate, acuminate; corolla white or purplish, about 16 mm. 
long, 2-lipped, the lips about as long as the tube; capsule glabrous, about 15 mm. 
long; seeds warty. 

Recorded as formerly collected on St. Croix and St. Thomas: — St. Kitts to Tobago. 

Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze, Mexican, planted for ornament 
in Porto Rico gardens, is a shrub with broadly elliptic sometimes white-mottled 
leaves, the flowers white or purplish, the corolla-limb nearly regular [Thyrsacanthus 
cuspidatus Nees.] 

Odontonema strictum (Nees) Kuntze, of Central America, grown for 
ornament in Porto Rico gardens, is a shrub up to 3 m. tall, with very narrow 
panicles of bright red flowers, the corolla about 2.5 cm. long, its nearly regular 
limb about one-half as long as the slender tube. 



ACANTHACEAE 215 

11. DIAPEDIUM Konig; Konig & Sims. Ann. Bot, 2: 189. 1805. 

[Dicliptera Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 267. 1807.] 

Herbs, with entire petioled leaves, and blue, red or violet flowers subtended 
by involucres of 2-4 bracts, the inflorescence mostly cymose or spicate, the in- 
volucres subtending 1 flower or several. Calyx 4-5-eleft, the lobes linear or 
subulate. Corolla-tube slender, slightly enlarged above; upper lip erect, concave, 
interior in the bud ; lower lip spreading, entire or 3-toothed. Stamens 2 ; anther- 
sacs parallel, sometimes unequal, separated by a narrow connective. Style 
filiform; ovules 2 in each cavity of the ovary. Capsule flattened, ovate or sub- 
orbicular, 2-4-seeded. Placentae separating elastically from the walls of the 
capsule. Seeds compressed, nearly orbicular. About 60 species, of warm and 
tropical regions. Type species: Justicia chinensis L. 

Bracts narrow, lanceolate to cuneate. 1. D. assurgens. 

Bracts broad, ovate, apiculate. 2. D. Krugii. 

1. Diapedium assurgens (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 485. 1891. 

Justicia assurgens L. Syst. ed. 10, 850. 1759. 

Dicliptera assurgens Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 269. 1807. 

Dicliptera portoricensis Spreng. ; Schult. Mant. 1: 149. 1822. 

Erect, often much branched, glabrous or somewhat puberulent, 3-15 dm. 
high. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 4-10 cm. long or the upper smaller, 
acute or obtuse at the apex, obtuse or narrowed at the base, the petioles slender; 
flowers in small bracted clusters, in slender interrupted, simple or branched 
spikes 5-15 cm. long: bracts lanceolate or spatulate, 8-15 mm. long; calyx about 
4 mm. long, its linear-lanceolate lobes as long as the tube or longer; corolla scarlet 
or red, 2-2.5 cm. long, its tube curved, its lips lanceolate; capsule 5-6 mm. long. 
[Dicliptera scorpioides of Sprengel, not of Jussieu.] • 

Hillsides near Rincon, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Florida; West 
Indies; continental tropical America. 

2. Diapedium Krugii (Urban) Britton. 

Dicliptera Krugii Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 577. 1911. 

Erect, branched, 6 dm. high or higher, the twigs pilose when young. Leaves 
ovate to ovate-oblong, 5-6 cm. long or the upper ones smaller, sparingly pilose, 
the apex acuminate, the base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 3 cm. long or shorter, 
flowers axillary in small clusters on the branches, sessile or nearly so; bracts 
elliptic to orbicular-ovate, apiculate, short-pilose, 10-15 mm. long; calyx about 
4 mm. long, with linear-lanceolate lobes; corolla rose, about 2.5 mm. long, its lips 
nearly equal; capsule about 6 mm. long. 

Shaded hillsides, Pellejas near Utuado, collected only by Sintenis. Included by 
Lindau in D. martinicense (Jacq.) Kuntze. Endemic. 

12. DREJERELLA Lindau in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 222. 1900. 

Shrubs, or large cystolithigerous herbs, with opposite petioled leaves, the 
rather large flowers in terminal bracted spikes, the bracts imbricated. Calyx 
5-parted. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-toothed, the lower 3-lobed. Stamens 
2, borne on the corolla-throat, the anther-sacs calcarate. Ovules mostly 2 in 
each ovary-cavity. Capsule short-stipitate, mostly 4-seeded. [Diminutive of 
Drejera.] A few species of tropical America, the following typical. 



216 ACANTHACEAE 

1. Drejerella mirabiloides (Lam.) Lindau in Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 222. 1900. 

Justica ynirabiloides Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 30. 1791. 
Beloperone portoricensis Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 414. 1847. 

Herbaceous, somewhat woody, erect, branched, 0.5-1 m. high, the branches 
pubescent in 2 lines, often constricted above the nodes. Leaves ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate, pilose or glabrate, 4-12 cm. long, entire or undulate, the apex acu- 
minate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 1-3 cm. long; spikes rather 
dense, 2-4 cm. long; bracts ovate, acute or short-acuminate, ciliate, pilose or 
glabrate; calyx-segments lanceolate, about 10 mm. long; corolla pink, rose or 
purple, puberulent, about 2.5 cm. long, the upper lip a little shorter than the 
cube: capsule 10 mm. long. [Beloperone nemorosa of Eggers and of Krebs.] 

Thickets, hillsides and forest borders, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in 
moist districts: St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique and 
Tobago (according to Lindau). 

13. JUSTICIA [Houst.] L. Sp. PI. 15. 1753. 

Herbs, or shrubs, with entire leaves, often cystolithigerous, the flowers 
spicate or solitary. Calyx deeply cleft, its segments narrow, nearly equal. 
Corolla-tube shorter or longer than the 2-lipped limb, the upper lip 2-cleft, the 
lower 3-cleft. Stamens 2, borne on the throat of the corolla; anthers 2-celled; 
staminodia none; lower anther-sac often appendaged. Style filiform; ovules 2 
in each ovary-cavity. Capsule oblong or obovate. [In honor of James Justice, 
a Scotch gardener.] Over 100 species, of tropical distribution. Type species: 
Justicia Adhatoda L. 

Calyx 5-parted; leaves petioled. 

Bracts oblong to cuneate, truncate. 1. J. carthaginensis. 
Bracts linear to lanceolate. 

Flowers mostly in terminal spikes; capsule oblong. 2. J. peri ploci folia. 

Flowers axillary, solitary; capsule obovate. 3. J. culebritae. 
Calyx 4-parted; flowers few or solitary in the axils. 

Leaves sessile or nearly so. • 4. J. sessilis. 

Leaves slender-petioled. 5. J. (?) borinquensis. 

1. Justicia carthaginensis Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 

Adhadota carthaginensis Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 403. 1847. 

Herbaceous, somewhat woody, erect, branched, 0.5-1.5 m. high, the branches 
and leaves glabrous or very sparingly pubescent. Leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate, 
membranous, 5—12 cm. long, acuminate at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the 
base, somewhat decurrent on the petioles; flowers violet to purple, in dense 
terminal bracted spikes 3-7 cm. long; bracts oblong, pubescent or ciliate, 12 mm. 
long or less, the lower pointed, the upper truncate and cuneate; bractlets narrower 
than the bracts; calyx-segments lanceolate, about 1 cm. long; corolla purple, its 
tube about 1.5 cm. long, the upper lip about as long as the tube, the lower some- 
what longer; capsule 1.5-2 cm. long, acute, pubescent. 

Woodlands, hillsides and waste grounds, St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola:— Bahamas 
Hispaniola; St. Kitts to Trinidad; Aruba; continental tropical America. 

2. Justicia periplocifolia Jacq. Coll. 5: Suppl. 5. 1796. 

Justicia vulgaris Bert.; Schultes, Mant. 1: 135. 1822. 

Adhatoda re flexi flora Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 398. 1847. 

Justicia reflexiflora glandulosa Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 80. 1879. 

Ecbolium reflexiflorum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 487. 1891. 

Shrubby, slender, branched or sometimes simple, 0.4-1.5 m. high, glabrous, 
or puberulent above. Leaves linear to lanceolate or ovate, membranous, gla- 



ACANTHACEAE 217 

brous, 5-12 em. long, 0.5-4 cm. wide, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the slender petioles about 1.5 cm. long or shorter; flowers in terminal spikes, or 
sometimes solitary in the axils; bracts linear-lanceolate, pubescent; calyx-seg- 
ments linear-lanceolate, puberulent, 7-10 mm. long; corolla pilose, purple, 2-3 
cm. long, the tube somewhat longer than the limb; lower anther-sac calcarate; 
capsule compressed, about 1 cm. long, densely puberulent, tipped. [Dicliptera 
assurgens of Stahl, not of Jussieu.] 

Thickets, hillsides and woodlands, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; 
Mona ; Culebra ; Vieques ; St. Croix ; St. Thomas ; St. Jan : — Hispaniola ; Mexico ; Venezuela. 

3. Justicia culebritae Urban, Repert. 16: 41. 1919. 

Somewhat woody, branched, about 2 dm. high, the branches minutely pu- 
berulent or glabrous. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, thin, 2-4.5 cm. long, glabrous, 
the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or rounded, the petioles .5-10 
mm. long; flowers solitary in the axils, subsessile; bracts linear, 3-6 mm. long; 
calyx-segments linear, about 8 mm. long; corolla purple, pilose, about 2 cm. long, 
the limb shorter than the tube; capsule obovate, acute, narrowed below, densely 
short-pilose, about 1 cm. long. 

Dry shaded hillside, Culebrita, collected only by Britton and Wheeler in March 1906. 
Endemic. 

4. Justicia sessilis Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 

Dianthera sessilis Gmelin, Syst. 2: 35. 1791. 

Rhytiglossa sessilis Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 345. 1847. 

Adhatoda tetramera Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 301. 1881. 

Justicia pauciflora Vahl, Eclog. 1: 2. 1796. 

Somewhat woody, branched, 1-8 dm. high, the slender branches pubescent 
in 2 lines. Leaves ovate to elliptic, sessile or very short-petioled, sparingly pilose, 
1-3.5 cm. long, the apex acute or obtuse, the base rounded; flowers 1-3 in the 
upper axils, sessile; bractlets about 2 mm. long, pilose; calyx 4-parted, the lance- 
olate segments about 4 mm. long; corolla purple, puberulent, its slender tube 
about 10 mm. long, its lips 6-7 mm. long; anther-sacs obtuse; capsule glabrous, 
pointed, compressed, stipitate, 10-12 mm. long. 

Rocky hillsides and thickets at lower elevations in the dry southwestern districts of 
Porto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola:— St. Martin to 
Guadeloupe; Trinidad; Margarita Colombia. 

5. Justicia (?) borinquensis Britton, sp. no v. 

Herbaceous, low; stems slender, pilose, 5-10 cm. long. Leaves ovate to 
suborbicular, 8-17 mm. long, membranous, entire or slightly repand, the apex 
rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed or rounded, the villous petioles 2-5 mm. 
long, the upper surface with scattered cystoliths and a few long whitish hairs, 
the under side pubescent, at least on the veins; flowers solitary, sessile; calyx- 
segments apparently 4, linear-lanceolate, pilose, about 5 mm. long; capsule nar- 
rowly oblong, puberulent, 7 mm. long; corolla unknown. 

Bank, Monte Cerrote near Adjuntas, Porto Rico (N. L. Britton and Stewardson 
Broun, 539if). Endemic. 

Justicia secunda Vahl, native of northern South America, grown for or- 
nament in Virgin Island gardens, is a tall shrub, with large, long-petioled, ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate leaves and long narrow panicles of red or red- 
purple flowers, the corolla 3-4 cm. long. 

Justicia reptans Sw., listed by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, presumably 
in error, inhabits Jamaica, Cuba and Hispaniola. [Rhytiglossa reptans Nees.] 



218 ACANTHACEAE 

14. STETHOMA Raf. PL Tell. 4: 61. 1838. 

Slender branched cystolithigerous herbs, with entire or rarely undulate 
leaves, and small bracteolate white to purple flowers in slender or filiform, 
panicled, verticillate or umbellate spikes. Calyx 5-parted nearly to the base, 
the narrow segments nearly equal. Corolla-tube about equalling or shorter 
than the 2-lipped limb, the upper lip 2-toothed or 2-cleft, the lower Up 3-lobed. 
Stamens 2, borne at the throat of the corolla; anthers 2-celled, the sacs obtuse. 
Ovules 2 in each ovary-cavity. Capsule compressed, stipitate. [Greek, pec- 
toral.] A few species of tropical America. Type species : Justicia pectoralis Jacq. 

Inflorescence terminal; corolla 8-10 mm. long. 

Panicle-branches alternate. 1. 8. pectoralis. 

Panicle-branches opposite or verticillate. 2. S. verticillaris. 

Inflorescence axillary, the panicle-branches umbellate or also terminal 
and verticillate-paniculate; corolla 3-4 mm. long. 3. S. comala. 

1. Stethoma pectoralis (Jacq.) Raf. Fl. Tell. 4: 61. 1838. 

Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 
Dianthera pectoralis Gmelin, Syst. 2: 36. 1791. 
Rhytiglossa pectoralis Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 9: 128. 1847. 

Stem short-pilose in two lines, puberulent, at least above, erect, decumbent 
or ascending, sparingly branched, commonly rooting at the lower nodes, 2-6 
dm. long. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, glabrous, 
acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 2-12 mm. long; inflorescence 
terminal; panicle few-several-branched, the very slender branches alternate, 
2-12 cm. long, the flowers rather distant; bracts and bractlets setaceous; calyx 
segments subulate, about 2 mm. long; corolla pink, puberulent, 8-10 mm. long; 
capsule not seen by us, apparently rarely formed. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Mona; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan 
(according to Eggers) : — Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Barts to Trinidad; continental tropical 
America. Recorded from Jamaica. Curia. 

2. Stethoma verticillaris (Nees) Britton. 

Rhytiglossa verticillaris Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 354. 1847. 

Justicia verticillaris Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 579. 1911. Not L. f. 1781. 

Stem puberulent, erect or ascending, simple or little branched, 3-7 dm. long. 
Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or ovate, entire or somewhat repand, 5-17 
cm. long, the apex acuminate or acute, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 
0.5-2 cm. long; inflorescence terminal; panicle-branches opposite or verticillate, 
very slender, about 7 cm. long or shorter; bractlets linear; calyx-segments linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, about 3 mm. long; corolla white or tinged with violet, 
8-10 mm. long, its lower lip with 2 rows of brown blotches; capsule pubescent, 
stipitate, 6-7 mm. long. [Included by Lindau in J. pectoralis Jacq.] 

Wet mountain forests of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

3. Stethoma comata (L.) Britton. 

Dianthera comata L. Syst. ed. 10, 850. 1759. 
Justicia comata Lam. Encycl. 1: 632. 1785. 
Leptostachya comata Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 381. 1847. 

Glabrous or nearly so ; stem weak, ascending or nearly erect, usually branched, 
often rooting at the lower nodes, 2-6 dm. high. Leaves lanceolate to oblong or 
ovate-oblong, 3-15 cm. long, the apex acuminate or acute, the base rounded or 
narrowed, sessile or with petioles about 2 cm. long or shorter; inflorescence axil- 



ACANTHACEAE 219 

lary, peduncled, the panicle-branches nearly filiform, 2-7 cm. long, umbellate, 
or also terminal and verticillate-paniculate; bracts and bractlets minute; calyx- 
segments lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm. long; corolla white or purplish, 3-4 mm. long; 
capsule stipitate, glabrous when mature, 4-5 mm. long. 

Wet grounds at low elevations, Porto Rico :— Jamaica ; Cuba; Hispaniola; Tobago; 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

Eranthemum nervosum (Vahl) E. Br., Blue Eranthemum, East Indian, 
grown in Virgin Island gardens, is a pubescent or puberulent shrub up to 2 m. 
high, with thin, ovate or elliptic acuminate leaves, 1-2 dm. long, the flowers in 
axillary spikes, the large, whitish, strongly veined bracts densely imbricated, the 
blue 5-lobed corolla about 2 cm. broad. [Justicia nervosa Vahl.] 

Pachystachys coccinea (Aubl.) Nees, of Trinidad and Guiana, grown for 
ornament in the Virgin Islands, is a glabrous shrub, 1-2 m. high, the stem and 
branches constricted above the nodes, the ovate to elliptic, thin entire leaves 
1-2 dm. long, the showy flowers in dense short terminal spikes, the scarlet, 2- 
lipped corolla about 5 cm. long, the 2 stamens a little exserted. 

Fittonia argyroneura E. Coem., of western South America, occasionally 
grown for ornament in Porto Rico gardens, is a pubescent perennial with trailing 
or spreading branches, the leaves ovate, rounded, entire, 5-8 cm. long, dark 
green with conspicuous white veins; the yellowish flowers are in pedicelled spikes. 

Pseuderanthemum reticulatum (Bull) Radlk., supposed to be of Poly- 
nesian origin, occasionally seen in Porto Rico gardens, is a shrub up to about 1.5 
m. high, the somewhat fleshy, lanceolate leaves 1-2 dm. long, the rose-colored 
flowers in large terminal clusters, the corolla about 3 cm. broad. [Eranthemum 
reticulatum Bull.] 

Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk., also probably Polynesian, 
grown for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a glabrous shrub 
about 1 m. high, the ovate-lanceolate, acuminate leaves 1-2 dm. long, the flowers 
clustered in spikes with a nearly salverform white corolla with purple-spotted 
lobes, its slender tube 2.5-3 cm. long. [Eranthemum bicolor Schrank.] 

Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum (Bull) Bailey, also probably Poly- 
nesian, occasionally grown in Virgin Island gardens, is shrubby, glabrous, 1-1.5 
m. high, its broadly ovate, purple or mottled leaves mostly obtuse at both ends, 
its white or purplish flowers spicate; the corolla-tube 1—1.5 cm. long, the limb 
2—2.5 cm. broad. [Eranthemum atropurpureum Bull.] 

Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees, Dona Juana, East Indian, 
grown for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin Island gardens, is a shrub about 1 
m. high with ovate to oblong-lanceolate, entire, slender-petioled leaves 6-12 
cm. long, the flowers in dense terminal peduncled bracted spikes, the salmon to 
orange corolla with a slender tube about 2 cm. long and an oblique spreading 
lobed limb, the stamens 4. [Justicia infundibuliformis L.] 

Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff., Cafe con leche, Cafe de Jardin, 
Caricature Plant, Australasian, grown for ornament in Porto Rico and Virgin 
Island gardens, is a shrub 2-2.5 m. high with elliptic entire short-petioled, 
usually yellowish-blotched leaves 1-2 dm. long, and large, purple-blue flowers in 
racemes, the corolla 7-8 cm. broad with a white throat and a 5-lobed limb. 
[Justicia picta L.; G. hortense Nees.] 



220 MYPORACEAE 

Meyenia erecta (T. Anders.) Benth., of tropical Africa, also grown for 
ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a shrub 1-2 m. high, with ovate, 
short-petioled entire or repand leaves 3-8 cm. long and solitary axillary peduncled 
flowers; the calyx minutely 10-toothed, the corolla 4-6 cm. long, with a yellowish 
tube and blue-purple limb. [Thunbergia erecta T. Anders.] 

Sanchezia nobilis Hook., of Ecuador, occasional in Porto Rico gardens, is 
nearly herbaceous, with large oblong variegated leaves and panicled heads of 
yellow, red-bracted flowers about 5 cm. long. 

Strobilanthes isophyllus (Nees) T. Anders., East Indian, luxuriant at the 
Trujillo Plant Propagation Station in 1925, a shrub 6-9 dm. high, has narrowly 
lanceolate leaves, the axillary peduncles with few blue and white flowers about 
2.5 cm. long. [Goldfussia isophylla Nees.] 

Strobilanthes Dyerianus Masters, Burmese, occasional in Porto Rico 
gardens, is shrubby, with opposite large iridescent leaves, purple beneath, the 
spicate violet flowers about 4 cm. long. 

Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier, Javan, grown at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station in 1925, is herbaceous, with ovate crenate purple leaves, 
the white spicate flowers about 2 cm. long. [Ruellia colorata Blume.] 

Beleperone amherstiae Nees, Brazilian, grown at the Trujillo Plant 
Propagation Station in 1925, is a low shrub, with ovate, short-petioled leaves and 
crimson flowers about 5 cm. long in short axillary racemes [Dianthera nodosa 
B. & H.] 

Beleperone eustachiana (Jacq.) Benth., recorded by Krebs as found in 
St. Thomas, is known only in the Lesser Antilles from St. Barts to Guadeloupe. 
[Adhatoda eustachiana Nees.] 

Beleperone sphaerosperma (Vahl) Benth., also listed by Krebs from St. 
Thomas, is known only from St. Barts and St. Vincent. [Adhatoda sphaerosperma 
Nees.] 

Adhatoda lithospermifolia (Jacq.) Nees, recorded by Krebs from St. 
Thomas, is a Peruvian species. 

Family 16. MYPORACEAE Lindl. 

Myoporum Family. 

Shrubs or trees, with alternate or opposite, entire estipulate leaves, and 
perfect, more or less irregular flowers, solitary or clustered in the axils. Calyx 
inferior, 5-parted. Corolla gamopetalous, its limb 2-lipped or oblique. 
Stamens 4, mostly didynamous, borne on the corolla-tube, the filaments 
filiform. Ovary usually 2-celled; style terminal; stigma terminal and 
small; ovules 1 in each ovary-cavity. Fruit a drupe. Five genera and SO 
species or more, mostly Australian, only the following American. 

1. BONTIA L. Sp. PL 638. 1753. 

A tree or shrub, with alternate narrow fleshy entire pointed leaves, and 
rather small, purplish peduncled flowers, solitary or clustered in the axils. Calyx 



PLANTAGINACEAE 221 

5-parted, the segments imbricated. Tube of the corolla straight, cylindrie, the 
limb deeply 2-lipped, the posterior lip concave, 2-cleft, the anterior lip recurved, 
3-cleft, its middle lobe densely bearded. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments 
thickened and villous near the base. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 4 in each cavity, 
superimposed in pairs; style very slender. Drupe ovoid, the exocarp fleshy, the 
endocarp bony, 2-celled. Seeds small, ovoid, with little endosperm. [Com- 
memorates Peter Bontius, a Dutch naturalist and traveller of the seventeenth 
century.] A monotypic West Indian genus. 

1. Bontia daphnoides L. Sp. PL 638. 1753. 

A shrub or small tree, sometimes 9 m. high, nearly glabrous throughout, with 
terete, rather slender twigs. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, falling away 
from the twigs in drying, 10 cm. long or less, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at 
the base, the slender midvein prominent, the lateral venation obscure, the petioles 
1-2 cm. long; peduncles slender, 1-3 cm. long; calyx-segments broadly ovate, 
subulate-tipped, about 3 mm. long, ciliolate; corolla about 2 cm. long, yellow, 
purple-blotched, or the lip purple within; drupe pointed, yellow, 1-1.5 cm. long. 

Coastal thickets, dry southwestern districts of Porto Rico; St. Oroix (according to 
Eggers); St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies; northern South America. White 
Alling. 

Order 6. PLANTAGINALES. 

Only the following family: 

Family 1. PLANTAGINACEAE Lindl. 

Plantain Family. 

Herbs, with basal, or, in the caulescent species, opposite or alternate 
leaves, and small perfect polygamous or monoecious flowers, bracteolate in 
spikes or heads, or rarely solitary. Calyx 4-parted, inferior, persistent, the 
segments imbricated. Corolla hypogynous, scarious or membranous, mostly 
marcescent, 4-lobed. Stamens 4 or 2 (only 1 in an Andean genus), inserted 
on the tube or throat of the corolla; filaments filiform, exserted or included; 
anthers versatile, 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary sessile, 
superior, 1-2-celled, or falsely 3-4-celled. Style filiform, simple, mostly 
longitudinally stigmatic. Ovules 1-several in each cavity of the ovary, 
peltate, amphitropous. Fruit a pyxis, circumscissile at or below the middle, 
or an indehiscent nutlet. Seeds 1-several in each cavity of the fruit; endo- 
sperm fleshy ; cotyledons narrow ; rachis short, mostly straight. Three genera 
and over 225 species, of wide distribution. 

1. PLANTAGO L. Sp. PL 112. 1753. 

Leafy-stemmed, short-stemmed or acaulescent herbs, with opposite, alternate 
or basal leaves, bearing axillary or terminal spikes or heads of small greenish or 
purplish flowers (flowers solitary in a few exotic species). Calyx-segments equal, 
or two of them larger. Corolla salverform, the tube cylindrie, or constricted at 
the throat, the limb spreading or reflexed in fruit, 4-lobed or 4-parted. Stamens 
4 or 2. Ovary 2-celled, or falsely 3-4-celled; ovules 1-several in each cavity. 
Fruit a membranous pyxis, mostly 2-celled. Seeds various, sometimes hollowed 
out on the inner side. [The Latin name.] Over 200 species, of wide geographic 



222 RUBIACEAE 

distribution. Type species: Plantago major L. The following are acaulescent 
weeds. 

Leaves ovate; seeds many. 1. P. major. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate; seeds 2. 2. P. lanceolata. 

1. Plantago major L. Sp. PI. 112. 1753. 

Plantago major tropica Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 389. 1861. 

Perennial, glabrous or pubescent; rootstock short, thick, erect. Leaves 
long-petioled, mostly ovate, entire, or coarsely dentate, 2.5-25 cm. long, 3-11- 
ribbed; scapes 0.5-9 dm. high; spike linear-cylindric, usually dense, commonly 
blunt, 5-25 cm. long, 6-8 mm. thick; flowers perfect, proterogynous ; sepals 
broadly ovate to obovate, scarious margined, one-half to two-thirds as long as 
the obtuse or subacute, 5-16-seeded pyxis; stamens 4. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
Tortola: — United States; Bermuda; West Indies; Central and South America. A widely 
distributed weed, native of the Old World. Llanten. Greater Plantain. 

2. Plantago lanceolata L. Sp. PI. 113. 1753. 

Perennial or biennial, pubescent; rootstock short, erect, with tufts of brown 
hairs at the base of the leaves. Leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, shorter than 
the scapes, entire, acute or acuminate, gradually narrowed into petioles, 3-5- 
ribbed, 5-30 cm. long; scapes slender, channeled, sometimes 7.5 dm. tall; spikes 
dense, at first ovoid, becoming cylindric, blunt and 1-10 cm. long in fruit, 8-12 
mm. thick; flowers perfect, proterogynous; sepals ovate, with a narrow green 
midrib and broad scarious margins, the two lower ones commonly united; corolla 
glabrous; filaments white; pyxis oblong, very obtuse, 2-seeded, slightly longer 
than the calyx, circumscissile at about the middle. 

Garden weed, Condado, Porto Rico, 1922: — United States; Bermuda; Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Native of the Old World. Rib-grass. 

Order 7. RUBIALES. 

Corolla gamopetalous. Anthers separate, the stamens as many as the 
corolla-lobes and alternate with them (one fewer in Linnaea of the Capri- 
foliaceae) or twice as many. Ovary compound, inferior, adnate to the calyx- 
tube. Ovules 1 or more in each cavity of the ovary. Leaves opposite or 
verticillate. 

Leaves stipulate, often blackening in drying. Fam. 1. Rubiaceae. 

Leaves usually estipulate, not blackening in drying. Fam. 2. Caprifoliaceae. 

Family 1. RUBIACEAE B. Juss. 

Madder Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with simple, opposite or sometimes verticillate, 
mostly stipulate leaves, and perfect, often dimorphous or trimorphous, 
regular and nearly symmetrical flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 
its limb various. Corolla funnelform, club-shaped, campanulate, or rotate, 
4— 5-lobed. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with 
them, inserted on its tube or throat. Ovary 1-10-celled; style simple or 
lobed; ovules l-°o in each cavity. Fruit a capsule, berry, or drupe. Seeds 
various; seed-coat membranous or crustaceous; endosperm fleshy or horny 
(rarely wanting in a few genera); cotyledons ovate, cordate, or foliaceous. 



RUBIACEAE 



223 



A large family of some 340 genera and about 6,000 species, of wide distribu- 
tion. 

A. Ovules more than one in each ovary-cavity. 

a. Fruit dry, capsular. 

*Seeds wingless. 

fCorolla-lobes valvate; our species herbs. 
Seeds angled. 

Seeds crateriform, peltate. 
ttCorolla-lobes imbricated or contorted; shrubs. 
**Seeds winged or appendaged. 
Corolla-lobes contorted. 
Corolla-lobes imbricated. 

b. Fruit fleshy, baccate or coriaceous. 

*Corolla-lobes valvate. 
Inflorescence terminal. 

Flowers densely capitate. 
Flowers narrowly paniculate. 
Inflorescence axillary. 

Ovary 2-celled; prostrate herbs. 
Ovary 3-5-celled; woody plants. 
**Corolla-lobes imbricated, convolute or contorted. 
Corolla-lobes contorted or convolute. 

Shrubs or small trees; testa of the seed membranous; 
fruit small. 
Ovary 2-celled. 
Ovary 1 -celled. 
Large-leaved trees; testa fibrous; fruit large. 
Corolla-lobes imbricated. 

Ovary 4-5-celled; plants unarmed. 
Ovary 2-celled ; spiny shrubs. 

B. Ovule only one in eacb ovary-cavity. 

a. Seed pendulous, the radicle superior. 

1. Stamens borne on the corolla- throat. 

Fruit drupaceous; indehiscent. 
Calyx-limb deciduous. 
Calyx-limb persistent. 

Filaments short; stipules distinct. 
Filaments filiform; stipules connate. 
Fruit dry, splitting. 

2. Stamens borne on the base of the corolla-tube. 
Corolla-lobes valvate. 

Inflorescence terminal or also axillary; shrubs or small 

trees. 
Inflorescence axillary; vines or vine-like shrubs. 
Corolla-lobes imbricated. 
Flowers 5-parted. 
Flowers 4-parted. 

b. Seed ascending, the radicle inferior. 

1. Corolla-lobes contorted or imbricated. 
Corolla-lobes contorted; broad-leaved shrubs or trees. 

Calyx nearly truncate. 
Calyx-limb 4-5-dentate. 
Corolla-lobes imbricated; low narrow-leaved shrub. 

2. Corolla-lobes valvate. 

♦Ovules basal. 

fOvary 2-celled, the septum thick. 
Shrubs or trees, rarely large herbs, with mostly 
panicled or fascicled flowers. 
Flowers in terminal, rarely axillary, panicles or 
corymbs. 
Corolla-tube short. 
Corolla-tube long. 
Flowers in dense axillary fascicles. 
Creeping herbs with capitate, long-peduncled 
flowers. 
ttOvary 1-celled. 
**Ovules lateral. 

fFlowers confluent in a dense head; shrubs or trees; 
stipules not setiferous. 
ttFlowers not confluent; herbs or low shrubs, the 
stipular sheath setiferous. 
JFruit 2-celled, indehiscent or dicoccous. 
Fruit fleshy, indehiscent. 
Fruit dry, dicoccous or capsular. 
Fruit dicoccous. 

Cocci indehiscent. 

Cocci opening on the inner side near the 
base. 



1. Oldenlandia. 

2. Clavenna. 

3. Bondelelia. 

4. Hillia. 

5. Exostema. 



6. Urceolaria. 

7. Duggena. 

8. Tontanea. 

9. Sabicea. 



10. Randia. 

11. Gardenia. 

12. Genipa. 

13. Hamelia. 

14. Catesbaea. 



15. Guetlarda. 

16. Slenostomum. 

17. Laugeria. 

18. Machaonia. 



19. Erithalis. 

20. Chiococca. 

21. Chione. 

22. Scolosanthus. 



23. Coffea. 

24. Ixora. 

25. Strumpfia. 



26. Psychotria. 

27. Paiicourea. 

28. Lasianthus. 

29. Geophila. 

30. Faramea. 



31. Morinda. 

32. Ernodea. 

33. Diodia. 

34. Hemidiodia. 



224 RUBIACEAE 

Fruit capsular, longitudinally dehiscent. 

Both capstile-lobes dehiscent. 35. Borreria. 

One capsule-lobe dehiscent. 36. Spermacoce. 

JJFruit 2-4-celled, circumscissile. 37. Mitracarpus. 

1. OLDENLANDIA L. Sp. PL 119. 1753. 

Herbs, with opposite leaves, and small white or pink flowers. Calyx-tube 
obovoid or subglobose, the limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla rotate or salverform, 
4-5-lobed. Stamens 4 or 5, inserted on the throat of the corolla; anthers oblong. 
Ovary 2-celled; ovules numerous in each cavity; style slender, 2-lobed. Capsule 
small, ovoid, top-shaped or hemispheric, wholly adnate to the calyx-tube, locu- 
icidally dehiscent at the summit. Seeds angular, not peltate; endosperm fleshy; 
embryo club-shaped. [Named for H. B. Oldenland, a Danish botanist.] About 
175 species, mostly of tropical distribution. Type species: Oldenlandia corymbosa 
L. 

Flowers filiform-pedicelled, or flliform-peduncled. 

Flowers in cymes. 1. O. corymbosa. 

Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils. 

Corolla about as long as the calyx-lobes; leaves linear- 
lanceolate. 2. O. herbacea. 
Corolla much longer than the calyx-lobes; leaves suborbic- 
ular. 3. O. callitrichioides. 
Flowers glomerate, rarely solitary, nearly sessile. 4. O. uniflora. 

1. Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Sp. PI. 119. 1753. 

Annual, glabrous or nearly so, erect or decumbent, branched, 2-5 dm. long. 
Stipules truncate, 1-1.5 mm. long, bearing one or more bristles; leaves sessile, 
linear or linear-lanceolate, 3.5 cm. long or less, 1-nerved, acute, usually scabrate 
above; cymes axillary, few-flowered, peduncled; pedicels filiform, 5-16 mm. 
long; calyx-tube scarcely 1 mm. long, the triangular lobes about as long; corolla 
white, about as long as the calyx-lobes; capsule subglobose, about 2 -mm. in 
diameter. 

Waste places, Government House yard, St. Croix, prior to 1876 (according to 
Eggers): — Jamaica; St. Kitts to Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

2. Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) DC. Prodr. 4: 425. 1830. 

Hedyotis herbacea L. Sp. PI. 102. 1753. 

Hedyotis commutata Schultes, Mant. 3: 134. 1827. 

Hedyotis herbacea Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 20. 1894. 

Annual, weak, often decumbent, glabrous, branched, 1 m. long or less. 
Stipules 2-3 mm. long, 2-3-cuspidate ; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, 1-nerved, 
2-7 cm. long, acute or acuminate, sessile; flowers solitary or clustered in the axils, 
flliform-peduncled, the peduncles 2.5 cm. long or less; calyx-tube about 1.5 mm. 

ong, the lobes lanceolate, about as long; corolla white, about as long as the calyx- 

obes; capsule depressed-globose, 3-4 mm. in diameter. 

Moist soil and grassy hillsides in wet or moist regions of Porto Rico, ascending to 
higher elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Martinique; 
Trinidad; recorded from St. Martin; continental tropical America; Old World tropics. 

3. Oldenlandia callitrichoides Griseb. Mem. Am. Acad. 11. 8: 506. 1862. 

Stems filiform, creeping, glabrous, 2-10 cm. long, rooting at the nodes. 

Leaves ovate-orbicular, very thin, petioled, the blades 1-4 mm. long, glabrous 

or with a few long hairs, obtuse or acutish at the apex, contracted into slender 

petioles of about the same length; stipules minute or obsolete; peduncles solitary 

n the axils, filiform, 2-3 times as long as the leaves; calyx scarcely 1 mm. long, 



RUBIACEAE 225 

the lobes ovate to lanceolate bearing a few long hairs, much shorter than the tube ; 
corolla white, funnelform, 1.5-2 mm. long, the 4 or 5 lobes shorter than the tube; 
capsule turbinate, about 2 mm. long. 

Gregarious among stones, Government House yard, St. Croix prior to 1876 (according 
to Eggers): — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe. 

4. Oldenlandia uniflora L. Sp. PI. 119. 1753. 

Oldenlandia glomerata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 83. 1803. 
Hedyotis fasciculata Bertol. Mem. Ace. Bologna 2: 306. 1850. 
Oldenlandia fasciculata Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 1106. 1903. 

Annual, weak, usually tufted, more or less hirsute-pubescent, or glabrate, 
diffuse or ascending; stems 2.5-35 cm. long. Leaves short-petioled or sessile, 
mostly thin, entire, 3-5-nerved, ovate, oblong, or oval, acute or obtuse at the 
apex, narrowed at the base, 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers sessile or nearly so, white, 
about 2 mm. broad, terminal and axillary, clustered or solitary; calyx hirsute or 
glabrous, hemispheric in fruit, the ovate-lanceolate or oval lobes erect and nearly 
equalling the tube; corolla subrotate, shorter than the calyx-lobes, white; capsule 
subglobose, 1.5-2 mm. in diameter, hirsute or glabrous. 

Moist sandy situations on the northern coastal plain of Porto Rico: — southeastern 
United States; Jamaica; Cuba. Graciosa. 

2. CLAVENNA Neck. Elem. 2: 145. 1790. 

Small, prostrate herbs, perennial by tuberous-thickened roots, with opposite 
petioled leaves and solitary peduncled axillary white flowers. Calyx-tube hemi- 
spheric, mostly 4-lobed, the lobes alternating with as many small teeth. Corolla 
funnelform-campanulate, usually with 4 obtuse lobes. Stamens 4, rarely 5, with 
short filaments and dorsiflxed anthers. Ovary 2-celled; ovules few, style short, 
2-cleft. Capsule one-fourth superior, hemispheric, loculicidally 2-valved. Seeds 
peltate, nearly smooth. [In honor of Jacob Antonio Clavenna, Italian naturalist 
of the 17th century.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Clavenna tetrandra (L.) Standi. N. A. Fl. 32: 24. 1918. 

Peplis tetrandra L. Amoen. Acad. 5: 413. 1760. 

Hedyotis tuberosa Sw. Obs. 136. 1791. 

Lucya tuberosa DC. Prodr. 4: 434. 1830. 

Lucya tetrandra K. Schum. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 l : 27. 1891. 

Dunalia tetrandra Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 281. 1891. 

Prostrate; stems several, simple or little branched, 15 cm. long or less, pu- 
berulent when young. Leaves ovate or elliptic, 5-16 mm. long, 3-5-nerved, 
acute or obtuse, hispidulous or glabrate, the petiole 1-4 mm. long; stipules very 
short; pedicels Aliform, 3-6 mm. long, deflexed or spreading in fruit; calyx his- 
pidulous, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla a little longer than the calyx-teeth; capsule 
3-4 mm. broad; seeds oval, black. 

Wet shaded rocks at middle elevations, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

3. RONDELETIA L. Sp. PI. 172. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite or ternate leaves, the stipules interpetiolar, 
the flowers in terminal or axillary clusters, rarely solitary. Calyx-tube globose 
to oblong, the 4 or 5 lobes persistent. Corolla funnelform or saberform, white, 
yellow or red, with a slender tube and 4 or 5 spreading imbricated lobes. Stamens 



226 RUBIACEAE 

4 or 5, borne on the throat of the corolla; filaments short; anthers erect, dorsifixed. 
Disk annular. Ovary 2-celled; ovules numerous, style filiform. Capsule 2- 
grooved, 2-celled, 2-valved, usually many-seeded. Seeds minute, often winged 
or appendaged. [Commemorates G. Rondelet, 1507-1566, professor in Mont- 
pellier.] About 75 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Ronde- 
letia americana L. 

Calyx-lobes much shorter than the tu*be; tree. 1. R. portoricensis. 
Calyx lobes as long as the tube or longer; shrubs or small trees. 

Calyx-lobes much longer than the tube; pubescence pilose. 2. R. pilosa. 

Calyx-lobes about as long as the tube; pubescence appressed. 3. R. inermis. 

1. Rondeletia portoricensis Krug & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 414. 1899. 

A forest tree, up to 20 m. high, the stout twigs tomentulose when young. 
Stipules tubular, rigid, 5-7 mm. long, the lobes deltoid, white-silky within. 
Leaves oval to oblong-elliptic, coriaceous, 8-20 cm. long, glabrous and dark green 
above, strigillose on the veins beneath, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base nar- 
rowed, the stout petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; panicles axillary, 3-7 cm. long; pedicels 
stout, 3-6 mm. long; calyx-tube white-strigillose, the 5 lobes minute, deltoid; 
corolla white, appressed-pilose, 7-8 mm. long, its lobes rounded; capsule sub- 
globuse, 5-7 mm. broad, tomentulose; seeds flat, broadly winged. 

Mountain forests at middle and higher elevations. Porto Rico. Endemic. 

2. Rondeletia pilosa Sw. Prodr. 41. 1788. 

Rondeletia tri flora Vahl, Symb. 3: 34. 1794. 
Oldenlandia longiflora Lam. Encycl. 4: 534. 1797. 
Hedyotis longiflora Spreng. Pug. 2: 27. 1815. 

A shrub or small tree, 4 m. high or less, the stout twigs densely pilose. 
Stipules 5-9 mm. long, thin, sheathing, the deltoid lobes silky; leaves elliptic or 
elliptic-ovate, subcoriaceous, 4-10 cm. long, appressed-pubescent above, densely 
pilose beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, the base acute to subcordate, the 
petioles 2-6 mm. long; inflorescence axillary, about 3-flowered, the peduncles 
1.5-7 cm. long, the pedicels slender; calyx-tube long-pilose, the 4 linear lobes 
6-12 mm. long; corolla retrorsely pilose, its tube about 14 mm. long, its 4 rounded 
lobes 3 mm. long; capsule globose, 4-5 mm. in diameter, pilose. [Hedyotis 
villosa of Sesse & Mocino, not of Wight & Arnott.] 

Hillsides and thickets near the coast, eastern and southeastern districts of Porto 
Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; recorded from Montserrat. 

3. Rondeletia inermis (Spreng.) Krug & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 416. 

1899. 

Catesbaea inermis Spreng. Syst. 1: 416. 1825. 

Rondeletia inermis angustifolia Krug & Urban; Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 
Rondeletia inermis oblongifolia Krug. & Urban; Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 
Rondeletia inermis intermedia Krug. & Urban; Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 
Rondeletia inermis latifolia Krug & Urban; Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, or sometimes a small tree 4 or 5 m. high, the twigs 
strigose or glabrous. Stipules deltoid, about 2 mm. long, acute or acuminate. 
Leaves various, linear to oblong, elliptic or obovate, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 
1-10 cm. long, 0.5-5 cm. wide, reticulate-veined, puberulent, more or less pilose 
or glabrate, short-petioled, the apex acute, apiculate, obtuse or rounded, the base 
narrowed; inflorescence axillary, peduncled, 1-5-flowered; peduncles slender, 
0.5-3 cm. long; pedicels 1-5 mm. long; calyx tomentose or strigose, its usually 
4 lobes oblong to obovate, acute or obtuse, 1.5-4 mm. long; corolla yellow or 



RUBIACEAE 227 

nearly white to purple, or yellow changing to purple, 7-12 mm. long, its tube 
densely whitish-pilose, its usually 4 lobes rounded; capsule globose, tomentulose, 
3-4 mm. in diameter. [R. arborescens of Stahl and of Millspaugh, not of Grise- 
bach; R. laevigata of Bello; R. tetrandra Sesse & Mogino, not Roxb.] 

Thickets and hillsides in nearly all parts of Porto Rico at lower and middle elevations 
in both dry and wet districts, consisting of several races different in size and shape of the 
leaves and in pubescence; the narrow-leaved races inhabit, for the most part, the southern 
dry districts and are mostly more pubescent than the broad-leaved ones which are mainly 
found in wet or moist districts; the extreme forms appear very different but the races 
seem to be connected by intermediate types; Muertos. Endemic. Cordobancillo. 

Rondeletia odorata Jacq., Cuban, seen in a garden at St. Thomas in 1925, 
is a shrub, with strigose-hirsute twigs, nearly sessile ovate to oblong leaves 2-5 
cm. long, the orange-red flowers corymbose-paniculate, the corolla-limb 10-12 
mm. broad. 

4. HILLIA Jacq. Enum. 3. 1760. 

Epiphytic shrubs, glabrous throughout, with fleshy opposite petioled leaves 
and large white solitary terminal, nearly sessile flowers, the intrapetiolar stipules 
caducous. Calyx-tube mostly cylindric, the 2-6 lobes linear or foliaceous, ca- 
ducous. Corolla salverform, the tube long, the throat somewhat expanded, the 
3-7 lobes spreading, contorted. Stamens 3-7, borne below the throat of the 
corolla, their filaments short, their anthers linear. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform, 
clavate above, 2-lobed; ovules many. Capsule oblong or cylindric, 2-celled, 
2-valved. Seeds very small, the apex bearing a tuft of hairs, the base appendaged 
[Commemorates John Hill, 1716-1775, eminent English botanist.] A few species, 
native of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Hillia parasitica Jacq. Enum. 18. 1760. 

Hillia longiflora Sw. Prodr. 58. 1788. 

Somewhat fleshy, the branches often elongated and pendent, up to 2 m. 
long, rather stout. Stipules oblong, thin, 2.5 cm. long or less, obtuse; leaves oval 
to obovate, various, rounded, obtuse or acute, 5-15 cm. long, shining above, the 
lateral veins obscure, the petioles stout, 2.5 cm. long or less; bracts large, stipule- 
like: calyx-tube cylindric, 3-5 mm. long, the 6 linear lobes about as long; corolla 
6-10 cm. long, its tube about 4 mm. thick, the usually 6, lanceolate lobes 2-4 cm. 
long; capsule brown, cylindric, 6-12 cm. long; coma of the seeds brownish yellow. 
8-12 mm. long. 

On trees in mountain forests, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations: — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

5. EXOSTEMA L. C. Rich; H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 131. 1807. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite petioled leaves, deciduous stipules, and 
solitary or panicled flowers. Calyx-tube cylindric to turbinate, with 5 linear 
lobes. Corolla salverform, the slender tube elongated, the limb with 5 long 
imbricated lobes. Stamens 5, borne near the base of the corolla; filaments fili- 
form, long; anthers narrowly linear, basifixed, exserted. Ovary 2-celled; style 
filiform, exserted; ovules numerous in each cavity. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, 
many-seeded: seeds broadly winged. [Greek, exserted stamens.] Thirty species 
or more, natives of tropical America. Type species: Exostema parviflorum A. 
Rich. 

Flowers corymbose-paniculate; leaves 10-22 cm. long. 1. E. sanctae-luciae. 

Flowers solitary in the axils; leaves 3-8 cm. long. 2. E. caribaeum. 



228 RUBIACEAE 

1. Exotsema sanctae-luciae (Kentish) Britten, Journ. Bot. 53: 138. 1915. 

Cinchona sanctae-luciae Kentish, New Species of Bark 52. 1784. 
Cinchona floribunda Sw. Prodr. 41. 1788. 
Exostema floribundum R. & S. Syst. 5: 19. 1819. 

A tree, the twigs glabrous. Leaves chartaceous, oblong to elliptic, 10-22 
cm. long, about half as wide as long, short acuminate, glabrous and shining 
above, dull and with tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins beneath, the stout 
petioles 12 mm. long or less; stipules thin, 6-9 mm. long; flowers corymbose- 
paniculate at the ends of twigs, the clusters up to 15 cm. broad; pedicels 5-12 
mm. long; calyx-tube 6-7 mm. long, the lobes triangular-subulate, 1-2 mm. 
long; corolla red, its tube 2-3 cm. long, the linear obtuse lobes about as long; 
anthers exserted; capsule cylindric, 1-2 cm. long, faintly ribbed. 

Forest on Monte Alegrillo, near Maricao, collected only by Sintenis: — Cuba; His- 
paniola; Guadeloupe and Dominica to St. Vincent. Recorded from Trinidad. 

2. Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) R. & S. Syst. 5: 18. 1819. 

Cinchona caribaea Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree up to 8 m. high, with a trunk sometimes 1 dm. 
in diameter, the bark bitter, narrowly ridged and fissured. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate to elliptic, rather thin, 3-8 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, acuminate or acute 
at the apex, narrowed at the base, the midvein prominent, the few lateral veins 
obscure, the slender petioles about one-fourth as long as the blades; stipules 
broadly ovate, acuminate, about 1.5 mm. long; flowers solitary in the axils; pe- 
duncles slender, about as long as the calyx ; calyx clavate-cylindric, 4-5 mm. long, 
its teeth short; corolla white or purplish, its tube 2-3 cm. long, slightly longer 
than the lobes; anthers long-exserted ; capsule oblong, smooth, woody, 10-15 mm. 
long. 

Woodlands and thickets at lower and middle elevations in dry parts of the southern 
districts of Porto Rico; Mona; Culebra; Vieques; Muertos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; 
Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. 
Martin to Grenada; Central America and northern South America. Its wood is brown, 
strong and hard, with specific gravity about 0.93. The bark has been used as a febrifuge. 

CUERO DE SAPO. PRINCErWOOD. YELLOW TORCH. 

6. URCEOLARIA Willd.; Gmelin, Syst. 2: 390. 1791. 

Somewhat fleshy, usually epiphytic, glabrous shrubs or woody vines, with 
opposite petioled coriaceous leaves, large interpetiolar stipules, the flowers in 
terminal dense involucrate peduncled heads. Calyx with a turbinate or hemi- 
spheric tube and a short truncate persistent limb. Corolla salverform or funnel- 
form, with 5-10 narrow valvate lobes. Stamens 5-10, borne on the corolla- 
throat, the filaments short, the anthers linear. Ovary 2-4-celled ; ovules numer- 
ous style elongated, 2-4-cleft. Fruit baccate, 2-4-celled. Seeds very small, 
suborbicular. [Greek, a small pitcher.] About 8 species, natives of the West 
Indies and northern South America, the following typical. 

1. Urceolaria exotica Gmelin, Syst. 2: 390. 1791. 

Schradera capitata Vahl, Eclog. 1: 35. 1796. 

Urceolaria capitata Fritsch, Oest. Bot. Zeit. 44: 288. 1894. 

Branches stout, vine-like, yellowish, 2-12 m. long. Stipules obovate, 
rounded, 1-1.5 cm. long; leaves oval or oblong, 10 cm. long or less, 2-5.5 cm. 
wide, obtuse or rounded at both ends, shining above, the lateral venation in- 



RUBIACEAE 229 

conspicuous, the stout petioles 1-2 cm. long; peduncles 2-4 cm. long, stout; 
heads subglobose, 3-4 cm. in diameter, the involucre about 1 cm. long; flowers 
white; calyx about 1 cm. long; corolla-tube 7-15 mm. long, the 5-7 acutish lobes 
longer or shorter; anthers about 5 mm. long; style 2-cleft. 

On trees in wet forests, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations: — Cuba; His- 
paniola; St. Kitts to St. Vincent; Brazil. 

7. DUGGENA West, Bidr. St. Croix 269. 1793. 

More or less pubescent shrubs or small trees, with opposite petioled leaves, 
interpetiolar stipules, and small flowers in terminal spikes, racemes or narrow 
panicles. Calyx-tube globose to campanulate, the usually 4 lobes persistent*. 
Corolla salverform, villous or pilose, usually 4-lobed, the lobes obtuse, spreading. 
Stamens 4, rarely 5, borne on the corolla-tube, the filaments short. Ovary 2- 
celled or 4-celled; style filiform, 2-cleft or 4-cleft; ovules many. Fruit berry- 
like, globose, 2-sulcate or 4-sulcate, 2-coccous or 4-coccous. [Named for Duggen.] 
About 20 species, the following typical. 

1. Duggena hirsuta (Jacq.) Britton. 

Justica hirsuta Jacq. Enum. 11. 1760. 

Barleria hirsuta Jacq. Obs. 2: 7. 1767. 

Lygistum spicatum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 286. 1791. 

Duggena Richardii West, Bidr. St. Croix 269. 1793. 

Coccocypselum spicatum H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 406. 1820. 

Hedyotis secunda Spreng. ; Schultes, Mant. 3: 133. 1827. 

Gonzalagunia Coccocypselum C. & S. Linnaea 4: 196. 1829. 

Gonzalea spicata DC. Prodr. 4: 437. 1830. 

Gonzalagunia hirsuta Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 291. 1889. 

Gonzalagunia spicata Maza, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 23: 289. 1895. 

Duggena spicata Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 126. 1916. 

A shrub, 3 m. high or less, rarely a tree up to 4 m. high, the long, slender 
branches silky strigose, at least when young. Stipules triangular-subulate, 4-12 
mm. long; leaves ovate, oblong or lanceolate, membranous, pubescent or glabrate, 
6-18 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base acute or rounded, the slender petioles 
2.5 cm. long or less; inflorescence spiciform-paniculate, 1-4 dm. long; calyx ap- 
pressed-pilose, its tube about 2 mm. long, its 4 lobes linear to oblong, about as 
long; corolla 10-15 mm. long, white, the 4 lobes about half as long as the tube; 
stamens 4; style 2-cleft; fruit white or blue, dicoccous, 3-4 mm. in diameter. 
[Gonzalea panamensis of Krebs.] 

Woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to higher 
elevations; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad and northern 
South America. Rabo de raton. Mata de mariposa. Yerba pelada. 

8. TONTANEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 108. 1775. 

Prostrate herbs, with opposite petioled leaves, small stipules, and blue or 
purplish flowers in axillary heads. Calyx ovoid or turbinate, 4-lobed, the lobes 
persistent. Corolla funnelform, 4-lobed, the lobes valvate. Stamens 4, borne 
on the corolla-tube; filaments short; anthers narrow with a 2-lobed base. Ovary 
2-celled ; style slender, 2-cleft ; ovules many. Fruit a blue berry containing many 
orbicular seeds. [Guiana name.] About 12 species, natives of tropical America. 
Type species: Tontanea guianensis Aubl. 



230 RUBIACEAE 

1. Tontanea herbacea (Lam.) Standley, N. A. Fl. 32: 147. 1921. 

Coccosipsilum repens Sw. Prodr. 31. 1788. 
Coccocipsilum herbaceum Lam. Encycl. 2: 56. 1786. 

Stems up to 8 dm. long, densely pilose when young. Stipules linear-subulate, 
6 mm. long or less; leaves slender-petioled, ovate to oblong, 1.5-5 cm. long, pilose, 
the apex obtuse or acute, the base mostly rounded, the petioles pilose; heads 
sessile or short-stalked, few-flowered; bracts subulate, 3-4 mm. long; calyx pilose, 
its lobes linear, 2-3 mm. long, about twice as long as the tube; corolla blue, 
about 6 mm. long, its oblong lobes about half as long as the tube; berries blue, 
short-pilose, 5-6 mm. in diameter. 

Woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist dis- 
tricts: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guatemala to Colombia. Yerba de Guava. Bal- 
samillo. 

9. SABICEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 192. 1775. 

Woody vines, or shrubs, rarely trees, with opposite or sometimes verticillate 
leaves, persistent intrapetiolar stipules, and small bracted clustered axillary 
flowers. Calyx 4-5-lobed, the tube subglobose, the lobes persistent. Corolla 
funnelform or salverform, 4-5-lobed, the lobes valvate. Stamens 4 or 5, borne 
on the tube or the throat of the corolla; anthers linear, included. Ovary mostly 
4-5-celled; style 2-5-branched ; ovules many. Fruit a berry. Seeds very small. 
[Guiana name.] Perhaps 30 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: 
Sabicea cinerea Aubl. 

1. Sabicea hirsuta H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 417. 1820. 

A woody vine, up to 5 m. long or longer, the branches densely hirsute or 
pilose. Stipules ovate, 10 mm. long or less, reflexed; leaves ovate to oblong, 
5-12 cm. long, hirsute, or glabrate with strigose veins, the apex acuminate or 
acute, the base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 7-16 cm. long; flowers few to- 
gether and sessile in the axils; calyx hirsute, its narrowly lanceolate lobes 2-4 
mm. long; corolla white, strigose, its tube about 6 mm. long, its lobes about 2 mm. 
long; fruit purplish, about 10 mm. in diameter. [Recorded from Porto Rico by 
de Candolle as S. hirta Sw., a Jamaica species.] 

Woods and thickets in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico, ascending to higher ele- 
vations: — Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

Sabicea cinerea Aubl., recorded by Wernham as collected in Porto Rico 
by Ledru, differs from S. hirsuta by having arachnoid-tomentose stems and leaves, 
and flowers about twice as large. It is native in French and British Guiana; we 
suspect the Porto Rico record to be erroneous. 

10. RANDIA L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753. 

Evergreen, often spiny shrubs or trees, with opposite leaves and perfect 
solitary, usually axillary flowers. Corolla funnelform, salverform or campanu- 
late, its lobes 5, convolute. Stamens 5, adnate to the throat of the corolla; 
filaments short or nearly wanting. Disk annular or cushion-like. Ovary 2- 
celled or very rarely 3-4-celled; ovules several or many in each cavity; styles 
usually united, stout, terminating in a club-shaped, spindle-shaped or rarely 
cleft stigma. Berry usually 2-celled. Seeds free or in a pulp; testa thin, the 
endosperm horny. [In honor of Isaac Rand, English apothecary.] About 100 
species, natives of tropical regions. Type species: Randia mitis L. 



KUBIACEAE 231 

Spiny shrubs or trees; corolla small (unknown in No. 2). 

Berry white, smooth. 1. R. mitis. 

Fruit gray, roughened. 2. R. portoricensis. 

Unarmed shrub or tree; corolla 5-7 cm. long. 3. R. formosa. 

1. Randia mitis L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753. 

Randia aculeata L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753. 

Gardenia Randia Sw. Prodr. 52. 1788. 

Randia latifolia Lam. Encycl. 3: 24. 1789. 

Randia aculeata mitis Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 60. 1879. 

A virgate branching shrub, 1-3 m. tall, or a small tree up to 10 m. high, usu- 
ally spiny, the foliage glabrous or nearly so. Leaves often clustered, spatulate, 
obovate, elliptic, oval or suborbicular, 1-5 cm. long, narrowed into short petioles; 
flowers axillary, short-stalked; calyx-lobes triangular or ovate; corolla white, 
6-8 mm. long, its lobes oblong, shorter than the tube; berries subglobose or oval, 
white, 6-8 mm. long. 

Thickets and hillsides, at lower and middle elevations, mostly in dry districts Porto 
Rico; Icacos; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola ; Anegada : — Florida 
Bermuda; West Indies to Trinidad and Curacao; Mexico (?). The brown wood is hard' 
strong, heavy and durable. Escambron. Tintello. Palo de cotorra. Box Brier' 
Dogwood. Cabai nagte. Christmas Tree. Ink Berry. ' 

2. Randia portoricensis (Urban) Britton and Standley. 

Basanacantha portoricensis Urban', Symb. Ant. 5: 507. 1908. 

A shrub about 1 m. high, the short stiff twigs minutely pilose, terminating 
in 3 spines 7-15 mm. long. Stipules triangular, acuminate, very small; leaves 
nearly sessile, obovate or subrhombic, 8 mm. long or less, short-pilose on both 
sides, obtuse and apiculate at the apex, narrowed at the base, few-veined, flat- 
margined, subcoriaceous; fruit borne at the end of the twigs, sessile, globose, about 
1.5 cm. in diameter, gray, somewhat roughened by large lenticels, tipped by the 
base of the calyx; seeds about 6 mm. long, flattened, ovate. [Randia Sagraeana 
of Cook & Collins, not Griseb.] 

Thickets and hills Ponce and Guanica, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

3. Randia formosa (Jacq.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 342. 1889. 

Musaenda formosa Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 
Randia Mussaendae DC. Prodr. 4: 388. 1830. 
Gardenia armata Sw. Prodr. 51. 1788. 

An unarmed shrub or small tree, the slender young twigs loosely pilose. 
Stipules ovate, short, acute; leaves thin, elliptic, 2-9 cm. long, glabrous above, 
sparingly pubescent beneath, short-petioled, the apex acute or obtuse, the base 
narrowed; flowers large, white, solitary at the end of short twigs; calyx strigose, 
its subulate lobes about 5 mm. long; corolla-tube cylindric, appressed-pubescent! 
5-7 cm. long, its spreading lobes ovate, acute, 2-2.5 cm. long; berry subglobose 
or ellipsoid, smooth, greenish white, 1.5-2.5 cm. long. 

Roadsides, St. Croix, escaped from cultivation; planted for ornament in Porto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands: — St. Vincent; Tobago; Trinidad; northern South America 
Jasmin de rosa. 

11. GARDENIA Ellis, Phil. Trans. 51: 935. 1761. 

Shrubs, rarely trees, with opposite or ternate leaves, and large axillary or 
terminal flowers. Calyx-limb usually persistent. Corolla salverform to cam- 
panulate, the tube usually long, the limb 5-9-lobed. Stamens 5-9, borne on the 
corolla-throat; filaments very short, or wanting. Anthers linear. Ovary 1- 



232 RUBIACEAE 

celled or imperfectly 2-celled; ovules many; style thick, entire or 2-lobed. Fruit 
coriaceous or fleshy, irregularly bursting, the seeds horizontal. [Commemorates 
Alexander Garden, 1730-1791, physician and botanist of Charleston, South 
Carolina.] Sixty species or more, natives of the Old World tropics, the following 
typical. 

1. Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Phil. Trans. 51: 935. 1761. 

Gardenia florida L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 305. 1762. 

A glabrous branching shrub, 0.5-2 m. high, the lower branches sometimes 
rooting. Leaves oblong to elliptic or obovate, subcoriaceous, 5-15 cm. long, 
short -petioled, acuminate or acute, the base narrowed; flowers solitary or few 
together, axillary or terminal, short-peduncled, fragrant; calyx-tube obconic, 
1-2 cm. long, the narrowly linear lobes about twice as long; corolla white, its 
cylindric tube about as long as the calyx-lobes, or shorter, its lobes obovate, 2-3 
cm. long; capsule oblong, ribbed, 1.5-2.5 cm. long. 

Occasionally escaped from cultivation in Porto Rico mountain gardens; commonly 
planted for ornament and for its fragrant, often double flowers in Porto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands. Native of China. Baron Eggers inadvertently recorded this as Taber- 
jwemontana capensis. Jasmin. Tulipa. Cape Jessamine. 

Gardenia latifolia Ait., an East Indian species, was listed by Krebs from 
St. Thomas in 1851, perhaps in cultivatioft. 

12. GENIPA L. Syst. ed. 10, 931. 1759. 

Trees, with large opposite leaves, intrapetiolar stipules, and large white or 
yellowish cymose flowers. Calyx-tube turbinate or campanulate, the persistent 
limb truncate or lobed. Corolla salverform, the limb with 5 or 6 spreading con- 
torted lobes. Stamens 5 or 6, borne near the top of the corolla-tube, the anthers 
sessile. Ovary 1-celled or 2-celled; ovules many; style short; stigma fusiform. 
Fruit subglobose, baccate. Seeds compressed, large, the testa fibrous. [Bra- 
zilian name.] A few species of tropical America, the following typical. 

l. Genipa americana L. Syst. ed. 10, 931. 1759. 

A tree, 6-14 m. high, the twigs stout, pilose or glabrous. Stipules acu- 
minate, glabrous, 8-12 mm. long; leaves obovate to oblong, glabrous or pubescent, 
subcoriaceous, 1-3.5 dm. long, the apex acute, obtuse or short-acuminate, the 
base narrowed, the stout petioles 1 cm. long or less; cymes short-peduncled; 
pedicels 4-10 mm. long; calyx glabrous or pilose, the tube 6-8 mm. long, about 
as long as the nearly truncate limb; corolla-tube 2-3 cm. long, the lobes obtuse, 
silky, as long as the tube; fruit 6-7 cm. in diameter. 

Woods and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist regions, ascending to higher elevations ; 
Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to Trinidad; continental 
tropical America. The wood, used for boxes, hoops, and in construction, is strong, tough 
and elastic, with specific gravity about 0.85. Jagua. Genipa. 

13. HAMELIA Jacq. Enum. 2, 16. 1760. 

Shrubs, or small trees, with opposite or verticillate, petioled leaves, narrow 
deciduous stipules, and red or yellow flowers secund on the branches of terminal 
compound cymes. Calyx-tube ovoid to turbinate, its 5 short lobes persistent. 
Corolla tubular, or narrowly campanulate, constricted at the base, the limb 5- 
lobed, the lobes short, imbricated. Stamens 5, borne near the base of the corolla; 



RUBIACEAE 233 

filaments short; anthers basifixed, linear, scarcely exserted, or included, the con- 
nective appendaged. Ovary 5-celled; style filiform; stigma narrowly fusiform; 
ovules numerous. Berry small, ovoid, 5-lobed, 5-celled. Seeds very small, 
angled. [In honor of H. L. Du Hamel de Monceau, 1700-1782, French botanist.] 
About 25 species of tropical and subtropical America; known as Balsamo. Type 
species: Ha?nelia erecta Jacq. 

Corolla crimson to orange, nearly tubular ; leaves puberulent or pubescent 

beneath, acute or short-acuminate. 1. H. erecta. 

Corolla yellow, funnelform-campanulate, leaves glabrous or nearly so, 

sharply acuminate. 2. H. axillaris. 

1. Hamelia erecta Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

Hamelia patens Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

A shrub, or small tree up to about 7 m. high, with slender branches, the 
twigs, leaves and inflorescence pubescent or puberulent. Leaves opposite, or 
verticillate in 3's to 5's, thin, elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 5-15 cm. long, acute or 
acuminate, mostly narrowed at the base, the slender petioles one-fourth to one- 
half as long as the blades ; stipules lance-subulate, 2-3 mm. long ; cymes 3-5-rayed ; 
flowers numerous, very short-pedicelled ; corolla crimson to scarlet, or orange, 
tubular, 12-20 mm. long, its lobes very short; berry dark red or purple, 5-6 mm. 
long, a little produced beyond the calyx. 

Woods, hillsides and thickets at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, mostly in 
moist districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas (according to Eggers): — Florida; West Indies; 
tropical continental America. Plants with densely pubescent foliage occur in the dry 
southwestern parts of Porto Rico. 

2. Hamelia axillaris Sw. Prodr. 46. 1788. 

Hamelia lutea de Rohr; Smith in Rees' Cyclop. 17: No. 4. 1811. 
Hamelia declinata Sesse & Mogino, Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 60. 1894. 

A shrub, often much branched and straggling, about 2 m. high, or lower, 
glabrous, or the young twigs and leaves puberulent, the branches slender. Leaves 
opposite, slender-petioled, nearly membranous, ovate to elliptic, 5-10 cm. long, 
acuminate, the base narrowed; stipules narrowly lanceolate, about 3 mm. long; 
cymes short-peduncled, several-many-flowered; flowers nearly sessile; corolla 
funnelform-campanulate, yellow, about 12 mm. long, its lobes much shorter 
than the tube ; berry ellipsoid to subglobose, black, about 8 mm. long. 

Wet woods, forests and ravines, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations, St. 
Croix; St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba; St. Kitts; Trinidad; continental 
tropical America. Balsamillo. 

14. CATESBAEA L. Sp. PL 109. 1753. 

Spinesoent shrubs or small trees, with terete twigs and small glabrous, often 
fascicled leaves, the small stipules deciduous. Flowers white, solitary and short- 
peduncled or sessile in the axils. Calyx sub-campanulate, with 4 narrow persist- 
ent teeth. Corolla funnelform or campanulate, its 4 lobes valvate. Stamens 4, 
borne near the base of the corolla. Ovary 2-celled; stigma 2-lobed. Ovules 
several or many. Fruit a berry. Seeds with fleshy endosperm. [In honor of 
Mark Catesby, 1679-1749, traveller and naturalist.] About 8 species, natives of 
Florida and the West Indies. Type species : Cateshaea spinosa L. 

Fruit black, 5-6 mm. in diameter. 1. C. melanocarpa. 

Fruit white, 2-4 mm. in diameter. 2. C. parviflora. 



234 RUBIACEAE 

1. Catesbaea melanocarpa Krug & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 427. 1899. 

A branching shrub 1-3 m. high, the slender twigs short-pilose when young, 
becoming glabrous. Spines acicular, borne at every internode, 1-2 cm. long; 
leaves obovate or suborbicular, 5-15 mm. long, the apex rounded or acute, the 
base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles very short; flowers subsessile; calyx-teeth 
linear-lanceolate; corolla about 8 mm. long; berry globose, black, 5-6 mm. in 
diameter. [C. parviflora of Vahl and of Eggers, not of Swartz; Scolosanthus 
versicolor of Bello, not of Vahl.] 

Thickets and hillsides, vicinity of Guanica and Montalva, Porto Rico; Fair Plaint 
St. Croix (according to Eggers): — Antigua; Guadeloupe. 

2. Catesbaea parviflora Sw. Prodr. 30. 1788. 

A much-branched shrub, 2 m. high or less, the branches long and slender, 
usually copiously armed with slender spines 5-20 mm. long, rather densely leafy. 
Leaves coriaceous, obovate to suborbicular or oblanceolate, 3-10 mm. long, 
rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base into short petioles; flowers sessile or 
nearly so; calyx-teeth subulate; corolla about 6 mm. long, its lobes obtuse; 
berry globose or ovoid, white, 2-4 mm. in diameter. 

Limestone hills near the coasts, southern districts from Ponce to Guanica, Porto 
Rico: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba. 

15. GUETTARDA L. Sp. PI. 991. 1753. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves and deciduous stipules, the axillary, 
cymose, or sometimes solitary flowers, perfect or polygamo-dioecious. Calyx with 
an ovoid or globose tube, the limb tubular, mostly truncate or irregularly toothed. 
Corolla salverform, the tube elongated, sometimes curved, the limb with 4-9, ob- 
tuse imbricated lobes. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, borne on the corolla- 
tube; filaments very short or none; anthers linear. Ovary 4-9-celled; ovules 1 
in each cavity, pendulous; style filiform; stigma capitate or 2-lobed. Fruit dru- 
paceous. [In honor of Jean Etienne Guettard, 1715-1786, French botanist.] 
Sixty species or more, mostly of tropical America. Type species: Guettarda 
speciosa L. 

Leaves obtuse or acute, not spinulose-tipped. 

Leaves scabrous above. 1. G. scabra. 

Leaves smooth above. 

Corolla-tube 12-15 mm. long. 

Leaves densely pubescent and strongly reticulate-veined 

beneath. 2. G. Krugii. 

Leaves nearly glabrous. 

Leaves chartaceous, reticulate-veined; petioles and 

peduncles pubescent. 3. G. ovali folia. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, scarcely reticulate-veined ; petioles 

and peduncles glabrous or puberulent. 4. G . laevis. 

Corolla-tube 6-10 mm. long. 

Leaves shining above, glabrous or sparingly pubescent; 

corolla-limb 5-6-lobed. 5. G. parviflora. 

Leaves dull, appressed-pubescent beneath; corolla-limb 

4-lobed. 6. G. elliptica. 

Leaves spinulose-tipped, 3 cm. long or less. 7. G. pungens. 

1. Guettarda scabra (L.) Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 2: 218. 1819. 

Matthiola scabra L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753. 

Guettarda rugosa Sw. Prodr. 59. 1788. 

A shrub or tree up to 10 m. high, the young twigs villous-tomentose. Leaves 
elliptic to ovate or obovate, coriaceous, 3-15 cm. long, obtuse or short-pointed 
and mucronate at the apex, subcordate or obtuse at the base, usually very rough 



RUBIACEAE 235 

(rarely becoming smooth) above, densely reticulate-veined and finely pubescent 
beneath, the stout pubescent petioles 0.5-2 cm. long; stipules triangular-lanceo- 
late, acute, 2-3 mm. long; peduncles few-flowered, 2-10 cm. long; calyx finely 
pubescent, about 3 mm. long; corolla 1.5-2 cm. long, appressed-pubescent, white, 
its oblong lobes much shorter than the tube; drupe globose, red, finely pubescent, 
4-6 mm. in diameter, the calyx-limb at length wholly deciduous; flowers 
fragrant. 

Woods, thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida; Bahamas; Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Anguilla; Grenada; Trinidad and Margarita; Central America. Recorded 
from Jamaica. Its wood is hard and dense, with a specific gravity of about 0.85. Palo 

DE CUCUBANO. VELVET-BERRY. 

2. Guettarda Krugii Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 431. 1899. 

A shrub, 1-4 m. high, sometimes becoming a tree up to 10 m. high, the twigs 
stout, the young ones densely tomentulose, the older gray and glabrous. 
Stipules ovate, obtuse or acutish, brownish-villous, deciduous; leaves ovate to 
suborbicular or elliptic-obovate, coriaceous, or those of shoots subchartaceous, 
obtuse, rounded or acutish at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, smooth 
and glabrous above, pubescent and reticulate- veined beneath, 3-11 cm. long, the 
villous and tomentulose petioles 6-15 mm. long; cymes 1-few-flowered in the 
upper axils; peduncles 1 cm. long or less; calyx brownish-villous, 5-6 mm. long, 
its limb irregularly subtruncate; corolla white, appressed-villous, about 1.5 cm. 
long, its lobes about one-fourth as long as the tube; fruit globose, densely to- 
mentulose, 9-20 mm. in diameter. 

Woods, hillsides and thickets at lower elevations near the coast, southwestern 
districts of Porto Rico : — Bahamas. 

3. Guettarda ovalifolia Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 432. 1899. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, the young twigs short-pilose. Stipules triangular, 
acuminate, densely pubescent, 3-4 mm. long; leaves broadly ovate to elliptic 
or obovate, chartaceous, 5-12 cm. long, strongly pinnately veined, reticulate- 
veined and glabrate above, short-pilose on the veins beneath, the apex rounded 
or obtuse, the base rounded or sometimes narrowed, the petioles 5-20 mm. long; 
peduncles slender, pubescent, shorter than the leaves, few-several-flowered; 
flowers sessile; calyx tomentulose, about 3.5 mm. long, its limb truncate; corolla 
white, densely retrorsely pubescent, about 15 mm. long, the nearly cylindric tube 
about twice as long as the 5 or 6 obovate lobes; ovary 4-6-celled; fruit oval to 
globose, tomentulose, 6-7 mm. long. 

Woods and thickets, mostly at higher elevations, central and western districts of 
Porto Rico: — Hispaniola. 

4. Guettarda laevis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 433. 1899. 

A tree, up to 20 m. high, the twigs appressed-pubescent when young, soon 
glabrous. Stipules triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-6 mm. long, densely 
puberulent; leaves broadly ovate to elliptic or obovate, subcoriaceous, 4-13 cm. 
long, strongly pinnately veined, minutely pubescent on the veins beneath, other- 
wise glabrous, the apex rounded, the base obtuse or narrowed, the stout petioles 
8-20 mm. long; peduncles about as long as the leaves or somewhat longer, pu- 
berulent, cymosely few-several-flowered; flowers nearly sessile; calyx about 5 mm. 
long, puberulent, its limb truncate; corolla white, 12-14 mm. long, densely re- 
trorsely pubescent, the nearly cylindric tube 2-3 times as long as the 5-7 obovate 
lobes; ovary 2-3-celled; fruit globose, 5-7 mm. in diameter. 

Woods and thickets at higher elevations in the western mountains of Porto Rico. 
Endemic. 



236 RUBIACEAE 

5. Guettarda parviflora Vahl, Eclog. 2: 26. 1798. 

Guettarda parvifolia Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 3: 1958. 1806. 
Myginda Bredemeyeri Schultes. Mant. 3: 349. 1827. 

A tree, 6-10 m. high, or sometimes shrubby, the young twigs pubescent. 
Leaves oblong to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, 2-6 cm. long, shining above, glabrous 
or sparingly pubescent beneath, the apex acute or obtuse, the base narrowed or 
rounded, the petioles 2-4 mm. long; stipules short, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
pubescent; peduncles slender, mostly shorter than the leaves, 1-3-flowered; 
bracts about one-half as long as the calyx or shorter; calyx about 3 mm. long, 
its limb subtruncate; corolla whitish or yellow, puberulent, about 10 mm. long, 
its tube subclavate, about 3 times as long as the 5 or 6 lobes; fruit globose, black, 
finely puberulent, 5-6 mm. in diameter. 

River-banks, thickets and hillsides at lower and middle elevations, southern districts 
of Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — St. Mar- 
tin to Trinidad; northern South America. Black-berry. 

6. Guettarda elliptica Sw. Prodr. 59. 1788. 

A shrub, or a tree up to 8 m. high, with slender branches, the young twigs 
loosely pubescent. Leaves chartaceous, elliptic to ovate-elliptic or elliptic- 
lanceolate, 2-7 cm. long, obtuse, acutish or apiculate at the apex, narrowed, 
obtuse, or (on young shoots) rarely stibcordate at the base, sparingly pubescent 
or glabrate above, finely appressed-silky beneath, the petioles 3-8 mm. long, or 
those of shoot-leaves longer; stipules lanceolate, 4-10 mm. long; peduncles 
slender, pubescent, shorter than the leaves, few-several-flowered; bracts lance- 
olate or oblong, shorter than the calyx; calyx about 2 mm. long, nearly truncate; 
corolla white or yellowish-white, about 6 mm. long, silky-pubescent, its 4 oblong 
lobes about one-fourth as long as the tube; fruit globose, red, turning black, 
6-8 mm. in diameter, the calyx-limb at length deciduous. 

Thickets and hillsides at low elevations southern and eastern districts of Porto Rico, 
mostly near the coast; Mona; Desecheo; Muertos; St. Thomas: — Florida; Bahamas; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

7. Guettarda pungens Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 434. 1899. 

A virgate shrub, 2-3 m. high, with slender branches, the young twigs pu- 
berulent, soon glabrous. Leaves small, ovate to elliptic, glabrous when mature, 
1-3 cm. long, rigid, coriaceous, the apex acute or acuminate, spinulose-tipped, the 
base obtuse or rounded, the petioles 1-4 mm. long; stipules triangular, acuminate, 
2-3 mm. long; flowers solitary in the axils, short-peduncled ; calyx-tube about 1.5 
mm. long, the limb with 2 short blunt teeth; corolla 10-15 mm. long, its cylindric 
tube retrorsely pubescent, about 3 times as long as the 5 or 6 obovate lobes; 
ovary 4-5-celled ; fruit globose, densely short-pilose, about 7 mm. in diameter. 

Serpentine slopes, Monte Alegrillo, near Maricao, Porto Rico: — Hispaniola. 

16. STENOSTOMUM Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 69. 1805. 

Mostly glabrous shrubs or trees, with opposite leaves and small sessile or 
short -pedicelled flowers secund on the branches of peduncled cymes, the stipules 
distinct, deciduous. Calyx-tube mostly ovoid, its 4-5-toothed or nearly truncate 
limb persistent. Corolla salverform or funnelform, its 4 or 5 lobes imbricated. 
Stamens 4 or 5, borne on the throat of the corolla; filaments mostly short; anthers 
linear. Ovary 2-6-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity; style slender; stigma capitate 
or lobed. Fruit a small 2-6-celled drupe. [Greek, narrow mouth.] About 15 
species, natives of the West Indies. Type species: Laugeria lucida Sw. The 
plants are known as Quina or Palo de quina in Porto Rico. 



RUBIACEAE 237 

Calyx subtruncate, or with 4 or 5 short and broad teeth. 

Leaves ovate to elliptic-obovate, mostly 2-3 times as long as wide. 
Leaves subcoriaceous, dull; corolla 8-10 mm. long. 

Leaves very short-pet ioled. 1. S.obtusifolium. 

Leaves manifestly petioled. 2. S. coriaceum. 

Leaves thin, shining above; corolla 4-5 mm. long. 3. S. lucidum. 

Leaves oblong to lanceolate, 3-5 times as long as wide. 4. S. Sintenisii. 

Calyx-teeth subulate, as long as the tube. 5. S. acutatum. 

1. Stenostomum obtusifolium (Urban) Britton & Wilson. 

Antirrhoea obtusifolia Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 435. 1899. 

A tree, 15 m. high, or lower, the twigs rather stout, glabrous. Leaves ovate, 
to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, subcoriaceous, 6-20 cm. long, pinnately veined, 
glabrous, dull, obtuse or bluntly short-acuminate, the base rounded, obtuse or 
subcordate, the stout petioles only 3-5 mm. long, or shorter; cyme-branches 
slender, several-many-flowered, 2-5 cm. long; flowers sessile; bractlets wanting; 
calyx about 1.5 mm. long, its 4 teeth short and broad; corolla greenish or purplish, 
about 10 mm. long, sparingly short-pilose, its rounded lobes about one-quarter 
as long as the tube; fruit narrowly oval, black, 10-13 mm. long, 2-celled. 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. 
The wood is reddish brown, hard, strong and heavy. Endemic. Tortuguillo. 

2. Stenostomum coriaceum (Vahl) Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 334. 1861. 

Laugeria coriacea Vahl, Eclog. 1: 26. 1796. 
Guettarda coriacea Pers. Syn. 1: 201. 1805.' 
Stenostomum dichotomum DC. Prodr. 4: 461. 1830. 
Petesia distachya Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 19. 1894. 
Antirrhoea coriacea Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 436. 1899. 

A tree, 8-20 m. high, the twigs and leaves glabrous. Stipules oblong, 5-8 
mm. long; leaves elliptic or ovate, subcoriaceous, 5-13 cm. long, pinnately veined, 
obtuse or bluntly short-acuminate, the base obtuse or narrowed, the petioles 
about 1 .5 cm. long or shorter ; cymes slender-peduncled, few-branched, the branches 
3-5 cm. long, several-many-flowered; flowers sessile, bractlets none; calyx about 
1.5 mm. long, with 4 very short teeth; corolla white, 8-9 mm. long, its 4 rounded 
lobes much shorter than the slender tube; drupe oblong or ellipsoid, 8-12 mm. 
long, 2-celled, black. [Exostema floribundum of Bello, not of Roemer and 
Schultes.] 

Woodlands, northern and northwestern districts of Porto Rico, at lower and middle 
elevations: — Jamaica; Montserrat ; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique; St. Vincent. 
The yellowish wood is heavy, hard and durable. Quina. Boje. 

3. Stenostomum lucidum (Sw.) Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 69. 1805. 

Laugeria lucida Sw. Prodr. 48. 1788. 

Antirrhoea lucida Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 2: 100. 1873. 

A smooth-barked tree, 5-13 m. high, or often a shrub, with slender spreading 
glabrous gray branches. Leaves elliptic or oblong, chartaceous, glabrous, 4-10 
cm. long, obtuse or acutish at the apex, obtuse or narrowed at the base, bright 
green, shining, pinnately veined, the petioles 4-10 mm. long; stipules narrowly 
lanceolate, puberulent, about 8 mm. long; inflorescence glabrous, shorter than or 
equalling the leaves, the branches of the cyme few, very slender; flowers sessile; 
calyx turbinate, 5-toothed, about 2.5 mm. long, the teeth rounded; corolla white, 
4-5 mm. long, with 5 rounded lobes; drupe oblong, red to black, 5-7 mm. long, 
crowned by the calyx-limb. 

Hillside, near Coamo Springs, 1913; Guayanilla, 1915; also recorded as Porto Rican 
by de Candolle and by Stahl: — Bahamas; Jamaica; Cute to St. Thomas; recorded 
south to Trinidad. 



238 KUBIACEAE 

4. Stenostomum Sintenisii (Urban) Britton & Wilson. 

Antirrhoea Sintenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 438. 1899. 

A tree up to 15 m. in height, the slender twigs glabrous. Leaves oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, glabrous, 5-12 cm. long, the midvein rather promi- 
nent, the lateral venation very obscure, the apex obtuse, rounded or acute, the 
base mostly narrowed, the petioles 4-10 mm. long, the upper surface shining: 
stipules ovate, 5-7 mm. long; cymes peduncled, several-flowered, their branches 
1.5-3 cm. long; flowers sessile; bractlets none; calyx about 1.5 mm. long, its limb 
with 4 short obtuse teeth; corolla cream-colored, about 6 mm. long, pubescent, 
its slender tube much longer than the 4 obovate lobes; fruit ellipsoid, 8-10 mm. 
long. 

Woods and thickets in wet districts of Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations 
The wood is yellowish. Endemic. 

5. Stenostomum acutatum DC. Prodr. 4: 460. 1830. 

Stenostomum viscosum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 334. 1861. 
Antirrhoea acutata Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 439. 1899. 
(?) A. acutata latifolia Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 

A somewhat viscid, branching shrub 0.4-3 m. high, or a small tree 4-8 m 
high, the finely pubescent twigs slender, short. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceo- 
late, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 2-6 cm. long, reticulate-veined, the apex acute, 
obtuse or rounded, the base narrowed, the pubescent petioles 2-5 mm. long; 
stipules triangular, acute or acuminate about as long as the petioles or shorter; 
peduncles few-flowered, mostly shorter than the leaves; calyx 1.5-2 mm. long, 
its subulate teeth about as long as the tube; corolla white, 12-15 mm. long, its 
elliptic or obovate rounded lobes much shorter than the slender tube; fruit 
ellipsoid, about 5 mm. long, 4-6-celled. 

Woods, cliffs and thickets near the coast, southwestern dry districts of Porto Rico ; 
Mona; Vieques; Muertos: — Guadeloupe; Curacao; Bonaire; Aruba. The variety lati- 
folia was based on a barren specimen with leaves rounded Or obtuse at both apex and 
base, collected by Sintenis near Guanica, Porto Rico; it is known to us only from the 
description. 

A fruiting specimen of a tree about 4 m. high, collected at Catano, Porto 
Rico, by Cook and Collins, Noy. 30, 1899 (No. 859) has leaves much like those 
of S. obtusifolium but with petioles up to 1 cm. long. 

17. LAUGERIA Vahl, Eclog. 1: 26. 1796. 

Resinous shrubs or small trees, with opposite coriaceous oblong or lanceolate 
leaves, sheathing connate stipules, and small bractless flowers, secund on the 
branches of axillary peduncled cymes. Calyx-tube short, the limb subtruncate. 
Corolla narrowly funnelform, its 4 or 5 lobes imbricated. Stamens 4 or 5, borne 
on the corolla-tube, the filaments filiform, the anthers linear. Ovary 4-5-celled 
ovules 1 in each cavity ; style rather thick ; stigma subcapitate, 4-5-lobed. Fruit 
a small oblong drupe. [Commemorates Albert Laugier, Austrian botanist] 
Two known species, the following typical, the other Bahamian and Cuban. 

1. Laugeria resinosa Vahl, Eclog. 1: 27. 1796. 

Stenostomum resinosum Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 334. 1861. 

Guettarda resinosa Pers. Syn. l: 201. 1805. . 

Antirrhoea resinosa Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 82. 1903. 

A shrub, 2-8 m. high, or a small tree 4-7 m. high, the twigs, leaves and in- 
florescence resinous- vise id. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 



RUBIACEAE 239 

short-petioled, rather bluntly acuminate, the base narrowed, the lateral venation 
not prominent; stipular sheath 3-4 mm. long, truncate, ciliate, persistent; pe- 
duncles shorter than the leaves; cymes mostly 2-branched, the usually short 
branches few-flowered; calyx 1.5-2 mm. long; corolla about 6 mm. long its lobes 
much shorter than the tube; drupe black, 5-6 mm. long. 

Woods and thickets in wet or moist parts of the central and western districts of 
Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations :— Montserrat and Guadeloupe to St. Vincent. 
Recorded from Trinidad. Aquilon. 

18. MACHAONIA H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 101. 1806. 

Shrubs or trees, often armed with slender spines, the leaves opposite, mostly 
small, entire, the small white flowers in terminal corymbose panicles. Calyx- 
tube turbinate or oblong, its 4 or 5 lobes persistent. Corolla funnelform, villous 
In the throat, the limb 4-lobed or 5-lobed. Stamens 4 or 5, borne on the corolla- 
throat. Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-celled; style filiform, its branches subspatulate ; 
ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous. Fruit turbinate or obovoid, dry, at length 
splitting into 2 segments. Seeds cylindric. [Commemorates Machaon, son of 
Aesculapius, physician at the siege of Troy.] About 20 species, natives of tropical 
America. Type species: Machaonia acuminata H. & B. 

1. Machaonia portoricensis Baill. Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 204. 1879. 

A shrub, or a small tree 4-6 m. high, much branched, the slender twigs 
puberulent or glabrous. Spines in pairs at most of the nodes, and terminating 
short twigs, acicular, 1—2.5 cm. long; leaves broadly ovate or suborbicular to 
elliptic, 7-16 mm. long, very short-petioled, the apex short-acuminate, acute, 
obtuse, or rarely emarginate, the base obtuse or narrowed; panicles short-pe- 
duncled, pubescent, 1-3 cm. broad, several-many-flowered; pedicels short; 
calyx-tube turbinate, pubescent, 2-2.5 mm. long, with narrowly lanceolate lobes; 
corolla 4-5 mm. long, its rounded lobes about one-half as long as the tube; fruit 
turbinate, pubescent, 4-5 mm. long, crowned by the calyx-lobes. 

Rocky hillsides, woods and thickets at lower elevations in the southwestern and 
western districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. Roseta. 

19. ERITHALIS P. Br. ; L. Syst. ed. 10. 930. 1759. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees, with broad, dark green, opposite petioled 
leaves, connate stipules, and small flowers in terminal or also axillary panicles. 
Calyx-tube globose to ovoid, the short limb truncate or 4-5-toothed. Corolla 
nearly rotate or salverform, its 5-10 narrow lobes valvate, recurved or spreading. 
Stamens 5-10, borne at the base of the corolla; filaments filiform; anthers basi- 
fixed, narrow. Ovary 5-10-celled; ovules solitary in each cavity, pendulous; 
style stout. Fruit a small, grooved drupe, containing 5-10 nutlets. [Greek, 
very green.] About 6 species, of the West Indies, Florida and Central America. 
Type species: Erithalis fruticosa L. 

Drupe depressed-globose. 1. E. fruticosa. 

Drupe obovoid. 2. E. revoluta. 

1. Erithalis fruticosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 930. 1759. 

Erithalis odorifera Jacct. Sel. PI. Am. 72. 1763. 

A shrub, 6 dm. to 4 m. high, or a tree up to 8 m. high, with terete branches. 
Leaves elliptic to oblong, obovate or suborbicular, subcoriaceous, dark green, 



240 RUBIACEAE 

shining, 4-15 cm. long, rounded or short-pointed at the apex, mostly narrowed 
at the base, the petioles 4-20 mm. long; stipules connate, mucronate, the sheath 
persistent, 1-2 mm. long; panicles peduncled, several-many-flowered; calyx 1-2 
mm. long, its limb repand-denticulate; corolla 4-10 mm. long, deeply 5-parted, 
its lobes linear-oblong; drupe globose or depressed-globose, 5-10-furrowed, 2-5 
mm. in diameter, black when mature. [Getula maritima of Bello.] 

Coastal woods and thickets and on hillsides near the coast, Porto Rico; Icacos; 
Culebra; Vieques; Mona; Muertos; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin 
Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; West Indies; Central America. Consists of many races, 
differing in size of the plant, leaves, fruit and flowers, and length of the calyx-limb. 
Jayajabico. Black Torch. 

2. Erithalis revoluta Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 379. 1903. 

A shrub, 3-4 m. high, the young twigs 4-sided. Stipules 1.5-2 mm. long. 
Leaves oblong-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, rigid, 3-5 cm. long, the 
apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the margins revolute, the petioles 
4-7 mm. long; peduncles axillary, corymbosely few-flowered, about as long as the 
leaves; calyx turbinate, the 5-toothed limb about as long as the tube, the teeth 
triangular; corolla 4 mm. long, its linear-lanceolate lobes obtuse; drupe obovoid, 
3.5-4 mm. long. 

Coastal woods, Cafia Gorda, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

20. CHIOCOCCA P. Br.; L. Syst. ed. 10. 917. 1759. 

Woody vines, or shrubs, with broad subcoriaceous opposite leaves, broad 
stipules, and small yellow or white flowers in axillary, simple or compound ra- 
cemes. Calyx-tube ovoid to turbinate, the limb 5-toothed, persistent. Corolla 
funnelform or narrowly campanulate, with 5 valvate reflexed or spreading lobes. 
Stamens 5, borne toward the base of the corolla-tube; filaments mostly pubescent, 
connate at the base; anthers linear, basifixed, not exserted. Ovary 2-celled, 
rarely 3-celled; style filiform; ovules solitary in each cavity, pendulous. Drupe 
flattened, leathery, white. Seed-coat membranous ; endosperm fleshy. [Greek, 
snow-berry.] About 10 species, natives of Florida, Bermuda and tropical 
America, the following typical. 

1. Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 94. 1893. 

Lonicera alba L. Sp. PI. 175. 1753. 
Chiococca racemosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 917. 1759. 

A glabrous shrub, 1-3' m. high, with slender spreading branches, or a vine 
5 m. long or more. Leaves elliptic, oblong, ovate or lanceolate, 2-8 cm. long, 
acute, acuminate or bluntish at the apex, narrowed at the base, the midvein 
prominent, the lateral veins few and obscure, the slender petioles 4-12 mm. long; 
racemes several-many-flowered, as long as the leaves, or longer, or shorter; 
corolla 5-lobed nearly to the middle, yellow, 6-9 mm. long; drupes bright white, 
orbicular, or becoming subglobose, 5-7 mm. broad. 

Woods and thickets, Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations in both dry and 
moist districts; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas: St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — 
Florida; West Indies, south to Trinidad; continental tropical America. Bejuco de 
berac. West Indian Snow-berry. 

21. CHIONE DC. Prodr. 4: 461. 1830. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, the leaves opposite, petioled, coriaceous, the 
stipules deciduous, the small flowers in terminal peduncled panicles. Calyx- 
tube obconic, the limb 5-toothed or 5-lobed, persistent. Corolla funnelform or 



RUBIACEAE 241 

funnelform-campanulate, the tube stout, the limb 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated. 
Stamens 5, borne near the base of the corolla-tube; filaments stout; anthers 
oblong, exserted. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous; style- 
branches obtuse. Drupe oblong, the pit bony, sulcate. Seeds elongated. 
[Greek, snow, referring to the white flowers.] Four or five species, natives of the 
West Indies, the following typical. 

1. Chione venosa (Sw.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 594. 1911. 

Jacquinia venosa Sw. Prodr. 47. 1788. 

Crusea glabra A. Rich. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 204. 1830. 

Chione glabra DC. Prodr. 4: 461. 1830. 

A tree 6-15 m. high. Leaves oblong to elliptic, faintly pinnately veined, 
4-12 cm. long, narrowed at both ends, the rather stout petioles 5-20 mm. long; 
peduncles about as long as the leaves or shorter; panicles 5-8 cm. broad, com- 
monly many-flowered; pedicels stout, 8-15 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long, 
its cup-like limb with 5 short teeth ; corolla white, about 5 mm. long, its rounded 
lobes about half as long as the tube; drupe 12-16 mm. long. 

Woods and hillsides in moist or wet districts of Porto Rico, ascending to higher 
elevations; St. Croix and St. Thomas (according to Eggers) ; Tortola: — Hispaniola; 
Montserrat to Tobago; British Guiana. Martin Avila. 

22. SCOLOSANTHUS Vahl, Eclog. 1:11. 1796. 

Shrubs, mostly spiny, with opposite coriaceous, short-petioled or sessile 
leaves, and sniall axillary, solitary or fascicled flowers. Calyx-limb 4-cleft, the 
lobes persistent. Corolla funnelform, the limb 4-lobed, the lobes short. Stamens 
4, borne on the corolla; filaments Aliform, connate and pilose at the base; anthers 
erect, included. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous; style slender, 
pilose; stigma notched or 2-lobed. Fruit a small compressed globose ellipsoid 
or oblong drupe containing 1 or 2 nutlets. [Greek, curved-flower.] About 6 
species, natives of the West Indies. Type species: Scolosanthus versicolor Vahl. 

Spines recurved, 2-3 cm. long; leaves 3-6 cm. long. 1. S. grandifolius. 

Spines straight, 1.5 cm. long or less; leaves only 6-8 mm. long. 2. S. versicolor. 

1. Scolosanthus grandifolius Krug & Urban; Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 442. 1899. 

A glabrous shrub, 1-2 m. high. Leaves oval to elliptic, shining, 3-6 cm. long, 
the apex obtuse or acutish, the base narrowed or obtuse, the petioles 3-8 mm. long; 
stipular sheath about 1 mm. long, truncate; spines mostly 3-forked from the base, 
stiff, recurved, 2-3 cm. long; flowers fascicled in the axils and on the spines, few 
or several together; pedicels 1-3 mm. long; calyx about 3 mm. long, its short 
lobes triangular, acute; corolla yellowish-white, 6-8 mm. long, its ovate-oblong 
lobes about one-half as long as the tube; fruit (immature) ellipsoid, 4 mm. long. 

Forests and slopes, at higher elevations in the western mountains of Porto Rico. 
This species was mentioned and illustrated, but not described, by Urban in Ber. Deutsch. 
Bot. Gesell. 15: 267, pi. 9, f. 23, in 1897. Endemic. Espuela de galan. 

2. Scolanthus versicolor Vahl, Eclog. 1: 11. 1796. 

Chomelia versicolor Spreng. Syst. 1: 410. 1825. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, the slender densely leafy twigs scabrous-puberulent. 
Leaves fascicled, obovate or orbicular-obovate, coriaceous, 6-8 mm. long, shining 
above, dull beneath, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base narrowed or cuneate, 
the petioles only about 0.5 mm. long; stipules minute; spines straight, mostly 



242 RUBIACEAE 

2-forked near or above the base, rarely 3-forked, 10-15 mm. long; flowers solitary 
in the axils or at the ends of the spines; calyx subcylindric, about 4 mm. long, its 
lobes much shorter than the tube; corolla 4-5 mm. long, violet or yellowish; fruit 
oblong, white, about 3 mm. long. 

Woods and thickets near the southern coast of Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda. Endemic. 

23. COFFEA L. Sp. PI. 172. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, with broad leaves, and white fragrant flowers clustered 
in the axils. Calyx-tube turbinate or oblong. Corolla funnelform or salverform, 
the 4 or 5 oblong lobes obtuse or spreading, contorted. Stamens 4 or 5, borne at 
the mouth of the corolla, the filaments very short, the anthers linear, twisted or 
curved after dehiscence. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity; style 2- 
branched. Berry oblong or globose, containing 2 hard convex nutlets. [Name 
from the Arabic] About 20 species, natives of the Old World, the following 
typical. 

l. Coffea arabica L. Sp. PI. 172. 1753. 

Glabrous, 1-7 m. high, the trunk slender, usually straight, the bark gray. 
Leaves elliptic to oblong, dark green, somewhat shining, pinnately veined, 7-15 
cm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed or obtuse at the base, the 
rather stout petioles about 1 cm. long or less; flowers several together in the axils, 
short-pedicelled ; calyx about 3 mm. long, nearly truncate; corolla-tube 6-10 mm. 
long, its lobes rather longer; anthers shorter than the corolla-lobes; berry oblong 
to globose, smooth, 10-16 mm. long. 

Hillsides, thickets and woodlands, spontaneous after cultivation, one of the most 
important crops of Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan. Widely cultivated and 
spontaneous in the West Indies. Native of tropical Africa. Its white wood is heavy, 
hard and tough, its flowers fragrant. Cafe. Coffee. 

Many kinds of Coffee of the Arabian the Liberian and the robustoid groups have, 
been experimentally grown in Porto Rico, especially at the Agricultural Experiment 
Station at Mayaguez, under the direction of Mr. T. B. McClelland, Horticulturist. 
This valuable collection was seen with high appreciation in March 1925, luxuriant in a 
shaded valley. Mr. McClelland has described, discussed and illustrated these coffee 
varieties in Bulletin No. 30 of the Mayaguez Station, published in 1924. 

The Porto Rico cafetals, mostly on lands between 250 and 650 m. elevation, serve 
as forests in retarding the washing of mountain-sides by rain. 

24. IXORA L. Sp. PI. 110. 1753. 
Shrubs or trees, with opposite or verticillate coriaceous or chartaceous 
leaves, the large flowers in terminal corymbs or in lateral clusters. Calyx-tube 
ovoid, the limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla salverform, the slender tube nearly cy- 
lindric, the spreading limb 4-5-lobed, the lobes contorted. Stamens 4 or 5, 
borne on the corolla-throat; filaments very short or wanting; anthers linear or 
oblong. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, borne on the septum; style 
filiform. Berry coriaceous or fleshy, containing 2 pyrenes. Seeds ascending 
[Malabar name.] Over 100 species of tropical regions. Type species: Ixora 
coccinea L. 

1. Ixora ferrea (Jacq.) Benth. Linnaea 23: 447. 1850. 

Sideroxyloid.es ferreum Jacq. Sel. PI. Am. 19. 1763. 

Siderodendrum triflorum Vahl, Eclog. 1: 10. 1796. 

Pavetta quinqueflora Sesse & Moe. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 18. 1894. 

A glabrous tree, .5-10 m. high, or often shrubby. Stipules triangular, subu- 
late-tipped, 5-7 mm. long; leaves oblong to elliptic, subcoriaceous, 8-20 cm. long 



RUBIACEAE 243 

faintly pinnately veined, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or 
obtuse, the stout petioles 6-15 mm. long; flowers few, in small sessile 3-forked 
clusters, axillary or at nodes below the leaves; pedicels short; calyx red, about 2 
mm. long, with 4 acute teeth; corolla white or reddish, its tube slender, 10-12 
mm. long, 3-4 times as long as the 4-lobed limb; berry globose, about 10 mm. in 
diameter. 

Forests and wooded hills, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to higher 
elevations; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Cuba; St. Kitts to Grenada; continental 
tropical America. The dark brown wood is very hard, heavv, strong and tough. Palo 
de dajao. Palo de hierro. 

Ixora COCCinea L. Cruz de Malta, Burning Love, East Indian, often 
planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a glabrous shrub, 
up to about 2-m. high, the leaves oblong to oblanceolate, sessile, often cordate, 
5-10 cm. long, the red or scarlet flowers commonly numerous in terminal corymbs, 
the slender corolla-tube about 5 cm. long, the widely spreading limb about 2 cm. 
broad, with 5 acute lobes. [/. Baudhuca Roxb.] 

Ixora Stricta Roxb., East Indian, recorded as formerly grown on St. Thomas, 
has oblong leaves 10-15 cm. long and terminal, densely many-flowered corymbs 
of orange or flame-colored flowers, the corolla-lobes obtuse. 

Ixora acuminata Roxb., Bola de Nieve, also East Indian, a tall shrub, 
occasional in Porto Rico gardens, has oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate leaves 
and large terminal corymbs of white flowers, the very slender corolla-tube much 
longer than the limb. 

Ixora lutea Hutchinson, of horticultural origin, with pale yellow flowers, 
was grown at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station, Porto Rico, in 1925. 

Ixora parviflora Vahl, of India, also grown at the Trujillo Station in 1925, 
has oblong or elliptic subsessile leaves 7-15 cm. long, the flowers white, odorous. 

25. STRUMPFIA Jacq. Enum. 8, 28. 1760. 

A low, much-branched shrub, with linear, revolute-margined, coriaceous, 
very short-petioled leaves, verticillate in 3's and crowded near the ends of the 
short-jointed branches, the small white flowers in short axillary racemes, the 
small stipules persistent. Calyx ovoid, the limb 5-cleft, the lobes persistent. 
Corolla deeply 5-cleft, the lobes lanceolate, imbricated, the tube very short. 
Stamens 5, borne at the base of the corolla-tube; filaments short, slightly united 
at the base; anthers narrowly oblong, connate. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each 
cavity, erect, anatropous; style pubescent; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a small 
fleshy drupe, containing 1 or 2 nutlets. Seed oblong; endosperm fleshy; embryo 
minute. [Named for Karl Strumpf.] A monotypic West Indian genus. 

1. Strumpfia maritima Jacq. Enum. 28. 1760. 

A shrub 2 m. high or less, the rather stout twigs densely pubescent or pu- 
berulent, scarred by the persistent stipule-bases. Leaves 1-2.5 cm. long, apicu- 
late, pubescent when young, the margins revolute so as to meet and cover the 
under surface; peduncles pubescent, 2-10 mm. long; calyx about 1 mm. long; 
calyx-lobes triangular-ovate, acute; corolla pubescent, 3-4 mm. long, its short 
tube campanulate, its lobes much longer than the tube; drupes white or red„ 
3-6 mm. in diameter. 

Coastal hills, rocks and thickets, southwestern districts of Porto Rico; Mona; 
Muertos: Vieques; Anegada; — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Anguilla to Guade- 
loupe; Bonaire; Curacao; Aruba; Yucatan. 



244 



RUBIACEAE 



26. PSYCHOTRIA L. Syst. ed. 10, 929. 1759. 

Shrubs or trees, rarely perennial herbs, with opposite or sometimes verticillate 
leaves, the stipules persistent or deciduous, the small flowers in terminal corymbs 
or panicles, rarely axillary. Calyx short, the limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla short, 
funnelform or subcampanulate, the limb 4-5-lobed, the lobes valvate. Stamens 
5, borne on the corolla-throat, the filaments mostly short, the anthers linear or 
oblong. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, erect, anatropous; stigma 
2-cleft. Fruit a globose to oblong drupe containing 2 or 3 pyrenes, smooth, angled 
or ribbed. [Greek, to give life, from supposed medicinal properties.] A very 
large genus, containing 500 species or more, natives of tropical and subtropical 
America, those of Porto Rico known as Palo moro. Type species: Psychotria asi- 
atica L., of Jamaica. The plants are sometimes called Wild Coffee, or Palo 

DE COCHIMBO. 



A. Parasitic on forest trees. 

B. Not parasitic. 

1. Herbaceous; scarcely woody; tall. 

2. Shrubs or trees. 

*Pyrenes smooth, ribbed or furrowed; fruit mostly longer 
than broad. 
tBractlets small, or minute, not longer than the calyx. 
JPyrenes at length separating from each other; 
fruit nearly smooth. 
JtPyrenes not separating. 

§Leaves oblong, small, 7 cm. long or less, 
their odor strongly offensive. 
§§Leaves larger, elliptic to obovate, not offensive 
in odor. 
Stipules not long-acuminate nor filiform- 
tipped. 
Stipules connate, tubular, at least below. 
Inflorescence sessile. 
Inflorescence peduncled. 

Fruit not coronate or scarcely 
coronate. 
Leaves acuminate ; pedicels 

slender. 
Leaves obtuse; pedicels stout. 
Fruit coronate by the calyx-tube. 
Stipules distinct ; inflorescence peduncled. 
Stipules long-acuminate or filiform-tipped, 
distinct. 
Stipules broadly ovate; fruit globose. 
Stipules lanceolate; fruit oblong. 
ttBractlets larger, longer than the calyx; fruit blue. 
Fruit oblong; bractlets ovate. 

Fruit depressed-globose; bractlets linear-lanceolate. 
**Pyrenes angled or crested; fruit subglobose or didymous, 
as broad as long or broader. 
Inflorescence pubescent or puberulent, many-flowered. 
Inflorescence corymbose-paniculate. 
Inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate. 
Inflorescence glabrous or nearly so, few-several- 
flowered. 



1. 



Grosourdyana. 
uliginosa. 



3. P. pinularis. 



4. P. maleolcns. 



5. 


P. 


undata. 


6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 


P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 


ligustrifolia. 
maricaensis . 
revoluta. 
Brownei. 


10. 
11. 


P. 
P. 


grandis. 
tenuifolia. 


12. 
13. 


P. 
P. 


brachiata. 
involucrata. 


14. 
15. 


P. 
P. 


pubescens. 
Berteriana. 


16. 


P. 


patens. 



1. Psychotria Grosourdyana (Baill.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 596. 1911. 

Loranthus portoricensis DC. Prodr. 4: 293. 1830. Not Psychotria por- 

toricensis DC. 
Phthirusa portoricensis Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 134. 1868. 
Uragoga Grosourdyana Baill. Adansonia 12: 227. 1879. 

Dendropemon portoricensis van Tiegh. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 41: 69. 1894. 
Psychotria pendula Grosourdyana Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 445. 1899. 

Glabrous, somewhat fleshy; stems pendent, slender, 3-7 dm. long. Leaves 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, acuminate, the base narrowed or 
obtuse, the petioles 2-4 mm. long; panicles small, purple, few-flowered, axillary 
and terminal, peduncled, shorter than the leaves; bracts linear-lanceolate, about 



RUBIACEAE 245 

1.5 mm. long; pedicels short; calyx purple, 1.5 mm. long, its lobes triangular, 
acute or acuminate; corolla white, about 3 mm. long; berry black, oval or obovoid, 
2-3 mm. long, containing 3 pyrenes. [ Uragoga portoricensis of Cook and Collins.] 
Lorayithus brasiliensis of Sprengel, not of Desvaux. 

Parasitic on trees in forests of Porto Rico at middle and higher elevations. En- 
demic. 

2. Psychotria uliginosa Sw. Prodr. 43. 1788. 

Psychotria laevis DC. Prodr. 4: 505. 1830. 

Cephaelis triplocephala Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 282. 1881. 

Herbaceous, glabrous, somewhat succulent, 0.6-2 m. high, the stem erect 
or ascending. Leaves elliptic to obovate, 1-2.5 dm. long, dark green above, pale 
beneath, the lateral veins distant, ascending, the apex abruptly acute or short- 
acuminate, the base narrowed or cuneate, the petioles 2-6 cm. long; stipules 
acute, the upper part deciduous, the lower part sheathing, persistent, panicles 
axillary, peduncled, the flowers glomerate at the ends of its few branches; calyx 
about 2 mm. long, its limb 5-toothed; corolla white or reddish, 2-3 mm. long; 
berry scarlet or crimson, ellipsoid, 6-8 mm. long, the pyrenes 3-crested. 

Woods and forests, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts ascending to higher elevations ; 
St. Croix (?): — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe and Dominica to Trinidad; 
recorded from Saba and St. Eustatius and from Central America and Guiana. Tres- 

CABEZAS. 

3. Psychotria pinularis Sesse & Mocino, Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 57. 1894. 

A shrub, sometimes vine-like, 1-5 m. high, irregularly widely branched, the 
twigs glabrous, slender. Leaves elliptic to obovate-elliptic, membranous, 4-9 
cm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the axils of the veins 
beneath with small tufts of hairs, the upper surface glabrous, the petioles 5-20 
mm. long; stipules short, apiculate; peduncles terminal, mostly shorter than the 
leaves; panicles few-several-flowered; bractlets small; pedicels short; calyx 3-4 
mm. long; corolla salverform, 4-5 mm. long, its lobes nearly half as long as the 
tube ; fruit subglobose, red, smooth, 4-6 mm. in diameter, the pyrenes at length 
separating. [P. horizontalis of Grisebach and of Bello, not of Swartz.] 

Thickets, arroyos and hillsides at lower and middle elevations in moist and dry parts 
of the eastern and central districts of Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. 
Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Martin; Grenada; Trinidad; Mar- 
garita; Guiana. 

4. Psychotria maleolens Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 444. 1899. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high or a tree, recorded as sometimes 10 m. in height, the 
foliage malodorous, the young twigs glabrous or minutely pilose. Stipules con- 
nate, deciduous, the sheath about 2 mm. long, the teeth about half as long, nearly 
subulate; leaves oblong to oblong-oblanceolate or linear-oblong, subchartaceous, 
3-7 cm. long, glabrous the apex acute or short-acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the petioles 3-7 mm. long; inflorescence terminal, short-peduncled, few-flowered, 
minutely pilose; bractlets small, triangular, apiculate; pedicels 2.5 mm. long or 
shorter; calyx about 1.5 mm. long, its small teeth triangular; corolla white, about 
6 mm. long, its lobes nearly as long as the tube; fruit oblong, red, 6-8 mm. long, 
10-ribbed. 

Forests at higher elevations in the eastern mountains of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

5. Psychotria undata Jacq. Hort. Schoen. 3: 5. 1798. 

Psychotria hirsuta Spreng. Syst. 1: 744. 1825. Not Sw. 1788. 
Psychotria oligotricha DC. Prodr. 4: 514. 1830. 
Psychotria portoricensis DC. Prodr. 4: 515. 1830. 

A shrub, 0.5-3 m. high, the twigs, leaves and inflorescence glabrous or pu- 
bescent. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, 6-12 cm. long, strongly 



246 RUBIACEAE 

pinnately veined, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, bright green 
above, pale green beneath; the slender petioles 15 mm. long or less, the stipules 
connate-sheathing, deciduous; panicles terminal, sessile, several-many-flowered; 
flowers sessile or very nearly so; calyx about 1 mm. long, its limb nearly truncate ; 
corolla white, about 4 mm. long, its lobes shorter than the tube; fruit red, ellip- 
soid, blunt, 5-7 mm. long; pyrenae grooved. [P. glabrata of Eggers, not of 
Swartz.] 

Thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in dry or moist 
districts; Mona; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Florida, 
West Indies south to Barbados. Central America. Recorded from Trinidad. In 
Porto Rico the pubescent plants of this species are mostly found in the dry southern 
districts. 

6. Psychotria ligustrifolia (Northrop) Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 172. 1906. 

Myrstiphyllum ligustrifolium Northrop, Mem. Torr. Club 12: 68. 1902. 
Psychotria bahamensis Millsp. ; Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 451. 1905. 
Psychotria Stahlii Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 598. 1911. 

A nearly glabrous shrub, rarely more than 2.5 m. high. Leaves thin, lan- 
ceolate to oblanceolate, slightly pilose beneath, especially along the midrib, 
acuminate at the apex, the base narrowed; stipules large, orbicular, sheathing, 
apiculate; inflorescence paniculate, peduncled, exceeded by the leaves; calyx 
with 5 short deltoid teeth; corolla about 5 mm. long, glabrous without, bearded 
in a ring at the insertions of the filaments within, its lobes elliptic, strongly de- 
flexed, nearly as long as the tube; fruit ellipsoid, red, about 5 mm. long; pyrenes 
plano-convex, grooved. [P. scandens of Bello, not of Hooker and Arnott, P. 
nutans of Stahl, not of Swartz.] 

Thickets and hillsides at lower and middle elevations, in moist parts of the northern 
and western districts of Porto Rico: — Florida; Bermuda; Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

7. Psychotria maricaensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 447. 1899. 

A glabrous shrub, with many terete branches. Stipules 7-10 mm. long, 
united below, membranous, deciduous. Leaves elliptic to obovate, 4-7 cm. long, 
subcoriaceous, obtuse, the base narrowed, the petioles 4-12 mm. long, the lateral 
veins delicate, distant; peduncles terminal, about as long as the leaves; panicles 
small, few-several-flowered, their branches stout; bractlets about 1 mm. long; 
flowers sessile; calyx about 3 mm. long, its teeth very short; fruit oval, about 
6 mm. long, the pyrenes 4-sulcate. 

Serpentine slopes in the western districts of Porto Rico at middle and higher eleva- 
tions. Endemic. 

8. Psychotria revoluta DC. Prodr. 4: 517. 1830. 

Psychotria Sintenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 448. 1899. 

A much branched shrub, 2-3 m. high, glabrous, or the twigs and inflorescence 
puberulent. Stipules 5-8 mm. long, tubular below, deciduous. Leaves oblong 
or elliptic, subcoriaceous, 4-7 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, 
the petioles 5-10 mm. long; peduncles terminal, slender, about as long as the 
leaves or shorter; panicles few-several-flowered; flowers sessile; bractlets tri- 
angular, short; calyx about 2 mm. long, its limb subtruncate : corolla 6-8 mm. 
long, villous in the throat, its oblong lobes shorter than the tube; fruit orange, 
about 5 mm. long, crowned by the persistent calyx-limb, the pyrenes 4-sulcate. 

Thickets and hillsides near the southwestern coast of Porto Rico : — Cuba ; Hispaniola. 

9. Psychotria Brownei Spreng. Syst. 1: 742. 1825. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree, 1-4 m. high, the twigs rather slender. Leaves 
elliptic or some of them elliptic-obovate, chartaceous, 6-15 cm. long, the lateral 



RUBIACEAE 247 

veins ascending, the apex acute, the base narrowed, the petioles 2 cm. long or 
shorter; stipules triangular-ovate, acute, distinct, 5-6 mm. long, deciduous; pe- 
duncles terminal and often lateral, shorter than the leaves; panicles corymbiform, 
often many-flowered, in fruit up to 9 cm. broad; pedicels short; fruit red, ellipsoid, 
4-5 mm. long, sulcate. [P. asiatica of West, not of Linnaeus; P. tenuifolia of 
Millspaugh, not of Swartz.] 

Thickets and hillsides, southern and western parts of Porto Rico, at lower and middle 
elevations; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Cuba; Antigua; recorded 
from Grenada; erroneously recorded from Jamaica. We have not seen the flowers of this 
plant. 

10. Psychotria grandis Sw. Prodr. 43. 1788. 

A tree, about 6 m. high or less, the wood soft. Stipules broadly ovate, 
subulate-tipped, 1.5-2 cm. long, distinct, deciduous; leaves obovate or broadly 
oblanceolate, chartaceous, glabrous, 1.5-3.5 dm. long, acute or acuminate, the 
base cuneate, decurrent on the short petiole; peduncles terminal, elongated, often 
as long as the leaves; panicles large, many-flowered, puberulent; bractlets small; 
flowers sessile or very short-pedicelled, clustered; calyx pubescent, about 1 mm. 
long, its limb minutely toothed; corolla about 4 mm. long; fruit globose, about 
5 mm. in diameter, sulcate. 

Forests and wooded hills, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts, ascending to higher 
elevations: — Cuba; Jamaica; Hispaniola; Central America. 

11. Psychotria tenuifolia Sw. Prodr. 43. 1788. 

A shrub, about 4 m. high or lower. Stipules lanceolate, distinct, 2-cleft, 
the lobes subulate-tipped, about 1 cm. long, deciduous. Leaves elliptic to nar- 
rowly elliptic, obovate, subchartaceous, glabrous, or puberulent on the veins 
beneath, 1-2.5 dm. long, the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or 
cuneate, the petioles 1-2 cm. long; panicles terminal, puberulent or glabrate, 
sessile or short-stalked, several-many-flowered, the clustered flowers very short- 
pedicelled; bractlets small; calyx 1.5-2 mm. long, 5-toothed; corolla about 3 mm. 
long, its lobes about as long as the tube; fruit oblong, sulcate, 6-7 mm. long. 

Forests at middle and higher elevations in the central mountains of Porto Rico; 
St. Croix (according to Eggers) ; St. Thomas: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Dominica to Grenada; 
Venezuela. 

12. Psychotria brachiata Sw. Prodr. 45. 1788. 

Psychotria neurotricha DC. Prodr. 4: 505. 1830. 

A shrub, 2-4 m. high, or a small tree 5-8 m. high (recorded as sometimes 15 
m.), the young twigs glabrous or sparingly pubescent. Stipules 5-7 mm. long, 
toothed or lacerate, united below, persistent. Leaves elliptic or elliptic-obovate, 
chartaceous, 0.8-2 dm. long, the apex mostly acuminate, the base narrowed or 
rarely obtuse, the petioles 6-20 mm. long; panicles terminal, peduncled or sessile, 
pubescent, mostly longer than broad, many-flowered, the flowers glomerate, 
sessile; bractlets ovate, 2-3 mm. long, somewhat longer than the calyx; corolla 
5-6 mm. long, white; fruit blue, ovoid-oblong, grooved, about 3 mm. long, 
crowned by the calyx-limb. 

Woods, thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist 
or wet districts: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad; Central America. 

13. Psychotria involucrata Sw. Prodr. 45. 1788. 

Psychotria tribracteata C. Wright; Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 137. 1866. 

A shrub, 0.5-2 m. high, the branches slender, glabrous. Stipules 2-cleft or 
2-parted, persistent, the narrow segments 3-4 mm. long. Leaves elliptic to ovate 



248 RUBIACEAE 

or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, shining, strongly veined, 4-12 cm. long, short- 
petioled, the ape*x acute or acuminate, the base narrowed or obtuse; peduncles 
terminal, short, pubescent, few-flowered; flowers sessile, involucrate by linear- 
lanceolate purplish bractlets 6-8 mm. long; calyx minutely 5-toothed; fruit blue, 
globose, about 4 mm. in diameter, the pyrenes crested. [? P. umbellata of Stahl, 
not of de Candolle.] 

Thicket near Bayamon, Porto Rico, collected only by Stahl: — Jamaica: Cuba; 
Trinidad; Guiana. The plant recorded by Stahl was known as Cachimbo verde. 

14. Psychotria pubescens Sw. Prodr. 44. 1788. 

A shrub, 3 m. high or less, rarely a small tree 5 m. high, the branches slender, 
sometimes constricted at the nodes, the twigs, leaves and inflorescence finely 
pubescent or puberulent, rarely glabrous. Leaves membranous, elliptic to 
oblong-lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 
prominently pinnately veined, the slender petioles 8-18 mm. long, the subulate 
geminate stipules united by their broad bases; panicles peduncled, usually many- 
flowered; pedicels very short; calyx about 1 mm. long, its teeth ovate; corolla 
yellow, whitish or pinkish, 4-5 mm. long, usually puberulent outside, pubescent 
in the throat, its oblong lobes shorter than the tube ; drupe subglobose, black, 3-4 
mm. in diameter, the pyrenes angled. [P. Berteriana of Bello, not of de Candolle.] 

Woods, thickets and hillsides at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; St. Thomas: 
— Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts; Central America. 

15. Psychotria Berteriana DC. Prodr. 4: 515. 1830. 

Psychotria platyphylla DC. loc. cit. 517. 1830. 

Psychotria platyphylla angustior Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 449. 1899. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, sometimes lower and shrubby, the twigs glabrous or 
puberulent. Leaves nearly membranous, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 0.5-2 dm. 
long, glabrous above, puberulent on the midvein beneath, the apex acute or 
acuminate, the base narrowed or rarely rounded, the petioles 1-5 cm. long; 
stipules 2-cleft, about 4 mm. long, the ovate lobes acute; panicles terminal, pe- 
duncled, pubescent, many-flowered, 8-15 cm. long, longer than broad; bractlets 
small; flowers short-pedicelled or sessile; calyx yellowish, about 1.5 mm. long, 
its teeth acute; corolla white, 4-5 mm. long, deeply lobed; fruit black when 
mature, subglobose, 4-5 mm. in diameter, the pyrenes crested. [P. pedunculata 
of Stahl, not of Swartz.] 

Forests and ravines, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations in wet or moist 
districts: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts and Montserrat to Trinidad; Colombia. 

16. Psychotria patens Sw. Prodr. 45. 1788. 

Psychotria flexuosa Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 966. 1798. 
Palicourea patens Urban, Repert. 18: 197. 1922. 

A glabrous slender shrub, 1-3 m. high. Stipules deeply 2-cleft, persistent, 
the linear-subulate lobes about 7 mm. long or shorter. Leaves ovate to elliptic 
or lanceolate, subchartaceous, 5-14 cm. long, acuminate, the base narrowed or 
obtuse, the petioles 3-10 mm. long; panicles terminal, slender-peduncled, few- 
several-flowered, their short branches divaricate; bractlets small or none; calyx 
about 1 mm. long, its lobes minute; corolla white, 5-8 mm. long, its tube slender, 
fruit didymous, blue or purplish, 3-5 mm. broad, the pyrenes angled. 

Mountain forests, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations in moist districts: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; continental tropical America. 

Psychotria laxa Sw., an unidentified species of Jamaica, was recorded by 
Krebs from St. Thomas, evidently in error. 



RUBIACEAE 249 

Psychotria nutans of Bello, not of Swartz, has not been referred to a 
known species by subsequent botanists. 

Psychotria myrstiphyllum Sw., recorded by Cook and Collins as occurring 
in the Sierra de las Piedras, Porto Rico, is an error in determination; the species 
is endemic in Jamaica. 

An exotic tree, about 5 m. high, apparently of this genus, was seen in the 
collection of the Experiment Station, Mayaguez, in 1923. It has oblong leaves 
8-13 cm. long, the apex acute, the base narrowed into a short petiole, the fruiting 
panicle about 3.5 cm. broad, the globose-pyriform fruits about 6 mm. in di- 
ameter. 

27. PALICOUREA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 172. 1775. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite leaves, the stipules connate below, mostly 
2-lobed or 2-parted, persistent or deciduous, the flowers in terminal panicles, 
sessile or short-pedicelled. Calyx turbinate or hemispheric, its limb 5-toothed or 
sometimes entire. Corolla elongated, its tube subcylindric or narrowly funnel- 
form, often gibbous at the base, its 5 lobes valvate, the throat often villous. 
Stamens 5, borne on the corolla-throat, the anthers mostly linear, obtuse. Ovary 
mostly 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, erect; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a small 
drupe, containing 2 angled or crested pyrenes. [Guiana name.] Perhaps 125 
species or more, natives of tropical America. Type species : Palicourea guianensis 
Aubl. 

Stipules deciduous; flowers in 3's on the panicle-branches; corolla 

white to pink. ' 1. P. domingensis. 

Stipules persistent; flowers not clustered in 3's. 

Corolla violet, rose, yellow or red; leaves slender-pet ioled. 

Corolla 15-20 mm. long, violet to rose or yellow or nearly 

white. 2. P. alpina. 

Corolla 8-12 mm. long, red or yellow. 

Inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate; corolla red. 

Corolla 8-10 mm. long; panicle compound. 3. P. crocea. 

Corolla about 6 mm. long; panicle nearly simple. 4. P. brevithyrsa. 

Inflorescence corymbose-paniculate; corolla yellow. 5. P. riparia. 

Corolla white; leaves large, short-petioled. 6. E. barbinervia. 

l. Palicourea domingensis (Jacq.) DC. Prodr. 4: 529. 1830. 

Psychotria domingensis Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

Psychotria Pavetta Sw. Prodr. 45. 1788. 

Pavetta pentandra Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 233. 1797. 

Psychotria Westii DC. Prodr. 4: 516. 1830. 

Palicourea Pavetta DC. Prodr. 4: 525. 1830. 

Psychotria pseudopavetta Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 281. 1881. 

Psychotria incurvata Sesse & Moc- Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 58. 1894. 

Palicourea Pavetta rosea Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 61. 1879. 

A glabrous shrub, 1-3 m. high, or a small tree, 4-5 in. high, the terete twigs 
sometimes constricted under the nodes. Stipules small, 2-lobed, deciduous; 
leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic or elliptic-obovate, membranous, 6-20 cm. long, 
the apex acute or acuminate, the base narrowed, the petioles 5-20 mm. long; 
panicles peduncled or sessile, corymbiform, 4-7 cm. broad, the flowers subsessile, 
mostly in 3's at the ends of the branches; calyx about 1.5 mm. long, sharply 
5-toothed; corolla white or pink, the slender tube somewhat expanded above, 
12-15 mm. long, the slightly unequal spreading lobes about 5 mm. long; fruit 
compressed-subglobose, black, 5-6 mm. long, the pyrenes 5-crested. 

Woods and thickets at lower and middle altitudes in wet or moist districts, Porto 
Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to 
Guadeloupe. Wild Cappel. 



250 RUBIACEAE 

2. Palicourea alpina (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 4: 528. 1830. 

Psychotria alpina Sw. Prodr. 44. 1788. 

A shrub, 1-3 m. high, or a tree 4-10 m. high, the twigs obtusely 4-angled, 
glabrous or sparingly pilose. Leaves oblong to elliptic, chartaceous, pilose on the 
veins beneath, or glabrate, the apex acuminate, the base narrowed, or sometimes 
obtuse, the petioles 6-16 mm. long; stipules sheathing, subulate-lobed, 6-8 mm. 
long, persistent; panicles many-flowered, mostly longer than thick, the branches 
yellow or orange-red; calyx about 3 mm. long, its lobes ovate to lanceolate; 
corolla glabrous or pubescent, violet-rose or yellow or nearly white, its tube nearly 
cylindric, gibbous at base, 15-20 mm. long, its limb 6-8 mm. broad; the lobes 
ovate; fruit compressed laterally, about 6 mm. long, ovate-elliptic, greenish- 
striped when young, black when mature, the pyrenes low-crested. 

Mountain forests at higher elevations, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
recorded from Dominica. 

3. Palicourea crocea (Sw.) R. & S. Syst. 5: 193. 1819. 

Psychotria crocea Sw. Prodr. 44. 1788. 
Palicourea coccinea DC. Prodr. 4: 529. 1830. 

A nearly glabrous shrub, 1-3 m. high, the slender twigs terete or subterete. 
Stipules short-sheathing, persistent, subulate-lobed, 3-5 mm. long; leaves ovate 
or elliptic, chartaceous, 6-20 cm. long, glabrous, or with few hairs in the axils of 
the veins beneath, and along the midvein, the apex acute or acuminate, the bass 
narrowed, the petioles 5-25 mm. long; panicles pyramidal, usually longer than 
thick, many-flowered, their branches and the pedicels yellow or orange; calyx 
yellowish, about 1 mm. long, its lobes short; corolla red, glabrous, 8-10 mm. 
long, its tube nearly cylindric, its ovate lobes short; fruit ovate, compressed, dark 
brown or black, 4-5 mm. long, the pyrenes crested. 

Woods, thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, in wet or moist districts at lower and 
middle elevations — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Dominica; Martinique; Grenada; 
Trinidad; South America. Cachimbo. 

4. Palicourea brevithyrsa Britton and Standley, spec. nov. 

A wand-like shrub, 5 m. high, the twigs angled, glabrous. Stipules sheath- 
ing, persistent, the lobes about 2 mm. long; leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 8-11 
cm. long, 2-3.5 cm. wide, pilose on the veins beneath, the slender petioles 1-1.5 
mm. long; panicle (immature), 4-5 cm. long, peduncled, the peduncle pubescent, 
the branches glabrous or nearly so; calyx 2 mm. high, glabrous, its lobes tri- 
angular, acute; young buds about 4 mm. long, pubescent. 

Mountain forest, Monte Cerrote, near Adjuntas, Porto Rico, (Britton and Brown, 
5Jf27, in flower March 15, 1915). Endemic. 

5. Palicourea riparia Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 224. 1841. 

A shrub, 1-4 m. high, or a small tree 5 or 6 m. high, glabrous or very nearly 
so, the leaves and stipules similar to those of Palicourea crocea, the leaves with 
small tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins beneath, 6-20 cm. long; panicles corym- 
biform, mostly about as broad as long or broader, many-flowered, their branches 
and the pedicels red; calyx red or greenish, about 1.5 mm. long; corolla yellow, 
glabrous, about 12 mm. long, its ovate lobes short; fruit broadly ovate, com- 
pressed, black, about 5 mm. long, the pyrenes crested. [Coussaria Froeiichia 
DC, not A. Rich.; Palicourea crocea DC, not R. & S.; Palicourea coccinea Bello, 
not DC] 

Woods, thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico in wet or moist districts, ascending to 
higher elevations; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; St. Kitts and Montserrat to Trinidad; 
South America. 



RUBIACEAE 251 

6. Palicourea barbinervia DC. Prodr. 4: 530. 1830. 

A shrub or small tree, 2-8 m. high, the twigs rather stout, glabrous. Stipules 
5-8 mm. long, broad, obtuse, 2-lobed, persistent; leaves elliptic, chartaceous, 
large, 1-2.5 dm. long, glabrous and shining above, the apex short-acuminate, 
the base mostly narrowed, the mid-vein pubescent beneath, the petioles 8-20 
mm. long; panicles large, many-flowered, 8-15 cm. long, longer than thick, their 
branches yellow or reddish ; calyx about 2 mm. long, its short lobes ovate ; corolla 
white, densely tomentulose, 8-10 mm. long, its lobes ovate, short; fruit ovate, 
about 3 mm. long, the pyrenes crested. 

Woodlands at lower and middle elevations in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad. Balsamo real. Tafetan. 

28. LASIANTHUS Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14: 125. 1823. 
Shrubs, with opposite petioled leaves, the small flowers fascicled in their 
axils, the stipules deciduous or persistent. Calyx-tube short, the limb 4-6- 
toothed, persistent. Corolla funnelform or salverform, its 4-6 spreading lobes 
valvate, its throat villous. Stamens 4-6, borne on the corolla-throat; filaments 
short; anthers linear or oblong. Ovary 4-9-celled; ovules 1 in-each cavity, erect, 
anatropous; style-branches 4-9, obtuse. Fruit a small drupe containing 4-9 
pyrenes. Seeds narrow, curved, the endosperm fleshy. [Greek, hairy flowers.] 
About 80 species or more, natives of tropical regions, mostly of the Old World. 
Type species: Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack. 

1. Lasianthus Moralesii (Griseb.) C. Wright; Sauvalle, Anales Acad. Habana 
6: 125. 1869. 

Sabicea Moralesii Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 124. 1866. 

A shrub, 1-4 m. high, the branches sometimes elongated and vine-like, 
pilose or glabrate. Leaves elliptic to obovate or lanceolate, 5-14 cm. long, rather 
strongly pinnately veined and reticulated, the apex acute or acuminate, the base 
narrowed or rounded, the petioles 5-15 mm. long; stipules lanceolate, strigose, 
about 5 mm. long; fascicles few-flowered; flowers sessile; calyx-teeth 4, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm. long; corolla white; drupe globose, about 10 mm. in 
diameter; white. [Included by Urban in L. lanceolatus (Griseb.) Urban, of 
Cuba.] 

Mountain forests of Porto Rico at middle and higher elevations. Cuba; (?) His- 
paniola. Mata de peo. 

29. GEOPHILA D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nep. 136. 1825. 
Creeping herbs, rooting at the nodes, with broad, long-petioled, cordate or 
reniform leaves, the small bracteolate flowers in slender-peduncled umbels. 
Calyx-limb 5-7-lobed, persistent, the lobes narrow. Corolla tubular-funnelform, 
its throat villous, its lobes valvate. Stamens borne on the corolla-tube ; filaments 
filiform; anthers narrow. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity, erect; style 
slender, its 2 short branches linear. Fruit a small fleshy drupe, containing 2 
plano-convex pyrenes: [Greek, ground- loving.] About a dozen tropical species 
the following typical. 

1. Geophila herbacea (Jacq.) Schuni. in E. & P. Nat. Pflf. 4 4 : 119. 1891. 

Psychotria herbacea Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

Cephaelis reniformis H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 3: 377. 1819. 

Geophila reniformis C. & S. Linnaea 4: 137. 1829. 

Mapouria herbacea Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 s : 427. 1881. 



252 RUBIACEAE 

Glabrous or more or less pubescent, the very slender stems 1-3 dm. long. 
Stipules short, broader than long; petioles 1-6 cm. long; leaf-blades broadly ovate 
or suborbicular, membranous, 2-6 cm. long, the apex obtuse, rounded or rarely 
acute, the base cordate; peduncles commonly longer than the petioles: umbels 
few-flowered; bractlets linear-lanceolate, about as long as the short pedicels or 
longer; calyx-lobes 2-2.5 mm. long; corolla small, white; drupe globose, scarlet, 
shining, 8-12 mm. in diameter. [G. cordata of Bello, not of Miquel.] 

Woodlands in wet or moist districts at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico, 
Vieques, St. Thomas, St. Jan: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe to St. Vincent 
and Trinidad; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Yerba de guava". 
Geofila. 

30. FARAMEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 102. 1775. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves, persistent or deciduous stipules, and 
rather small white flowers in terminal clusters. Calyx nearly truncate. Corolla 
funnelform, its 4 lobes obovate. Stamens 4, with linear anthers. Ovary 1- 
celled; ovule erect; style nearly filiform, its 2 branches short, narrow. Fruit 
coriaceous, 1-celled, 1 -seeded. Seed with a membranous testa, the embryo very 
small. [Guiana ivame.] About 75 species, natives of tropical America. Type 
species: Faramea corymbosa Aubl. 

1. Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 176. 1834. 

Ixora occidentalis L. Syst. ed. 10, 893. 1759. 

Coffea occidentalis Jacq. Enum. 16. 1760. 

Tetramerium odoratissimum Gaertn. f. Fr. & Sem. 3: 90. 1805. 

Faramea odoratissima DC. Prodr. 4: 496. 1830. 

A tree, 5-10 m. high, rarely higher, or often shrubby, glabrous throughout. 
Stipules 2-4 mm. long with a filiform dorsal appendage 3-5 mm. long; leaves 
oblong to elliptic, subcoriaceous, short-petioled 7-20 cm. long, abruptly acu- 
minate, the base narrowed or rounded; flowers few or several in loose peduncled 
compound corymbs; pedicels 5-20 mm. long; calyx obconic, about 3 mm. long; 
corolla nearly subulate in bud, its tube 8-10 mm. long, its linear lobes about as 
long; stamens included; fruit depressed-globose, 8-10 mm. in diameter, black. 

Forests in wet or moist districts of Porto Rico, ascending to higher elevations; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Jamaica: Cuba; 
Hispaniola; Saba to Trinidad; continental tropical America. Cafeillo. Palo de 
toro. 

31. MORINDA L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

Shrubs, vines or trees, with opposite or verticillate leaves, and small mostly 
perfect, white or red flowers in dense terminal or axillary capitate clusters. Calyx 
truncate or obscurely toothed. Corolla funnelform or salverform, its 4-7 lobes 
valvate. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, the short filaments adnate to the 
throat of the corolla. Ovary mostly 2-celled; styles connate; stigmas slender; 
ovules 1 in each cavity, ascending. Fruit a fleshy syncarp. [Latin, Indian Mul- 
berry.] Forty species or more, of tropical distribution. Type species: Morinda 
Roioc L. 

1. Morinda citrifolia L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

A small tree, about 6 m. high or less, or shrubby, the twigs glabrous. Leaves 
large, broadly ovate or elliptic, 1-3 dm. long, distantly pinnately veined, acute or 
short-acuminate, glabrous except for tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins be- 
neath, the base mostly narrowed, the stout petioles 1-2 cm. long; stipules broad, 



RUBIACEAE 253 

rounded, 1-2 cm. long; peduncles opposite the leaves or axillary, about as long 
as the petioles; flower-heads globose or oval, about 1.5 cm. thick; flowers white; 
corolla-tube about 6 mm. long; syncarp white, oval or globose, malodorous, 5-7 
cm. long. 

Coastal sands, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Croix; Tortola: — Cuba; 
Jamaica; Hispaniola; St. Kitts; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Barbados. Native of the 
East Indies. 

32. ERNODEA Sw. Prodr. 29. 1788. 

Glabrous or somewhat pubescent, low shrubs, the branches erect, decumbent 
or trailing, with opposite, linear to lanceolate, nearly sessile leaves, the stipules 
connate into a sheath; flowers small, solitary and sessile in the axils. Calyx- 
tube short, the limb 4-6-parted, the lobes triangular to linear or subulate, per- 
sistent. Corolla white to pink, the tube nearly cylindric, the 4-6 lobes narrow, 
revolute, valvate. Ovary 2-celled; style slender; stigma subcapitate; ovules 1 in 
each ovary-cavity. Drupe fleshy, grooved, containing 2 cartilaginous, 1-seeded 
pyrenes. [Greek, a shoot or off-shoot.] About six species, or more, of Florida 
and the West Indies. Type species: Emodea littoralis Sw. 

1. Ernodea littoralis Sw. Prodr. 29. 1788. 

A glabrous or glandular-puberulent shrub, 1-16 dm. high, erect, or nearly or 
quite prostrate, the branches 4-angled, usually densely leafy. Leaves 3-5- 
nerved, shining, somewhat fleshy, oblong, elliptic, linear-oblong or oblanceolate, 
2-3.5 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, entire or glandular-serrulate; stipules 1.5-2 mm. 
long; calyx- lobes linear-lanceolate, longer than the tube; corolla white or pink, its 
tube 1—1.5 cm. long; fruit subglobose, yellow, 4-6 mm. in diameter, about as long 
as or somewhat shorter than the calyx-lobes. 

Coastal sands and rocks, Porto Rico; Mona; Icacos; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; West Indies, south to 
Guadeloupe; Yucatan; Honduras. 

33. DIODIA L. Sp. PI. 104. 1753. 

Herbs or vines, with opposite, mostly sessile, entire leaves, the stipules sheath- 
ing, and small axillary white lilac or purple flowers. Calyx-tube obconic or obovoid, 
the limb 2-4-lobed (sometimes 1-6-lobed), often with minute teeth between the 
lobes. Corolla funnelform or salverform, mostly 4-lobed. Stamens usually 4, 
inserted on the throat of the corolla; fijaments slender; anthers versatile, oblong- 
linear, exserted. Ovary 2-celled (rarely 3-4-celled); ovules 1 in each cavity; 
style filiform, simple, or 2-cleft; stigmas 2. Fruit 2-celled, finally separating into 
2 indehiscent carpels. Seed oblong, convex on the back; endosperm horny; 
cotyledons foliaceous; embryo straight. [Greek, thoroughfare, where some 
species are frequently found.] About 25 species, mostly American. Type 
species: Diodia virginiana L. 

Diffusely branched or ascending ; leaves lanceolate, 6 mm. wide or less. 1 . D. rigida. 
Climbing or trailing; leaves 10-25 mm. wide. 

Rough-pubescent, tisually climbing; leaves acute or acuminate. 2. D. sarmentosa. 

Glabroxis, trailing on sand; leaves obtuse or acutish. 3. D. maritima. 

1. Diodia rigida C. & S. Linnaea 3: 341. 1828. 

Borreria arida DC. Prodr. 4: 549. 1830. 

Diodia polyseta DC. Prodr. 4: 563. 1830. 

Spermacoce ciliaris Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 24. 1894. 



254 RUBIACEAE 

Perennial, somewhat woody, branched from near the base, the branches 
quadrangular, prostrate or ascending, pubescent or glabrate, 2-7 dm. long or 
longer. Stipular sheath short, its bristles filiform, 4-6 mm. long; leaves sessile, 
lanceolate, scabrous, 1.5-3 cm. long, the lateral venation obsolete, the apex 
acuminate, aristulate; flowers mostly solitary in the axils, sessile; calyx-teeth 
linear, about 1 mm. long; corolla funnelform, 12-15 mm. long, white or rose, its 
lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute; fruit globose, glabrous or puberulent, 
about 2.5 mm. in diameter. [Referred by Sprengel to Bigelovia suaveolens 
(Meyer) Spreng.] 

Fields, banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower elevations,; St. Thomas: — Florida; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; recorded south to St. Vincent; Bonaire; Curacao; Aruba; continental 
tropical America. 

2. Diodia sarmentosa Sw. Prodr. 30. 1788. 

Perennial; stem vine-like, branched, usually climbing, sometimes prostrate, 
up to 3 m. long, 4-angled, pubescent. Bristles of the stipular sheath setaceous, 
4-6 mm. long; leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3-7 cm. long, scabrous above, 
strongly pinnately veined, short-pubescent beneath, the apex acute or acuminate, 
the base narrowed, the petioles about 3 mm. long or shorter; flowers few or some- 
times solitary in the axils; calyx-lobes lanceolate, about 1 mm. long; corolla 
white, about 3 mm. long; fruit ellipsoid or obo void-ellipsoid, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, 
puberulent when young, becoming smooth. 

Banks and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist districts; 
St. Thomas (according to Schlechtendal) : — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; 
Martinique; recorded from Trinidad; continental tropical America and Old World tropics. 

3. Diodia mautima Thonn.; Schum. & Thonn. Besk. Guin. PI. 75. 1827. 

Spermacoce commutata Schultes, Mant. 3: 208. 1827. 

Diodia nitens Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 283. 1881. 

Spermacoce repens Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 23. 1894. 

Perennial; stems prostrate, 4-angled, branched, glabrous, 3-15 dm. long- 
Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, pinnately veined, glabrous, 1.5-3 cm. long, 
acute or obtuse, nearly sessile, the base narrowed; bristles of the stipular sheath 
about 3 mm. long; flowers solitary and sessile in the axils; calyx- teeth 4, lanceolate 
about 2 mm. long; corolla white, 6-7 mm. long, its lobes triangular-ovate; fruit 
ellipsoid, 5-7 mm. long. [D. scandens of Stahl, not of Swartz.] 

Coastal sands, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Thomas: — Cuba; Hispaniola; Central 
America; Colombia; tropical Africa. 

34. HEMIDIODIA K. Schum. in Mart. PI. Bras. 6 6 : 29. 1888. 

A perennial, somewhat woody herb,' the stems erect or decumbent, some- 
times elongated, the lanceolate entire leaves petioled or nearly sessile, the stipular 
sheath adnate to the petiole, the small white or bluish flowers glomerate at the 
nodes. Calyx obconic, 4-lobed. Corolla funnelform, 4-lobed, the lobes valvate. 
Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity; style filiform, exserted; stigma capitate. 
Fruit dry, dicoccous, the cocci dehiscent on the inner side near the base. [Greek 
half- .Diodia.] A monotypic genus of tropical America. 

1. Hemidiodia ocimifolia (Willd.) K. Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 29. 1888. 

Spermacoce ocimifolia Willd.; R. & S. Syst. 3: 530. 1818. 
Spermacoce portoricensis Balb. ; DC. Prodr. 4: 552. 1830. 
Borreria allernans Bello, Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10: 283. 1881. 

Glabrous or somewhat puberulent; stem nearly terete, branched or nearly 
simple, 0.3-3 m. long, the branches somewhat 4-sided. Leaves lanceolate or 



RUBIACEAE 255 

oblong-lanceolate, thin, pinnately veined, 3-6 cm. long, the apex acute or acu- 
minate, the base narrowed, the petioles about 10 mm. long or shorter; glomerules 
few-several-flowered; calyx-lobes about 0.5 mm. long; corolla about 3 mm. long, 
its lobes narrowly triangular; cocci about 3 mm. long, puberulent. [Spermacoce 
assurgens of Sprengel, not of Ruiz & Pavon.] 

Fields, hillsides and thickets in moist districts of Porto Rico, ascending to higher 
elevations: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique; Grenada; 
Trinidad; continental tropical America. Poaya. 

35. BORRERIA Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 79. 1818. 
Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubby plants, with opposite entire leaves, 
the stipules sheathing, the flowers perfect, solitary in the axils or in axillary or 
terminal clusters. Calyx-tube obovoid or turbinate, the lobes persistent, some- 
times accompanied by small teeth. Corolla white, pink or blue, funnelform or 
salverform, the lobes 4, valvate, spreading. Stamens 4, adnate to the corolla- 
tube, sometimes up to its throat. Disk obsolete or cushion-like. Ovary 2- 
celled; styles wholly or partially united; ovules solitary in each cavity, amphi- 
tropous. Fruit leathery or crustaceous, the 2 carpels opening along their inner 
faces. [In honor of W. Borrer, British lichenologist.] About 90 species, natives 
of tropical and warm regions. Type species: Borreria suaveolens Meyer. 

Annuals or no. 1 perennial; stems spreading or ascending; calyx- 
lobes 4. 

Calyx-lobes ovate, much shorter than the capsule. 1. B. laevis. 

Calyx-lobes subulate, nearly as long as the capsule. 2. B. ocimoides. 

Perennial, erect, flowers in globose heads; calyx-lobes 2. 3. B. verticillata. 

1. Borreria laevis (Lam.) Griseb. FI. Br. W. I. 349. 1861. 

Spermacoce laevis Lam. Tabl. Encyl. 1: 273. 1791. 

Borreria Wydleriana DC. Prodr. 4: 545. 1830. 

(?)B. laevis Sintenisii Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 607. 1911. 

Annual or perennial, slightly pubescent, branched, the branches spreading 
or ascending, 1.5-3 dm. long, somewhat angled. Leaves oblong to elliptic- 
lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base 
into short petioles, pinnately veined; stipular sheath subtruncate, bearing several 
bristles 4-6 mm. long; flowers white, about 3 mm. wide, capitate-clustered in the 
axils; calyx-lobes 4, ovate, minute; fruit obovoid, about 2 mm. long; seeds oblong, 
striate. [B. parviflora of Bello, not of de Candolle.] 

Fields, banks and woodlands in moist districts of Porto Rico, ascending to higher 
elevations; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Bermuda; 
West Indies; continental tropical America. Yebba de garro. 

2. Borreria ocimoides (Burm. f.) DC. Prodr. 4: 544. 1830. 

Spermacoce ocimoides Burm. f. Fl. Ind. 34. 1768. 
Spermacoce prostrata Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 58. 1775. 
Spermacoce parviflora Hemsl. Bot. Biol. Mex. 2: 59. 1881. 

Annual, 6 dm. high or less, slender, erect or sometimes diffusely branched, 
glabrous, the stem and branches 4-angled. Leaves linear to oblong-elliptic, or 
the lower spatulate, 0.5-2.5 cm. long, 1-8 mm. wide, acute, short-petioled ; 
stipular sheath with setaceous teeth 2-3 mm. long; glomerules several-many- 
flowered, 6-8 mm. in diameter; calyx-lobes 4, subulate, about 0.7 mm. long; 
corolla white, a little shorter than the calyx-lobes, its lobes ovate; fruit ellipsoid 
to obovoid, pubescent, nearly 1 mm. long. 

Fields, banks and thickets in moist districts at lower and middle elevations, Porto 
Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; Bahamas; West Indies; con- 
tinental tropical America; Java. Botoncillo. 



256 RUBIACEAE 

3. Borreria verticillata (L.) Meyer, Prim. PI. Esseq. 83. 1818. 

Spermacoce verticillata L. Sp. PI. 102. 1753. 
Borreria stricta Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 83. 1818. 
Borreria stricta DC. Prodr. 4: 541. 1830. 

Perennial, shrubby, erect, branched, glabrous, 3-10 dm. high, the branches 
angled. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, nearly sessile, 2-5 cm. long, acute, 
■with tufts of somewhat smaller ones in their axils; teeth of the stipular sheath 
setaceous; glomerules terminal or also at one or two of the nodes, dense, globose, 
about 12 mm. in diameter, many-flowered; calyx-lobes 2, narrow, about 1 mm. 
long; corolla white, about 2 mm. long, its lobes ovate, acute; capsule subglobose, 
about 1 mm. in diameter, glabrous. [Borreria podocephala of Cook and Collins.] 

Fields, banks, hillsides and sand dunes at lower and middle elevations, Porto Rico; 
Icacos; Vieques; St. Croix (according to Eggers) ; St. Thomas: — Jamaica; Cuba; His- 
paniola; Guadeloupe; Trinidad; continental tropical America. Botox Blanco. 

Borreria spinosa (Sw.) DC, listed by Krebs from St. Thomas, is presum- 
ably an error in identification. 

Borreria densiflora DC, also recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, is a 
little known species of Jamaica. 

36. SPERMACOCE L. Sp. PI. 102. 1753. 

Herbs, with 4-sided stems, opposite leaves, the stipules sheathing, and small 

white flowers, in dense axillary and terminal clusters. Calyx-tube obovoid, or 

obconic, its limb 4-lobed. Corolla funnelform, 4-lobed. Stamens 4, inserted on 

the tube of the corolla. Ovary 2-celled; ovules 1 in each cavity; style slender; 

stigma capitate, or slightly 2-lobed. Capsule coriaceous, didymous, of 2 carpels, 

one dehiscent, the other usually indehiscent. Seeds oblong, convex on the back; 

endosperm horny; embryo central; cotyledons foliaceous. [Greek, seed-point, 

from the sharp calyx-lobes surmounting the carpels.] Two or three species, 

natives of America. Type species: Spermacoce tenuior L. 

Annual; capsule pubescent. 1. S. tenuior. 

Perennial; capsule glabrous. 2. S. riparia. 

1. Spermacoce tenuior L. Sp. PI. 102. 1753. 

Spermacoce tenuior angustifolia Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mils. 13: 62. 1879. 

Glabrous or nearly so, annual. Stems simple and erect or more or less dif- 
fusely branched from the base, the branches 1-3 dm. long; leaves linear, oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, acute or acuminate, narrowed into short petioles; 
calyx-lobes subulate or lanceolate-subulate; corolla white, twice or thrice as 
long as the calyx-lobes, its teeth broad, rounded, pubescent, the capsule about 2 
mm. long. 

Fields, banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Mona; 
Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; 
West Indies; continental tropical America. Iron Grass. 

2. Spermacoce riparia C & S. Linnaea 3: 355. 1828. 

Perennial, branched, glabrous, erect or ascending, 2-6 dm. high. Leaves 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 3-8 cm. long, acuminate, the base nar- 
rowed, the petioles about 8 mm. long or shorter; calyx-lobes ovate, acute; corolla 
little longer than the calyx-lobes; capsule glabrous, 1.5-2 mm. long. [S. glabra 
of Urban, not of Michaux.] 

Hacienda Carmelita, near Cabo Rojo, Porto Rico, collected only by Sintenis: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; continental tropical America. 



RUBIACEAE 257 

Spermacoce hispida L. [S. articularis L. f.], an Old World species, was 
recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, evidently in error. 

Spermacoce radicans Aubl., also listed by Krebs from St. Thomas, is an 
unidentified species of French Guiana. 

37. MITRACARPUS Zucc; Schultes, Mant. 3: 210. 1827. 

Annual or perennial herbs, or low shrubs, the stems and branches mostly 
4-angled, the leaves opposite, the stipular sheath with several bristles, the small 
white flowers densely capitate. Calyx-teeth 4 or 5, the lateral ones nearly sub- 
ulate, the others much smaller. Corolla salverform or funnelform, its 4 spreading 
lobes valvate. Stamens 4, the anthers oblong or linear. Ovary usually 2-celled ; 
ovules 1 in each cavity; style- branches narrow. Capsule didymous, thin-walled, 
circumscissile. Seeds globose or oblong. [Greek, referring to the circumscissile 
capsule.] Thirty species or more of tropical regions, mostly American. Type 
species: Mitracarpus scabrus Zucc. 

Shrubby, somewhat woody; leaves linear; perennials. 

Leaves glabrous. 1. M. portoricensis. 

Leaves densely scabrous. 2. M. Maxwelliae. 
Plants herbaceous; annuals. 

Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate. 3. M. polycladus. 

Leaves oblong to elliptic. 4. M. hirtus. 

1. Mitracarpus portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 609. 1911, 

M. frigidus portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 387. 1903. 

Shrubby, bushy-branched, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous, the slender branches 
4-striate or 4-angled. Leaves fascicled at the nodes, linear, dark green, acute, 
sessile, 3-6 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide; stipular sheath about 4 mm. long, its bristles 
about as long; heads dense, globose, terminal and sometimes also in the upper 
axils, many-flowered, 1-2 cm. in diameter; lateral sepals linear-lanceolate, 2-3 
mm. long; corolla bright white, about 5 mm. long, its ovate lobes shorter than the 
tube; capsule about 1 mm. long, circumscissile at about the middle. [Borreria 
podocephala of Stahl, not of de Candolle.] 

Fields, sandy plains and hillsides in moist parts of the northern and western districts 
of Porto Rico, a beautiful low shrub. Endemic. 

2. Mitracarpus Maxwelliae Britton & Wilson, sp. nov. 

Perennial ; stem minutely hispidulous, branched, 1-1.8 dm. high, the branches 
somewhat woody, striate and sharply 4-angled. Leaves linear or linear-lance- 
olate, densely scabrous, 1-3 cm. long, 2-5 mm. broad, sessile, acute at the apex; 
stipular sheath about 2 mm. long, the bristles a little longer; heads mostly 
terminal, dense, subglobose, 1-1.3 cm. in diameter; lateral sepals linear-lanceolate, 
2.5-3 mm. long, acuminate at the apex, hispidulous; corolla not seen; capsule 
about 1.5 mm. long, circumscissile at about the middle; seeds ellipsoid, 1.2 mm. 
long, 0.8 mm. broad, brownish black. 

Limestone hill, Salinas de Guanica, Porto Rico, (Britton & Boynton, 8319, March 8. 
1925.) Endemic. Named in honor of Mrs. French Maxwell, of Ensenada, expert 
gardener. 

3. Mitracarpus polycladus Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 389. 1903. 

Annual, erect, much branched from the base glabrous or nearly so about 
2.5 dm. high the slender branches 4-angled. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, 
sessile, sharply acute, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide; stipular sheath about 2 



258 RUBIACEAE 

mm. long, its bristles a little longer; heads terminal, subglobose, 7-12 mm. in 
diameter, densely many-flowered ; lateral sepals about 3 mm. long, linear-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, ciliolate; corolla about 5 mm. long, its lobes ovate; capsule about 
1.5 mm. long, circumscissile somewhat below the middle. 

Coastal rocky thicket, Cafio Gorda near Guanica, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

4. Mitracarpum hirtus (L.) DC. Prodr. 4: 572. 1830. 
Spermacoce hirta L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 148. 1762. 

Annual; stem pilose-pubescent, branched, 1.5-4 dm. high, the branches 4- 
angled. Leaves oblong to elliptic, scabrous, 2-5 cm. long, sessile or very short- 
petioled, the apex acute or obtuse, the base narrowed ; stipular sheath 2-3 mm. 
long, the bristles about as long; heads terminal and axillary, subglobose, many- 
flowered, 6-12 mm. in diameter; lateral sepals linear-lanceolate, about 2 mm. 
long; corolla about 2.5 mm. long; capsule shorter than the calyx, circumscissile 
near the middle. 

Grassy places, near Rio Piedras and Bayamon, Porto Rico, first detected by Professor 
E. E. Dale in 1923: — Jamaica; Cuba; St. Eustatius to Barbados; continental tropical 
America. 

Hoffmannia Ghiesbreghtii Hemsl., Mexican, occasionally planted for 
ornament in Porto Rico gardens, forms simple angled stems about 1 m. high, 
the large entire obovate-elliptic leaves finely variegated above, the small flowers 
borne on the stems below the leaves, sometimes down to the base. 

Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb.) Miquel, East Indian, was seen in the gar- 
den of Peter J. Kane, Rio Piedras in 1925 as a tree about 16 m. high with a trunk 
3 dm. in diameter; it had reached these dimensions in about six years from seed, 
a very rapid growth, but had not flowered; its leaves are broadly elliptic, 2-3 dm. 
long, acuminate, petioled; its orange flowers form dense heads 3-5 cm. in di- 
ameter, the fruits fleshy, confluent. We are indebted to Mr. J. H. Burkill, 
Director of the Singapore Botanic Garden, for the determination of this interesting 
tree. [Nauclea Cadamba Roxb.] 

Portlandia grandiflora L., Jamaican, planted for ornament on St. Thomas, 
and St. Croix, is a large shrub with ovate pointed shining short-petioled leaves 
8-15 cm. long, and showy white short-peduncled axillary flowers, the funnel form 
corolla 10-15 cm. long. It has been recorded as native in St. Thomas, but this 
is improbable. Seedlings were seen at the Trujillo Propagation Station in 1925. 

Vangueria madagascariensis Gmelin, Voa-vanga, of tropical Africa, oc- 
casionally planted for its fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a tall shrub 
with ovate or ovate-lanceolate short-petioled leaves and panicled axillary flowers, 
the globose fruit about 3 cm. in diameter. [Vavanga edulis Vahl; Vangueria 
edulis Vahl.] 

Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl., listed by Krebs as found in St. Thomas, 
prior to 1851 , is a tree of Trinidad and northern South America, It was recently 
introduced at the Agricultural Experiment Station, Mayaguez; it forms a small 
tree, with large obovate leaves, the small yellow flowers in nodding panicles, one 
of the calyx-lobes in each small cluster developed into a showy scarlet foliaceous 
appendix. [Calycophyllum coccineum DC] 

Mussaenda philippica A. Rich., of the Philippine Islands, in the collection 
at the Mayaguez Experiment Station, is a small tree, with thin elliptic petioled 
leaves, loosely corymbose yellow flowers about 3 cm. long, and large white elliptic 
petioled bracts. 



CAPRIFOLIACEAE 259 

Paederia erecta Roxb., a little known East Indian species, was listed by 
Krebs as found in St. Thomas prior to 1851. 

Anisomeris fasciculata (Sw.) Schum., of the island Grenada, was also re- 
corded from St. Thomas by Krebs, where it may perhaps have been planted. 
[Chomelia fasciculata Sw.] 

Coutarea coccinea Grosourdy, is unknown to botanists of the present 
time. 

Malanea macrophylla Bartl., included by Stahl in the Porto Rico flora 
inhabits the southern Lesser Antilles only. 

Family 2. CAPRIFOLIACEAE Vent. 

Honeysuckle Family. 

Shrubs, trees, vines, or perennial herbs, with opposite leaves and perfect, 
mostly cymose flowers. Stipules none, or sometimes present. Calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary, its limb 3-5-toothed or 3-5-lobed. Corolla gamo- 
petalous, the limb 5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped. Stamens 5 (rarely 4), 
inserted on the tube of the corolla and alternate with its lobes; anthers ver- 
satile. Ovary inferior, 1-6-celled; style slender; stigma capitate, or 2-5- 
lobed, the lobes stigmatic at the summit; ovules anatropous. Fruit a 1-6- 
celled berrj', drupe, or capsule. Seeds oblong, globose, or angular; seed- 
coat membranous or crustaceous, embryo usually small, placed near the 
hilum; radicle terete; cotyledons ovate. About 10 genera and 260 species, 
mostly of the northern hemisphere. 

1. SAMBUCUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 269. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees (or some species perennial herbs), with opposite pinnate 
leaves, serrate or laciniate leaflets, and small white or pinkish flowers in compound 
depressed or thyreoid cymes. Calyx-tube ovoid or turbinate, 3-5-toothed or 
3-5-lobed. Corolla rotate or slightly campanulate, regular, 3-5-lobed. Stamens 
5, inserted at the base of the corolla; filaments slender; anthers oblong. Ovary 
3-5-celled; style short, 3-parted; ovules 1 in each cavity, pendulous. Drupe 
small, berry-like, containing 3-5, 1-seeded nutlets. Endosperm fleshy; embryo 
nearly as long as the seed. [Latin name of the elder.J About 25 species, of wide 
geographic distribution. Type species: Sa??ibucus niger L. 

1. Sambucus Simpsoni Rehder, Trees & Shrubs 2: 187. 1911. 

S. intermedia insularis Schwerin, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 18: 38. 1909. 

A small tree 2-5 m. high, glabrous throughout, or the young leaves and 
inflorescence sparingly pubescent. Leaflets 3, 5 or 7, simple, or the lateral ones 
often 3-divided or 3-foliolate, 5-10 cm. long, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 
irregularly serrate, acute or acuminate; cymes decompound, many-flowered, 12 
cm. broad or less, peduncled, wider than long, [(?) S. nigra of Eggers, not of Lin- 
naeus; S. canadensis of Krebs, of Bello and of Stahl, not of Linnaeus.] 

Mountain sides at middle elevations, Porto Rico; planted in Porto Rico and Vir- 
gin Island gardens: — Florida to Louisiana; Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to St. Vincent; 
Central America. Repeated observations of this plant in the West Indies have failed 
to find it fruiting; Florida specimens have black globose fruit 5 mm. in diameter. Sauco. 
Elder. 

Lonicera japonica Thunb., Madre-selva, Japanese Honeysuckle, 
Asiatic, planted for ornament in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is a pu- 



260 VALERIANACEAE 

bescent, trailing or climbing vine, with opposite ovate short-petioled, entire 
leaves 2.5-7 cm. long, the flowers in short-peduncled pairs in the upper axils; 
the 2-lipped, pubescent corolla is white to pink or yellow, its slender tube about 
2 cm. long; the fruit is a black berry 6-8 mm. in diameter. 

Lonicera Caprifolium L., Italian Honeysuckle, European, recorded by 
Eggers as cultivated in the Virgin Islands, is a high-climbing, glabrous vine, the 
upper pairs of leaves connate-perfoliate, the glabrous, nearly white, 2-lipped 
flowers in sessile terminal capitate clusters, the berries red. 

Lonicera flava Sims, Yellow Honeysuckle, of the southeastern United 
States, was recorded by Krebs as grown in Sr. Thomas prior to 1851. 

Abelia grandiflora Rehder, of horticultural origin, was experimentally 
grown at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station, Porto Rico, in 1925. It is a 
shrub with ovate leaves 2-3 cm. long, the funnel-form pinkish white flowers 
about 2 cm. long. 

Order 8. VALERIANALES. 

Herbs, the corolla gamopetalous. Stamens mostly fewer than the corolla- 
lobes; anthers separate. Ovary inferior, 1-celled with 1 pendulous ovule, or 
3-celled with 2 of the cavities without ovules. 

Family 1. VALERIANACEAE Batsch. 

Valerian Family. 

Herbs, with opposite leaves, no stipules, and usually small flowers, in 
corymbed panicled or capitate cymes. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 
its limb inconspicuous or none in flower, often becoming prominent in fruit. 
Corolla epigynous, somewhat irregular, its tube narrowed, and sometimes 
gibbous or spurred at the base, its limb spreading, mostly 5-lobed. Stamens 
1-4, inserted on the corolla and alternate with its lobes. Ovary inferior, 
1-3-celled, one of the cavities containing a single anatropous ovule, the others 
empty. Fruit indehiscent, dry, containing a single suspended seed. Endo- 
sperm little or none; embryo straight; cotyledons oblong. About 9 genera 
and 275 species, of wide distribution. 

1. VALERIANA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 31. 1753. 

Perennial strong-smelling herbs, erect, or rarely climbing, the cymose flowers 
paniculate in our species. Calyx-limb of 5-15 plumose teeth, short and inrolled 
in flower, but elongated, rolled outward and conspicuous in fruit. Corolla funnel- 
form or tubular, usually more or less gibbous at the base, the limb nearly equally 
5-lobed. Stamens commonly 3. Style entire, or minutely 2-3-lobed at the 
summit. Fruit compressed, 1-nerved on the back, 3-nerved on the front. [Name 
Middle Latin, from valere, to be strong.] About 175 species, mostly in the north 
temperate zone and the Andes. Type species: Valeriana pyrenaica L. 

1. Valeriana scandens L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 47. 1762. 

Valeriana scandens ternata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 303. 1891. 

A slender glabrous branching herbaceous vine, up to 2 m. long or longer. 
Leaves ternately divided, or sometimes simple, slender-petioled, the segments 



CUCURBITACEAE 



261 



ovate, membranous, entire or repand, 2-6 cm. long, the apex acuminate, the base 
mostly rounded or subcordate; panicles axillary and terminal, usually many- 
flowered, long-peduncled, 4-10 cm. broad, their very slender branches flexuous; 
flowers white, sessile, very small, only about 1.5 mm. long; bractlets narrow, 1-2 
mm. long; fruit narrowly ovate, strongly nerved, about 3 mm. long. 



Thickets, forests and hillsides, 
parts of the central and western 
tropical America. 



Porto Rico, at middle or higher elevations in moist 
districts: — Florida; Cuba; Hispaniola; continental 



Order 9. CAMPANULALES. 

Herbs, rarely trees or shrubs, the corolla gamopetalous, or petals sometimes 
separate in Cucurbitaceae. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes (fewer in 
the Cucurbitaceae) ; anthers mostly united (except in Ambrosiaceae and 
many Cucurbitaceae). Ovary inferior. 

Flowers not in involucrate heads: juice mostly milky. 
Endosperm none: flowers regular, monoecious or dioe- 
cious; our species vines. 
Endosperm present, fleshy; flowers perfect, irregular. 
Stigma not indusiate. 
Flowers regular. 
Flowers irregular. 
Stigma indusiate. 
Flowers in involucrate heads. 

Flowers all expanded into rays (ligulate) ; juice milky. 
Flowers all tubular, or the outer expanded into rays; 
juice very rarely milky. 
Stamens distinct, or nearly so. 

Stamens united by their anthers into a tube around 
the style. 



Fam. 


1. 


Cucurbitaceae. 


Fam. 

Fam. 
Fam. 


2. 
3. 

4. 


Campanulaceae, 

lobeliaceae. 

goodeniaceae. 


Fam. 


5. 


ClCHORIACEAE. 


Fam. 


6. 


Ambrosiaceae. 


Fam. 


7. 


Carduaceae. 



Family 1. CUCURBITACEAE B. Juss. 

Gourd Family. 

Herbaceous vines, usually with tendrils. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
generally palmately lobed or dissected. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb usually 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated. 
Petals usually 5, inserted on the limb of the calyx, separate, or united into a 
gamopetalous corolla. Stamens mostly 3 (sometimes 1), 2 of them with 
2-celled anthers, the other with a 1-celled anther; filaments short, often 
monadelphous. Ovary 1-3-celled; style terminal, simple, or lobed; ovules 
anatropous. Fruit a pepo, indehiscent, or rarely dehiscent at the summit, 
or bursting irregularly; or sometimes dry and membranous. Seeds usually 
flat; endosperm none. About 90 genera and 700 species, mainly of tropical 



Ovules horizontal. 

1. Anther-sacs flexuous. 

a. Corolla 5-parted or of 5 separate petals. 

Staminate calyx-tube elongated. 
Staminate calyx-tube short. 

Stamens borne at the calyx-mouth. 
Stamens borne on the calyx-tube. 
Staminate flowers racemose. 
Staminate flowers fascicled or solitary. 

Anther-connective appendaged; tendrils simple. 
Anther-connective not appendaged; tendrils 
mostly 2-3-cleft. 

b. Corolla 5-lobed to about the middle. 
Filaments connate; stigma 3-lobed. 
Filaments distinct; stigmas 3-5, each 2-lobed. 

2. Anther-sacs not flexuous, straight or curved. 

Style-base surrounded by an annular disk. 
Style-base without a disk. 
Stamens 3. 



1. Cucurbita. 

2. Momordica. 

3. Luffa. 

4. Cucumis. 

5. Citrullus. 



Coccinia. 
Pepo. 



8. Melothria. 

9. Corallocarpus. 



. 



) 



262 CUCURBITACEAE 

Stamens 2. 10. Anguria. 
B. Ovules not horizontal. 

Ovules ascending; flowers monoecious or dioecious. 11. Cayaponia. 
Ovules pendulous. 

Ovary 1-celled; flowers monoecious. 12. Sechiu?7). 

Ovary 3-celled; flowers dioecious. 13. Fevillea. 

1. CUCURBITA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 1010. 1753. 
A long stout climbing annual vine, with broad orbicular angulate or lobed 
leaves, the large white monoecious flowers solitary. Staminate flowers long- 
peduncled, the nearly funnelform calyx 5-lobed, the corolla of 5 distinct obovate 
spreading petals, the 3 distinct stamens borne on the calyx-tube, the anther- 
sacs flexuous. Pistillate flowers peduncled, the calyx cup-shaped, 5-lobed, the 
corolla similar to that of the staminate flowers, the ovary ovoid to cylindric, the 
style short and thick, the 3 stigmas 2-lobed, the ovules horizontal. Fruit large, 
Indehiscent, the rind hard. Seeds white, obovate, margined. [Latin, name of 
the gourd. J A monotypic genus. 

1. Cucurbita Lagenaria L. Sp. PI. 1010. 1753. 

Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 3 1 ! 25. 1825. 
Lagenaria Lagenaria Cockerell, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 95. 1892. 

Stem up to 6 m. long or longer, angular, pubescent, at least when young. 
Leaf-blades finely short-pubescent, reniform-cordate, 0.8-4 dm. broad, irregularly 
denticulate, sometimes 3-lobed; petioles rather stout, about as long as the blades, 
or shorter, 2-glandular near or at the base of the blade ; peduncle of the staminate 
flower mostly short; petals crisped, 3-4 cm. long, pubescent near the base; 
staminate flowers with a pubescent calyx 2-3 cm. long, its lobes narrowly tri- 
angular, the filaments 3^4 mm. long, the anthers about 9 mm. long; pistillate 
flowers with a calyx-tube only about 3 mm. long, the 3 staminodia very small; 
fruit various in shape, whitish or yellowish, glabrous, 1-3 dm. long. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas ; Tortola : — Widely distributed for its fruit in the West Indies and continental 
tropical America. Native of the Old World tropics. Marimbo, Candungo amargo. 
Caracho. Gourd. 

2. MOMORDICA L. Sp. PI. 1009. 1753. 

Herbaceous, climbing or prostrate vines, with simple or forked tendrils, and 
dioecious or monoecious mostly yellow r flowers, the staminate solitary or clustered, 
the pistillate solitary. Staminate flowers with a 5-lobed calyx, a nearly rotate, 
5-parted corolla, and usually 3 stamens with short distinct filaments, borne at 
the calyx-mouth, the anther-sacs flexuous. Pistillate flowers with calyx and 
corolla like those of the staminate, a 1-celled ovary with 3-placentae, the nu- 
merous ovules horizontal, the style slender, the stigmas 3. Fruit ovoid to 
cylindric, 3-valved or indehiscent. [Latin, of uncertain application.] About 
25 species, of the Old World tropics. Type species: Momordica Bahamina L. 

1. Momordica Charantia L. Sp. PI. 1009. 1753. 

Momordica zeylanica Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 

Momordica Charantia abbreviata Ser. in DC. Prodr. 3: 311. 1828. 

Stem slender, more or less pubescent, 1-8 m. long, with simple filiform tendrils 
opposite the leaves. Leaves thin, reniform or suborbicular in outline, 4-12 cm. 
broad, deeply pedately 5-7-lobed, glabrate or pubescent, the lobes dentate, 
acute or obtuse, the slender petioles 3-6 cm. long; peduncles of the staminate 



CUCURBITACEAE 263 

flowers with an ovate entire cordate bract at or below the middle ; sepals oval or 
ovate, 3-4.5 mm. long; corolla-segments obtuse or emarginate, 1.5-2 cm. long, 
yellow; fruit yellow, tubercled, 2-12 cm. long; seeds flat, 12-16 mm. long. 

Fields, hedges, thickets and waste grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; Vieques; 
Culebra; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southern United States; West Indies; 
continental tropical America and Old World tropics. Immature fruits are sometimes 
eaten. Probably native of the Old World. Cundeamor. Wild Balsam Apple. 

Momordica Balsamina L., Balsam Apple, presumably of Old World 
origin, is occasionally cultivated in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands for its 
fruit. It is similar to the preceding species but the peduncle of the staminate 
flowers bears a suborbieular dentate bract at the apex and the fruit is orange-red, 
tuberculate-crested, 3-6 cm. long. 

Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng., East Indian, grown at the St. Croix 
Experiment Station in 1925, has 3-lobed leaves, a large yellowish white corolla 
7-10 cm. broad, the ovoid aculeate fruit 12-15 cm. long. 

3. LUFFA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 138. 1763. 

Annual climbing monoecious herbaceous vines, with broad leaves and 
branched tendrils, the staminate flowers racemose, the pistillate solitary. Stam- 
inate flowers with a 5-lobed calyx, 5 distinct petals and 3 (rarelv 4 or 5) distinct 
stamens borne on the calyx-tube, the anther sacs linear, flexuous. Pistillate 
flowers with calyx-lobes and corolla similar to those of the staminate, 3 (rarely 
4 or 5) staminodia, the ovary elongated, the numerous ovules horizontal, the 
style columnar, the stigma 3-lobed. Fruit dry, 3-celled, fibrous within, cylindric 
or oblong, operculate at the apex, many-seeded, the style persistent. [Name 
Arabic] About 6 species, of tropical regions. Type species: Momordica Luff a L. 

Ovary cylindric; fruit ribless; seeds smooth, winged. 1. L. cylindrica. 

Ovary claviform; fruit sharply 10-ribbed; seeds rugose, wingless. 2. L. acutangula. 

1. Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roemer, Syn. Pep. 63. 1846. 

(?) Momordica Luffa L. Sp. PI. 1009. 1753. 
Momordica cylindrica L. Sp. PI. 1009. 1753. 

Stem rather slender, glabrous, 5-angled, 4-6 m. long or longer. Leaf-blades 
orbicular- ovate in outline, cordate, up to 2.5 dm. broad, scabrate, dark green, 
lobed and sinuate-denticulate, the lobes triangular or triangular-lanceolate, acute, 
the basal sinus rounded; petioles 12 cm. long or shorter; peduncle of the stami- 
nate flowers 10-15 cm. long, the raceme 10-20-flowered, the pedicels about 2 cm. 
long or shorter, jointed near the apex; calyx short, broadly campanulate, its 
lanceolate lobes longer than the tube; petals bright yellow, oblong-cuneate, 
rounded, 2-3 cm. long; peduncle of the pistillate flower 2-10 cm. long; fruit 
cylindric or fusiform, ribless, 1-3 dm. long; seeds smooth, narrowly winged. 
[? M. operculata of "West; L. acutangula of Bello, not of Roxburgh.] 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation in Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — ■ 
widely distributed in the West Indies and continental tropical America. Native of the 
Old World tropics. Esponja. Sponge cucumber. Vegetable Sponge. 

2. Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. Hort. Beng. 70. 1814. 

Cucumis acutangula L. Sp. PI. 1011. 1753. 

Stem, leaves and flowers similar to those of the preceding species, the leaves 
paler green, the petals light yellow. Fruit claviform, 10-ribbed; seeds wingless. 

Occasionally spontaneous after ciiltivation in Porto Rico, erroneously recorded from 
St. Thomas: — widely distributed in tropical America. Native of the Old World tropics, 
loung fruits of this and of the preceding species are sometimes eaten. 



264 CUCURBITACEAE 

4. CUCUMIS L. Sp. PL 1011. 1753. 

Mostly prostrate monoecious scabrous or hispid vines, with lobed or angular 
leaves, simple tendrils and yellow fascicled or solitary flowers. Calyx-limb with 
5 subulate separated lobes. Corolla 5-partad, its segments acute. Staminate 
flowers usually fascfcled, with 3 distinct stamens borne on the calyx-tube, the 
linear anther-sacs flexuous, the connective with a 2-lobed appendage; pistillodium 
gland- like. Pistillate flowers usually solitary; staminodia 3; ovary globose or 
oblong; ovules many, horizontal; style short, not lobed. Fruit fleshy, small or 
large, smooth or roughened, mostly indehiscent. [Latin, cucumber.] About 
30 species, natives of tropical regions. Type species: Cucumis sativus L. 

1. Cucumis Anguria L. Sp. PI. 101 1. 1753. 

Annual, nearly prostrate, hispid, branched, rather slender, 0.5-2 m. long. 
Leaf-blades broadly ovate or suborbicular in outline, 5-10 cm. long, deeply 3- 
lobed or 5-lobed, scabrous, hispidulous on both sides, the base subtruncate, the 
middle lobe obovate, the lateral ones various, more or less oblique, the sinuses 
rounded; petioles slender, hispid, about as long as the blades or longer; staminate 
flowers fascicled or sometimes solitary, the pistillate solitary, long-peduncled ; 
calyx campanulate, about 6 mm. long, its teeth subulate; corolla about 10 mm. 
broad, its segments ovate; staminate flowers with glabrous stamens, the append- 
age of the connective dilated; staminodia of the pistillate flower Ungulate, 1-2 
mm. long; fruit ellipsoid, prickly, yellow, 4-7 cm. long. 

Fields, ba.nks, thickets and waste grounds, Porto Rico; Mona; Culebra; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Anegada: — Florida; Texas; West Indies (except 
Bahamas) ; continental tropical America. Concombro. Pepineto. Anguria. 

Cucumis Melo L., Melon, Mel6n, native of the Old World tropics, cul- 
tivated in several races for its fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is an 
annual hirsute vine, with broad lobed leaves, the corolla about 2 cm. long, the 
large fruit smooth, various in the many races, the seeds yellowish. 

Cucumis sativus L., Cucumber, Cohombro, supposed to be of East 
Indian origin, planted for its fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is hirsute, 
annual, with angularly lobed leaves, the corolla 2-3 cm. broad, the oblong fruit 
more or less tubercled or nearly smooth. 

5. CITRULLUS Forst, Fl. Aegypt, Arab. 167. 1775. 

Trailing vines, mostly annuals, with branched tendrils and deeply lobed or 
dissected leaves, the monoecious flowers mostly solitary. Calyx campanulate, 
5-lobed. Corolla 5-parted, its segments obtuse. Staminate flowers with 3 
stamens borne near the base of the calyx-tube, the short filaments distinct, the 
anther-sacs flexuous, the connective unappendaged. Pistillate flowers with 3 
short staminodia, the ovary ovoid, the many ovules horizontal, the style short, 
the stigmas reniform. Fruit oblong or globose, indehiscent, many-seeded. 
[Diminutive of Citrus.] A few species, natives of the Old World. Type species: 
Citrullus Battich Forst. 

1. Citrullus Citrullus (L.) Karst, Deutsche Fl. 8S9. 1882. 

Cucurbita Citrullus L. Sp. PL 1010. 1753. 
Cucumis Citrullus Ser. in DC. Prodr. 3: 301. 1828. 
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Linnaea 12: 412. 1838. 



CUCURBITACEAK 265 

Animal, prostrate, villous, 1-2 m. long. Leaf-blades ovate in outline, 
sparingly pubescent or glabrate, 7-20 cm. long, deeply pinnately lobed, or pin- 
natifid, the terminal lobe acute, the lateral ones rounded: petioles villous, mostly 
shorter than the blades; peduncle of the staminate flowers longer than the 
petioles; calyx villous, about 1 cm. long, its lobes lanceolate; corolla 2-3 cm. 
broad, its segments ovate-oblong, veiny ; staminate flower with glabrous filaments; 
staminodia of the pistillate flower 1-2 mm. long, villous at the base; fruit various, 
globose to ellipsoid, smooth, watery, sweet, in cultivated races very large. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation for its fruit in Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands. Widely cultivated in many races in temperate and tropical regions. Native 
of tropical Africa. Patilla. Sandia. Water Melon. 

6. COCCINIA W. & A. Prodr. Fl. Ind. l: 347. 1834. 
Mostly perennial dioecious vines, the leaves angulate or lobed, the tendrils 
simple or rarely 2-cleft, the large flowers white or yellowish. Calyx turbinate 
or campanulate, 5- lobed. Corolla campanulate, 5-lobed. Staminate flowers 
solitary or racemose; stamens 3, the filaments connate: the anther-sacs flexuous, 
coherent, the connective narrow. Pistillate flowers solitary ; staminodia 3 ; ovary 
oblong to linear; style slender; stigma 3-lobed; ovules many; horizontal. Fruit 
many-seeded, indehiscent. [Greek, scarlet.] About a dozen species, natives 
of the Old World tropics. Type species: Coccini'a indica W. & A. 

1. Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 529. 1881. 

Bryonia cordifolia L. Sp. PL 1012. 1753. 

Coccinia indica W. & A. Prodr. Fl. Ind. l: 347. 1834. 

A slender glabrous vine about 1 m. long or longer, climbing or sometimes 
prostrate. Leaf-blades orbiculate-ovate, cordate, 4-10 cm. long, angulately 
5-lobed, deep green above, paler beneath, 5-nerved; petioles 1-5 cm. long; calyx- 
tube campanulate, about 5 mm. long, its subulate reflexed lobes 3-4 mm. long; 
corolla about 3 cm. long, white, glabrous without, villous within; staminate 
flowers long-peduncled, with a glabrous stamen-column 2-3 mm. long, the co- 
herent anthers about 3 mm. long; pistillate flower short-peduncled, the staminodia 
subulate; fruit obovoid or oblong, scarlet, smooth, 4-5 cm. long; seeds short- 
papillose. 

Thickets and valleys, escaped from cultivation, St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Guatemala. 
Native of the Old World tropics. 

7. PEPO [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. ed. 4. 1754. 

Rough prostrate vines, rooting at the nodes, with bioad usually lobed 
leaves, branched tendrils and large yellow monoecious flowers, the staminate 
solitary or fascicled, the pistillate solitary. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed. Co- 
rolla campanulate, 5-lobed to about the middle. Staminate flowers with 3 
distinct stamens, the anther-sacs flexuous. Pistillate flowers with 3 triangular 
staminodia, the ovary oblong, the many ovules horizontal, the style short and thick, 
the 3-5 stigmas each 2-lobed. Fruit large, fleshy, indehiscent, the rind thick. 
[From the Greek name of some large fruit.] About 10 species, natives of America, 
Asia and Africa. Type species: Cucurbita Pepo L. 

1. Pepo moschata (Duch.) Britton, Mem. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 1: 96. 1918. 

Cucurbita moschata Duch.; Poir. Diet. Sci. Nat. 11: 234. 1818. 

Stem rather stout, about 2 m. long or longer. Leaf-blades reniform-orbicu- 
lar, 1-3 dm. broad, softly pubescent, often white-blotched, denticulate, some- 



266 CUCURBITACEAE 

times lobed; petioles about as long; as the blades or longer; calyx-tube short, its 
lobes 2-3 cm. long, often dilated above; corolla 6-8 cm. long; fruit various; 
seeds white. [Cucurbita Pepo of Stahl, of Eggers and of Cook and Collins, not 
of Linnaeus.] 

Spontaneous after cultivation, Porto Rico; St. Croix: St. Thomas: — Widely distrib- 
uted in tropical regions. Native of the Old World. Calabaza. Squash. 

Pepo ficifolia (Bouche) Britton [Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche], recorded by 
Millspaugh as escaped from cultivation on St. Croix, is a perennial Asiatic 
species, with suborbicular reniform 5-lobed leaves, the fruit 2-3 dm. thick, the 
seeds black. 

8. MELOTHRIA L. Sp. PI. 35. 1753. 

Slender vines, with simple or rarely bifid tendrils, thin leaves, and small 
white or yellow, monoecious flowers, the staminate clustered, the pistillate often 
solitary. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla campanulate, deeply 5- 
parted. Stamens 3 in the staminate flowers, the anthers distinct or slightly 
united, their sacs not flexuous, the pistil wanting or rudimentary. Fertile 
flowers with 1 pistil; ovary ovoid; placentae 3; ovules numerous, horizontal; the 
style short, its base with an annular disk; stigmas 3, linear. Fruit small, berry- 
like, pulpy. [From the Greek for some vine, probably Bryonia cretica.] About 60 
species, natives of warm and tropical regions. Type species : Melothria pendula L. 
The plants are known as Pepinillo in Porto Rico. 

1. Melothria guadalupensis (Spreng.) Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 580. 1881. 

Bryonia guadalupensis Spreng. Syst. 3: 15. 1826. 
Melothria fluminensis Gardn. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 1: 173. 1842. 
Melothria pendula Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 279. 1818. Not L. 1753. 
Melothria pervaga Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 289. 1860. 

A slender glabrous vine, sometimes 2 m. long, climbing by Aliform tendrils. 
Leaves various, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate in outline, 3-7 cm. long, scabrous, 
repand or 3-5-lobed with the middle lobe often longer than the lateral ones, 
acute or acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate at the base ; petioles slender, 1-4 
cm. long; staminate racemes few-flowered, peduncled; peduncle of the pistillate 
flower 2—4 cm. long; calyx-teeth subulate, minute; corolla short-villous, about 4 
mm. broad, its lobes obtuse; fruit ovoid, 1-1.5 cm. long, red or purple. [M. 
pendula of Krebs.] 

Thickets, at low elevations, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — 
West Indies; continental tropical America. 

9. CORALLOCARPUS Welw.; Hook, f.; Benth. & Hook. Gen. 

PI. l: 831. 1867. 

Scabrous or tomentose vines, prostrate or climbing, with broad, entire or 
lobed leaves, simple tendrils and the small monoecious flowers fascicled or the 
pistillate solitary. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed. Corolla 5-parted. Staminate 
flowers with 3 distinct stamens borne on the calyx-tube, the filaments short, the 
anther-sacs straight. Pistillate flowers with an ovoid beaked ovary, the few- 
ovules horizontal, the style straight, the stigma mostly 3-lobed; staminodia none. 
Fruit fleshy, ovoid or ellipsoid, operculate. [Greek, coral fruit.] About 15 
species, all but the following one natives of the Old World tropics. Type species: 
Aechmandra epigaea Arn. 



CUCURBITACEAE 267 

1. Corallocarpus emetocatharticus (Gros.) Cogn. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 30: 

279. 1891. 

Doyerea emctocathartica Gros. Med. Bot. Criollo 2: 338. 1864. 
Angaria glomerata Eggers, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 55. 1879. 
Corallocarpus glomerulus Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 658. 1881. 

Stem stout, fleshy, glabrous, up to 6 m. long, sometimes 2.5 cm. thick, 
bent at the nodes, the young branches short-tomentose. Leaf-blades suborbicular 
or broadly ovate, 5-10 cm. broad, denticulate, lobed or entire, green and spar- 
ingly pubescent, or glabrous above, pale and densely tomentulose beneath, the 
lobes obtuse; petioles 1-3 cm. long; flowers densely fascicled, pale yellow, sessile; 
calyx-tube only about 1 mm. long, the lobes triangular; corolla short-pilose, 2-3 
mm. long, its lobes ovate-oblong; fruit ovoid, 10-12 mm. long, several-seeded, 
yellowish, greenish-banded. 

Thickets at low elevations in the dry southern districts and at Cabeza San Juan, 
Porto Rico: Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas: — Guadeloupe; Trinidad; Mar- 
garita; Mexico to Venezuela. 

10. ANGURIA Jacq. Enum. 9, 31. 1760. 

Climbing vines, with slender simple tendrils, the leaves various, the dioecious 

or monoecious flowers mostly small, the staminate clustered at the end of a long 

peduncle, the calyx and corolla of staminate and pistillate flowers similar. Calyx 

with an elongated, more or less swollen tube and a 5-cleft or 5-toothed limb. 

Corolla deeply 5-parted, rotate. Staminate flowers with 2 included stamens, 

the filaments short, the anther-sacs straight, narrow, the connective appendaged. 

Pistillate flowers solitary or few, short-peduncled, with 2 staminodia, an ovoid 

ovary, a slender 2-cleft style, the stigmas 2-cleft, the ovules horizontal. Fruit 

many-seeded, ovoid or oblong. [Greek, similar to water melons.] Species 40 

or 50, all American, rare in Porto Rico. Type species: Anguriu pedata Jacq. 

Leaves 3-foliolate or 5-foliolate. 

Leaflets 3, entire or repand; flowers dioecious. 

Leaflets entire or remotely denticulate; fruit beaked, 3-4 cm. 

long. • 1. A. trifoliata. 

Leaflets sinuate-r"epand : fruit beakless, about 2 cm. long. 2. A. Cookiana. 

Leaflets 5, or 3, with the lateral ones deeply 2-lobed or sinuate; 

flowers monoecious. 3. A. pedatu. 

Leaves 3-7-lobed. 

Connective-appendage glabrous. 4. A. Ottoniana. 

Connective appendage villous or papillose. 5. A. trilobata. 

1. Anguria trifoliata L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 1376. 1763. 

Stems rather stout. Leaves trifoliolate ; petioles 1-4 cm. long; leaflets ovate 
or oblong-lanceolate, entire or remotely denticulate, glabrous, 5-10 cm long, 
the lateral ones very oblique, the apex mostly acute, the petiolules 4-10 mm. 
long; petioles 1—4 cm. long, glabrous or sparingly pubescent; flowers dioecious; 
peduncle of the staminate raceme glabrous, 15-25 cm. long, the raceme 16-20- 
flowered, the pedicels 5-25 mm long; calyx of the staminate flowers about 5 mm. 
long, the corolla-segments about 10 mm. long; pistillate flowers 2-4, on a pe- 
duncle 2-4 cm. long, the calyx cylindric, about 12 mm. long, the corolla-segments 
6-7 mm. long; fruit ovoid-oblong, 3^4 cm. long, smooth, short-beaked. 

Porto Rico, collected by Plee (according to Cogniaux): — Hispaniola. A little- 
known species. 

2. Anguria Cookiana Britton, sp. nov. 

(?) Anguriu Plumieriana trifoliolata Cogn. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 284. 
1886. 

Glabrous; dioecious (?) ; stem slender, elongated. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 8-10 cm. long, repand-sinuate and remotely 



26S CUCURBITACEAE 

denticulate, rather long-acuminate, the lateral ones very oblique, their flat 
petiolules about 5 mm. long; fruit ellipsoid, 2 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, beakless, 
its peduncle 2 cm. long. 

Peflon, Coamo Road (Cook and Collins 627); in fruit Nov. 20, 1899. Endemic. 

3. Anguria pedata (L.) Jacq. Enum. 31. 1760. 

Cucumis pedatus L. Syst. ed. 10, 1279. 1759. 

Anguria affinis Schl. Linnaea 24: 760. 1851. 

Anguria pedata affinis Cogn. Mem. Cour. Acad. Belg. 28: 10. 1877. 

A glabrous monoecious vine, trailing or climbing, 3 m. long or longer, the 
root elongated, the stem grooved, somewhat woody below. Leaves reniform- 
orbicular, usually divided into 3 or 5 short-stalked leaflets, the 2 lateral ones again 
2-3-divided, the segments lanceolate or oblong, acute or obtuse, few-toothed or 
entire; peduncle of the staminate raceme slender, about as long as the leaves; 
staminate racemes 5-16-flowered; pedicels 5-16 mm. long; calyx ovoid, .5-7 mm. 
long, its lobes ovate or lanceolate, acute, one-third to one-half as long as the tube; 
pistillate flowers solitary or in pairs, the peduncle short; petals orange, 1-1.5 cm. 
long; fruit ovoid, short-beaked, about 3 cm. long. 

Thickets in moist districts, Porto Rico: — Bahamas; Cuba; Hispaniola. 

4. Anguria Ottoniana Schl. Linnaea 24: 758. 1851. 

Apparently dioecious; stem slender, glabrous, up to 3 m. long or longer. 
Leaf-blades glabrous, suborbicular in outline or broader than long, 6-12 cm. 
wide, palmately 5-7-lobed, the lobes acute or obtuse, repand or entire, the base 
subcordate; raceme of staminate flowers slender-peduncled, the peduncle 8-16 
cm. long, 4-8-flowered, the pedicels 5-10 mm. long; calyx ovoid, about 8 mm. 
long, its triangular teeth acute; corolla-segments oblong, acute, 12-15 mm. long. 

Porto Rico, collected by Plee (according to Cogniaux): — Cuba; Tobago; Venezuela. 

5. Anguria trilobata (L.) Jacq. Enum. 31. 1760. 

Cucumis trilobatus L. Syst. ed. 10, 1279. 1759. 
Anguria Plumieriana Schl. Linnaea 24: 709. 1851. 

Stem slender, glabrous, elongated. Leaf-blades 8-20 cm. long, 3-lobed, the 
lobes ovate to lanceolate, entire, acuminate, glabrous on both sides or somewhat 
pubescent beneath ; petioles shorter than the blades ; peduncle of the staminate 
raceme 1-2 dm. long, that of the pistillate flowers 2-5 cm. long; staminate 
flowers 5-20, on pedicels 2-20 mm. long, the calyx subcylindric, 8-12 mm. long, 
with triangular teeth; corolla-segments villous or papillose, 1-2 cm. long; pistil- 
late flowers 1-3; the peduncle short; fruit oblong, 3-5 cm. long, short-beaked. 

Woodlands, thickets and river-banks in moist or wet districts, Porto Rico; St. Croix 
(according to Cogniaux): — Martinique; St. Vincent; Trinidad; Colombia.. 

11. CAYAPONIA Manso, Enum. Subst. Bras. 31. 1836. 

Climbing herbaceous vines, with entire toothed lobed or palmately divided 
leaves, simple or divided tendrils, and rather large, monoecious or dioecious, 
mostly panicled or racemose flowers. Calyx campanulate, its limb 5-cleft. 
Corolla 5-parted, rotate or subcampanulate. Staminate flowers with 3 distinct 
stamens, the anther-sacs flexuous, the rudimentary ovary 3-lobed. Pistillate 
flowers often Avith 3 rudimentary stamens; ovary 3-celled; ovules 1 or 2 in each 
cavity, ascending; style 3-cleft, the 3 stigmas dilated. Fruit rather small, slightly 
fleshy, mostly 3-seeded. [Brazilian name.] About 60 species of tropical and 



CUCURBITACEAE . 269 

subtropical America, one in tropical Africa. Type species: Cayaponia diffusa 
Manso. The vines are called Coloquintilla in Porto Rico. 

Calyx 3-4 mm. long, its teeth triangular; corolla-lobes 3-5 mm. long. 1. C. racemosa. 
Calyx 6-9 mm. long, its teeth lanceolate; corolla-lobes 12-15 mm. 

long. 2. C. amcricana. 

1. Cayaponia racemosa (Sw.) Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 768. 1881. 

Bryonia racemosa Sw. Prodr. 116. 1788. 
Cionandra racemosa Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 286. 1860. 
Trianospermum racemosum Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 112. 1866. 
Cayaponia racemosa subintegrifolia, laevis, Plumieri, and scabermma Cogn. 
in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 768, 769. 1881. 

A somewhat woody, often high-climbing vine, up to 7 m. long, the stem and 
branches glabrous. Leaves ovate-orbicular in outline, 6-13 cm. long, variously 
lobed, or the upper entire or nearly so, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate 
or subreniform at the base, scabrous above, puberulent or hispidulous beneath, 
the rather slender petioles 2-7 cm. long; floweis racemose or racemose-paniculate, 
distant; pedicels 3-6 mm. long; calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm. long, its teeth tri- 
angular-ovate, small; corolla about 1 cm. broad; fruit oblong, red, 1-2 cm. long. 

Thickets, woods and forests, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist 
and wet districts; Tortola: — Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Tobago; 
Trinidad ; continental tropical America. 

2. Cayaponia americana (Lam.) Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 785. 1881. 

Bryonia americana Lam. Encycl. 1: 498. 1785. 
Bryonia ficifolia Desc. Fl. Ant. 6: 39. 1828. Not Lam. 1785. 
Trianospermum graciliflorum Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 112. 1866. 
Trianosperma ficifolium Eggers Bull. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 55. 1879. 
Cionandra graciliflora Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 287. 1860. 

Cayaponia americana subintegrifolia, vulgaris and angusiiloba Cogn. in DC. 
Mon. Phan. 3: 786, 787. 1881. 

A long vine, glabrous, similar to C. racemosa, the leaves various, 3-5-lobed 
or nearly entire, the petioles 2-7 cm. long. Flowers few, clustered in short 
racemes or panicles, or sometimes solitary; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; calyx cam- 
panulate-cylindric. 6-9 mm. long, its teeth lanceolate, 2—1 mm. long; corolla 
2-3 cm. broad; fruit oblong to ellipsoid, 14-18 mm. long. 

Forests and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations in moist and wet 
districts; Vieques; Culebra; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — 
Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Barts to St. Vincent. 

12. SECHIUM P. Br.; Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 2: 1150. 1800. 

A high-climbing perennial hispid vine, with broad lobed or angulate leaves, 
branched tendrils and small monoecious white flowers, the staminate racemose, 
the pistillate solitary or 2 together. Calyx hemispheric, 5-lobed. Corolla 
rotate, 5-parted, the segments ovate-lanceolate. Staminate flowers with 3 
stamens, the short filaments connate, the anther-sacs flexuous. Pistillate flowers 
1 or 2, with an obovoid, 1-celled ovary containing a single pendulous ovule, the 
style short, the stigma 5-6-lobed. Fruit large, obovoid, sulcate, echinate or 
smooth, indehiscent, 1-seeded. [Similar to Sicyos.] A monotypic genus. 

1. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1150. 1800. 

Sicyos edulis Jacq. Enum. 32. 1760. 

Stem stout, up to 10 m. long or longer, the branches slender. Leaf-blades 
broadly ovate or suborbicular, 6-20 cm. long, angulate or lobed, scabrate, usually 



270 CAMPANULACEAE 

deeply cordate, with a narrow sinus; petioles 4-15 cm. long; staminate raceme 
long-peduncled, interrupted, the short-pedicelled flowers 2-6 together in distant 
fascicles; calyx with a very short tube, the narrow segments 5-7 mm. long; 
corolla about 15 mm. broad, its segments ovate-lanceolate; pistillate flowers 
without staminodia, the ovary usually setose; fruit green, 8-12 cm. long. 

Forests, wooded lulls and banks in wet or moist districts, Porto Rico, ascending to 
higher elevations, apparently indigenous; often cultivated for its edible fruit in Porto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands: — widely distributed after cultivation in the West Indies and 
tropical continental America. Chayotb. Chocho. 

13. FEVILLEA L. Sp. PI. 1013. 1753. 

Climbing vines, with membranous, angled or lobed leaves, 2-cleft tendrils 
and small panicled dioecious flowers. Calyx and corolla of the staminate and 
pistillate flowers similar, the calyx 5-lobed, the corolla divided into separate petals. 
Staminate flowers with 5 stamens, their anthers 1-celled, and 5 staminodes. 
Pistillate flowers with an oblong imperfectly 3-celIed ovary, 3 styles, and reni- 
form 2-lobed stigmas, the ovules pendulous. Fruit large, partly 3-celled. Seeds 
orbicular, flat. [Commemorates Louis Fevillier, 1660-1732, French botanist and 
traveller. j About 6 species, natives of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Fevillea cordifolia L. Sp. PL 1013. 1753. 

Fevillea hederacea Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 4: 419. 1797. 

Fevillea cordifolia hederacea Cogn. in DC. Mon. Phan. 3: 943. 1881. 

Stem rather stout, glabrous, with slender elongated branches. Leaf-blades 
broadly oval, suborbicular or ovate-oblong, glabrous, 8-16 cm. long, 5-uerved, 
entire or lobed, short-acuminate, the base subcordate; petioles rather stout, 
shorter than the blades; staminate panicles 1-6 dm. long, many-flowered; pedicels 
filiform, puberulent, 1-6 mm. long; calyx 2-3 mm. long, its ovate lobes rounded; 
petals yellow or brown, spreading, orbicular-ovate, 3-4 mm. long; staminodia 
somewhat longer than the radiating stamens, the apex obliquely dilated; fruit 
globose, green. 10-12 cm. in diameter. 

Thickets, forests and river-banks, Porto Rico, in moist parts of the central districts: — 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Trinidad (according to Cogniaux) ; continental tropical 
America. Pepita amarga. Secua. Uyama. 

Sicania odorifera (Veil.) Naud., Pepino, South American, frequently 
cultivated in Porto Rico for its fruit, is a long vine, bearing a hard, nearly cy- 
lindric yellow to purple fruit 3-4 dm. long and about 8 cm. thick which is pleas- 
antly fragrant. [Cucurbita odorifera Veil.] 

Trichosanthes tamnifolia Poir., recorded by Poiret as collected in Porto 
Rico by Riedle, many years ago, is not understood by modern botanists. [An- 
guina tamnifolia Kuntze.] 

Trichosanthes Anguina L., Snake Gourd, East Indian, occasionally 
grown in Porto Rico, is a long vine with 3-7 -lobed leaves, the staminate flowers 
racemose, the elongated twisted fruit about 1 m. long. 

Family 2. CAMPANULACEAE Juss. 

Bell-flower Family. 

Herbs (some tropical species shrubs or even trees), with alternate ex- 
stipulate simple leaves, acid and usually milky juice, and perfect flowers. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb mostly 5-lobed or 5-parted, the 



LOBELIACEAE . 271 

lobes equal or slightly unequal, valvate or imbricate in the bud, commonly 
persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, its limb 5-lobed, regular, or rarely divided 
into separate petals. Stamens 5, alternate with the corolla-lobes, inserted 
with the corolla; filaments separate or connate; anthers 2-celled, introrse, 
separate, or united into a ring or tube. Ovary 2-5-celled (rarely 6-10- 
celled), with the placentae projecting from the axis, or 1-celled with two 
parietal placentae; style simple; stigma mostly 2-5-lobed; ovules anatropous. 
Fruit a capsule. Seeds numerous, small; embryo minute, straight; endosperm 
fleshy. About 40 genera and 1000 species, of wide distribution. 

1. SPHENOCLEA Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 1: 113. 1788. 

An erect glabrous annual herb, with alternate entire short-petioled leaves, 
the small white flowers in dense elongated terminal peduncled spikes. Calyx 
hemispheric, the limb with 5 rounded imbricated lobes. Corolla campanulate, 
short. Stamens borne at the base of the corolla; anthers short. Ovary 2-celled, 
half-inferior; ovules many; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule depressed-globose, cir- 
cumscissile [Greek, a closed wedge]. A monotypic genus. 

1. Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. l: 113. 1788. 

Pongatium indicum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 444. 1791. 
Sphenoclea Pongatium DC. Prodr. 7: 548. 1839. 
Pongatium zeylanicum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 381. 1891. 

Stem 3-10 dm. high, rather stout, the branches slender, ascending. Leaves 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, thin, 4-12 cm. long, acute or obtuse, the 
base narrowed, the slender petioles 5-30 mm. long; spikes subcylindric, densely 
many- flowered, about 8 cm. long or shorter, in fruit nearly 1 cm. thick: flowers 
about 2 mm. broad: capsule about 2 mm. in diameter. 

Ditches and wet waste grounds, Porto Rico: — Louisiana; Trinidad; continental 
tropical America and Old World tropics. Campanilla. 

Family 3. LOBELIACEAE Dumort, 

Lobelia Family. 

Herbs, or in tropical regions rarely shrubs or trees, often with milky sap 
which contains a narcotic-acid poison, with alternate estipulate simple entire, 
toothed or pinnately parted leaves, and solitary spicate racemose or panicu- 
late flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb 5-lobed or 5-parted, 
the lobes equal or unequal. Corolla gamopetalous, irregular, often bilabiate, 
its tube often open on one side quite to the base, its limb 5-lobed; stamens 
5, inserted with the corolla; filaments sometimes cohering into a tube; 
anthers united. Ovary 2-5-celled; style single; stigma fringed; ovules 
numerous, sessile, horizontal, anatropous. Fruit a 1-5-celled capsule, or a 
berry. Seeds numerous, with a smooth or furrowed testa. Endosperm 
fleshy. About 20 genera and 600 species, of wide geographic distribution. 

Corolla-tube split to the base on the dorsal side; stamens free. 

Corolla 2-lipped. 1. Lobelia. 

Corolla not 2-lipped. 2. Tupa. 

Corolla-tube not split; stamens borne on it above the middle. 3. Isotoma. 

1. LOBELIA L. Sp. PI. 929. 1753. 

Herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and racemose spicate or paniculate 
flowers. Corolla-tube divided to the base on one side, 2-lipped, the lobe on each 



272 LOBELIACEAE 

side of the cleft erect or recurved, turned away from the other 3 which are some- 
what united. Stamens free from the corolla-tube, monadelphous, at least above, 
2 or all the 5 anthers with a tuft of hairs at the tips. Ovary 2-celled, the 2 pla- 
centae many-ovuled; stigma 2-lobed or 2-cleft. Capsule loculicidally 2-valved. 
[Named after Matthias de L'Obel, 1538-1616, a Flemish botanist.] About 
200 species of wide geographic distribution. Type species : Lobelia Dortmanna L. 

1. Lobelia Cliffortiana L. Sp. PI. 931. 1753. 

Dortmanna Cliffortiana Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 380. 1891. 

Annual, erect or nearly so, slender, usually branched, glabrous, or puberulent 
above, 2-5 dm. high. Leaves ovate or ovate-orbicular, thin, 1-2.5 cm. long, 
dentate, obtuse or acute, the base subcordate, rounded or narrowed, the petioles 
2 cm. long or shorter; racemes slender, several-many-flowered ; bractlets' Linear, 
shorter than the filiform pedicels; calyx turbinate-campanulate, 2-3 mm. long, 
its lobes linear, acuminate; corolla blue or white, about 4 mm. long; two of the 
anthers with tufts of hairs, the others naked; capsule about 5 mm. long. 

Moist banks, fields and in cultivated grounds at lower and middle elevations, Porto 
Rico: — Florida; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Martinique; Dominica; Trinidad; con- 
tinental tropical America. Cardenala azul. 

2. TUPA G. Don, Gen. Syst. 3: 700. 1834. 

Tall perennial herbs, or shrubs, the stems simple or branched, erect, the al- 
ternate leaves toothed or entire, the large flowers in terminal racemes. Corolla 
1-lipped, curved, the tube split to the base on one side, the lip 5-cleft. Stamens 
free from the corolla, connate ; all the anthers or only 2 of them with tufts of hairs 
at the apex. Ovary 2-celled; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 2-valved. [Chilean 
name.] About 30 species, of tropical America. Type species: Lobelia Tupa L. 

Leaves sessile, dentate, the lower teeth elongated, the narrowed base 

decurrent on the stem. 1. T. robusta. 

Leaves slender-petioled, evenly finely denticulate. 2. T. portoricensis. 

1. Tupa robusta (Graham) A. DC. Prodr. 7: 394. 1839. 

Lobelia robusta Graham, Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 11: 378. 1831. 
Tylomnium robustum Presl, Prodr. Lob. 32. 1836. 
Tupa assurgens portoricensis DC. Prodr. 7: 394. 1839. 
Dortmanna acuminata pubescens Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 379. 1891. 
Lobelia assurgens portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 454. 1899. 

Herbaceous; stem stout, about 2 m. high or less, glabrous or somewhat 
pubescent above. Leaves oblong to oblong-oblanceolate, thin, sessile, 1-3 dm. 
long, dentate or denticulate all around, the teeth of the lower part elongated and 
distant, the apex acuminate, the base attenuate and decurrent on the stem; 
racemes 1-2 dm. long, many-flowered, densely short-pubescent; pedicels secund, 
slender, 2-3 cm. long; bracts linear, about as long as the pedicels or shorter; 
calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate, 4-10 mm. long; corolla 
dull purple or reddish, about 15 mm. long; capsule subglobose, about 10 mm. in 
diameter. 

Wooded hills, banks and forests in moist or wet districts of Porto Rico, ascending 
to higher elevations; Cuba; Hispaniola. Chicoria cimarrona. 

2. Tupa portoricensis Vatke, Linnaea 38: 727. 1874. 

Lobelia portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 453. 1899. 

Somewhat woody, 1-8 m. high, the stem glabrous, or puberulent above. 
Leaves oblong to elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, membranous, glabrous, shining, 



GOODENIACEAE 273 

slender-petioled, 1-2.5 dm. long, finely denticulate, long-acuminate, the base 
cuneate; racemes puberulent, about 2 dm. long or shorter; bracts linear; pedicels 
2-3 cm. long, 2-bracteolate ; calyx-teeth linear-lanceolate, 7-10 mm. long; corolla 
greenish-red, about 2.5 cm. long; capsule globose-obovoid, 10-15 mm. long. 
[Tupa acuminata of Bello, not of de Candolle.] 

Mountain forests of Porto Rico at middle and higher elevations. Endemic. Tupa. 

TlBEY-TUPA. 

3. ISOTOMA Lindl. Bot, Reg. pi. 964. 1826. 

Herbs, with alternate leaves, the large flowers axillary or forming terminal 
racemes. Calyx with a 5-parted limb, the segments narrow. Corolla with a 
long cylindric tube and a 5-cleft spreading limb, the lobes slightly unequal. 
Stamens borne on the corolla-tube near the top or above the middle, the filaments 
more or less connate, 2 of the anthers tipped by a bristle, the other 3 larger, not 
tipped. Ovary 2-celled; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule oblong to cylindric, loculi- 
cidally 2-valved. [Greek, equally divided.] About 8 species, mostly Australa- 
sian, only the following one American. Type species: Isotoma axillaris Lindl. 

1. Isotoma longiflora (L.) Presl, Prodr. Lob. 42. 1836. 

Lobelia longiflora L. Sp. PI. 930. 1753. 

Perennial, pubescent, simple or little branched, erect or straggling, about 6 
dm. high or lower, the stem leafy. Leaves lanceolate to oblong or oblanceolate, 
flaccid, 6-12 cm. long, sessile, coarsely sinuate-dentate, acute or obtuse, the base 
long-tapering; flowers solitary in the axils, short-peduncled ; calyx-segments 
linear, 10-15 mm. long; corolla bright white, its slender tube 8-11 cm. long, its 
oblong-oblanceolate lobes about 2 cm. long; capsule ellipsoid, nodding, about 
1.5 cm. long. [Isotoma hirta of Krebs.) 

Banks, hillsides, fields and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, mostlv at lower ele- 
vations in wet or moist districts; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortbla: — Jamaica; 
Cuba; Hispaniola; Antigiia to Trinidad. Tibey. 

Family 4. GOODENIACEAE Dumort. 

Goodenia Family. 

Herbaceous or shrubby plants, with watery sap. Leaves alternate or 
sometimes opposite, without stipules, entire, toothed or rarely pinnatifid. 
Flowers perfect. Calyx 5-toothed, an entire border, or sometimes obsolete. 
Corolla 5-lobed, split on one side. Stamens 5, distinct, the anthers opening 
lengthwise. Ovary mostly inferior, 1-2-celled; styles usually united. 
Stigma surrounded with an indusium. Ovules 1 or 2, or more in each 
cavity, mostly erect or ascending. Fruit drupaceous, berry-like or capsular. 
Seeds usually one in each cavity; embryo straight in the axis of the fleshy 
endosperm. About 12 genera and over 200 species, mostly Australian. 

1. SCAEVOLA L. Mant. 2: 145. 1771. 

Fleshy stout herbs or shrubs with alternate or rarely opposite, mostly entire 
leaves, the flowers irregular, axillary, in dichotomous cymes or rarely solitary. 
Calyx 5-lobed, or a mere border. Corolla white or blue, its lobes winged, its 
tube split to the base on one side, villous within. Stamens epigynous. Ovary 
inferior or nearly so, 2-celled or rarely 1-celled; stigma surrounded by a ciliate 
indusium. Ovules 1 in each cavity, or 2 in 1-celled ovaries, erect. Berry with a 



274 CICHORIACEAE 

fleshy exocarp and a bony or woody endocarp. [Latin, referring to the irregular 
flowers.] About 50 species, mostly Australian, the following typical. 

1. Scaevola Plumierii (L.) Vahl, Symb. 2: 36. 1791. 

Lobelia Plumierii L. Sp. PI. 929. 1753. 
Scaevola Lobelia Murr. Syst. ed. 13, 178. 1774. 

Perennial, nearly glabrous, more or less shrubby, 6-15 dm. high, much 
branched and straggling. Leaves alternate, obovate, 4-6 cm. long, entire, 
shining, narrowed into very short winged pstioles, or nearly sessile, with a tuft 
of silky hairs in each axil; peduncles shorter than the leaves; calyx-lobes much 
broader than high, rounded; corolla glabrous without, about 2.5 cm. long, the 
tube shorter than the lobes, the lobes nearly linear, with broad crisped wings; 
stamens nearly as long as the corolla-tube, hanging through the cleft; berry oval, 
black, juicy, 2-seeded, 10-14 mm. long. 

Coastal sands and rocks, Porto Rico; Viecpies; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola; Virgin 
Gorda; Anegada: — Florida; Bermuda; West Indies; Mexico; Old World tropics. Bos- 

BORIN. INKBERRY. 

Family 5. CICHORIACEAE Reichenb. 

Chicory Family. 

Herbs (two Pacific Island genera trees), almost always with milky, acrid 
or bitter juice, alternate or basal leaves, and yellow, rarely pink, blue, 
purple, or white flowers in involucrate heads (anthodia). Bracts of the 
involucre in 1 to several series. Receptacle of the head flat or flatfish, 
naked, scaly (paleaceous), smooth, pitted, or honeycombed. Flowers all 
alike (heads homogamous), perfect, Calyx-tube completely adnate to the 
ovary, its limb (pappus) of scales, or simple or plumose bristles, or both, or 
wanting. Corolla gamopetalous, with a short or long tube, and a strap- 
shaped (ligulate) usually 5-toothed limb (ray). Anthers connate into a 
tube around the style, the sacs sagittate or auricled at the base, not tailed, 
usually appendaged at the summit, the simple pollen-grains usually 12-sided. 
Ovary 1-celled; ovule 1, anatropous; style very slender, 2-cleft, or 2-lobed, 
the lobes minutely papillose. Fruit an achene. Seed erect; endosperm 
none; radicle narrower than the cotyledons. About 70 genera and 1500 
species, of wide geographic distribution. 

Achenes flattened, not muricate. 

Achenes truncate, not at all beaked. 1. Sonchus. 

Achenes beaked, or distinctly narrowed at the top. 2. Lactuca. 

Achenes nearly terete, muricate. 3. Brachyramphus. 

1. SONCHUS L. Sp. PL 793. 1753. 

Annual or perennial succulent herbs, with alternate, mostly auriculate-clasp- 
ing, entire dentate lobed or pinnatifid, prickly-margined leaves, and large or 
middle-sized, peduncled, corymbose or paniculate heads of yellow flowers. In- 
volucre ovoid or campanulate, usually becoming thickened and more or less 
conic at the base when old, its bracts herbaceous or membranous, imbricated in 
several series, the outer successively smaller. Receptacle flat, naked. Rays 
truncate and 5-toothed at the apex. Anthers sagittate at the base. Style- 
branches slender. Achenes oval, oblong, or linear, more or less flattened, 10-20- 
ribbed, somewhat narrowed at the base, truncate. Pappus of very copious 
soft white simple capillary bristles, usually falling away connected, sometimes 



CICHORIACEAE 275 

with 1 or 2 stouter ones which fall separately. [The Greek name of the Sow- 
thistle.] About 45 species, of the Old World. Type species- Sonchus oleraceus L. 

Auricles of the leaves acute: achenes striate and transversely wrinkled. 1. S. oleraceus. 
Auricles rounded; achenes ribbed, not transversely wrinkled. 2. S. asper. 

1. Sonchus oleraceus L. Sp. PI. 794. 1753. 

Annual, with fibrous roots; stem leafy below, nearly simple, 3-30 dm. high. 
Basal and lower leaves petioled, lyrate-pinnatifid. 10-25 cm. long, the terminal 
segment commonly large and triangular, the margins denticulate with mucronate 
or scarcely spiny teeth ; upper leaves pinnatifid, clasping by an auricled or sagittate 
base; uppermost leaves often lanceolate and entire; heads several or numerous, 
pale yellow, 18-30 mm. broad. \S. arvensis of Bello, not of Linnaeus.] 

In fields and waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; Culebra; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — temperate and tropical continental America; Bermuda; 
West Indies. Native of the Old World. Achicoria. Sow-thistle. 

2. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 47. 1769. 

Sonchus oleraceus asper L. Sp. PI. 794. 1753. 

Annual, similar to the preceding species; leaves undivided, lobed or some- 
times pinnatifid, spinulose-dentate to spinulose-denticulate, the lower and basal 
ones obovate or spatulate, petioled, the upper oblong or lanceolate, clasping by 
an auricled base; heads several or numerous, 25 mm. broad or less; flowers pale 
yellow. 

River-banks near Adjuntas and Cayey, Porto Rico: — Continental North America; 
Bermuda; Jamaica; Guadaloupe; Martinique; South America. Native of the Old World. 

2. LACTUCA L. Sp. PI. 795. 1753. 

Tall leafy herbs, with small panicled heads of yellow, white or blue flowers, 
and alternate leaves. Involucre cylindric, its bracts imbricated in several 
series, the outer shorter, or of 1 or 2 series of principal nearly equal inner bracts, 
and several rows of short outer ones. Receptacle flat, naked. Rays truncate 
and 5-toothed at the summit. Anthers sagittate at the base. Style-branches 
mostly slender. Achenes oval, oblong or linear, flat, 3-5-ribbed on each face, 
narrowed above or contracted into a narrow beak, which is somewhat expanded 
at the summit into a small disk bearing the copious soft capillary white or brown 
pappus-bristles. [The ancient Latin name, from lac, milk, referring to the 
milky juice.] About 95 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. Type 
species: Lactuca sativa L. 

Achenes short-beaked ; rays blue. 1. L. floridana. 

Achenes long-beaked; rays yellow. 2. L. sativa. 

1. Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn, Fr. & Sem. 2: 362.1791. 
Sonchus floridanus L. Sp. PI. 794. 1753. 
Mulgedium floridanum DC. Prodr. 7: 249. 1838. 

Annual or biennial; stem glabrous, rather stout, leafy up to the large panicu- 
late inflorescence, 1-2 m. high. Leaves sessile or petioled, 1-3 dm. long, glabrous 
above, pubescent on the veins beneath, the lateral segments lanceolate to oval, 
acute, all usually dentate or the leaves irregularly lobed; heads numerous, 6-10 
mm. broad; rays blue; involucre about 12 mm. high; achenes lanceolate, .5-7 mm. 
long. [Braehyramphus caribaeus of Stahl, not of de Candolle.] 

Wet grounds, Porto Rico, mostly along streams at middle elevations in the central 
and western districts: — southeastern United States. 



276 CICHORIACEAE 

2. Lactuca sativa L. Sp. PI. 795. 1753. 

Annual, glabrous, 5-9 dm. or more high, the leafy stem often much-branched 
above. Upper stem-leaves ovate to orbicular, the lower variable, obovate, 
ovate or orbicular, 3.5-15 cm. long, 1.5-6.5 cm. broad, often larger, apiculate- 
serrulate, the base auriculate-clasping; panicle 0.6-3 dm. broad; heads numerous, 
erect, 12-16-flowered ; rays yellow; involucre 10-12 mm. high; achenes broadly 
oblanceolate, 3-4 mm. long, blackish. 

Occasionally spontaneous after cultivation for its crisp edible leaves; grown fcr salad 
in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and widely cultivated in temperate and tropical 
regions. Native of the Old World. Lettuce. Lechuga. 

Lactuca canadensis L., of temperate North America, was recorded by 
Krebs from St. Thomas, in 1851, possibly grown there from seed. 

3. BRACHYRAMPHUS DC. Prodr. 7: 176. 1838. 

Erect branching herbs, with runcinate or dentate leaves, and racemose- 
panicled 10-15-flowered heads of yellow or white ligulate flowers. Involucre 
narrowly oblong, its bracts imbricated in few series, scarious-margined. Re- 
ceptacle naked. Achenes linear or linear-oblong, subterete, longitudinally ribbed, 
muricate, narrowed above into a short neck. Pappus of several series of soft 
white pilose bristles. [Greek, short-beaked.] A few species, natives of tropical 
regions, the following typical. 

l. Brachyramphus intybaceus (Jacq.) DC. Prodr. 7: 177. 1838. 

Lactuca intybacea Jacq. Icon. Rar. 1: 16. 1786. 
Brachyramphus caribaeus DC. Prodr. 7: 177. 1838. 

Glabrous; stem 5-12 dm. high, sometimes much branched, the branches 
ascending. Basal and lower leaves obovate to oblanceolate in outline, runcinate- 
pinnatifld or irregularly dentate, bristly-serrulate, 2 dm. long or less; upper leaves 
few and small, the large panicle nearly naked; outer involucre-bracts and those 
of the peduncles ovate, acute, broadly scarious-margined, the inner linear- 
lanceolate, narrowly margined; involucre 10-12 mm. high; achenes about 5 mm. 
long, somewhat shorter than the pappus. [Sonchus maritimus of Sesse & Mocino, 
not of Linnaeus; Trachodes intybacea of Krebs.] 

Roadsides, waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; 
St. Jan; Tortola; West Indies; tropical continental America. Wild Lettuce. Chi- 
coria AZUL. 

Cichorum Endivia L., Endive, East Indian, occasionally grown for salad 
in Porto Rico, is annual or biennial, the oblong basal leaves lobed and cut, the 
stems occasionally 12 dm. high, the rays light blue. 

Cichorium Intybus L., Achicoria, Chicory, of the Old World, occasionally 
cultivated in Porto Rico mountain gardens, is perennial, with a deep root, her- 
baceous, about 1 m. high with pinnatifid basal leaves, the heads 3-4 cm. broad, 
the rays bright blue. 

Launaea nudicaulis (Less.) Hook, f., East Indian, was listed by Krebs 
as found in St. Thomas. [Microrhynchus nudicaulis Less.] 

Leontodon Taraxacum L., Diente de Leon, Dandelion, European and 
Asiatic, widely distributed as a weed in temperate regions, was grown experi- 
mentally at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station in 1925. It is an acaulescent 
herb, with a deep root, a tuft of basal sinuate-dentate leaves 1-2.5 dm. long, the 



AMBROSIACEAE 277 

solitary head of bright yellow flowers borne on a hollow scape 1-3 dm. high. 
Its leaves are used like spinach. 

Tragopogon porrifolius L., Salsify, Salsifi, Oyster-Plant, European, 
experimentally grown at middle altitudes in Porto Rico for its edible roots, is a 
tall herb, with long, narrowly lanceolate leaves, the showy heads of purple flowers 
5-10 cm. broad, the involucre-bracts longer than the rays. 

Scolymus hispanicus L., Salsifi Espanol, of southern Europe, recently ex- 
perimentally grown for its edible roots at the Cayey Model Farm, is a tall bien- 
nial, with spinulose-pinnatifld leaves, and large, leafy-bracted heads of yellow 
flowers. 

Scorzonera hispanica L., Escorcionera, Black Salsify, European, also 
grown experimentally for its edible roots at the Cayey Model Farm, is perennial, 
1 m. high or lower, with lanceolate to ovate leaves, and rather large heads of 
yellow flowers. 

Family 6. AMBROSIACEAE Reichenb. 

Ragweed Family. 

Herbs, monoecious, or sometimes dioecious, rarely shrubby, with alter- 
nate or opposite leaves, and small heads of greenish or white flowers subtended 
by an involucre of few, separate or united bracts, the pistillate heads some- 
times larger and nut-like or bur-like. Staminate and pistillate flowers in 
the same, or in separate heads. Receptacle chaff}'. Pistillate flowers with 
no corolla, or this reduced to a short tube or ring; calyx adnate to the 1-celled 
ovary, its limb none, or a mere border; style 2-cleft. Staminate flowers 
with a funnelform tubular or obconic 4-5-lobed corolla; stamens mostly 5, 
separate, or their anthers merely connivent, with short inflexed appendages; 
ovary rudimentary; summit of the style often hairy or penicillate. Eight 
genera and about 60 species, mostly natives of America. 

Bracts of staminate involucres distinct. 1. Xanlhium 

Bracts of staminate involucres united. 2. Ambrosia. 

1. XANTHIUM L. Sp. PI. 987. 1753. 

Monoecious annual branching coarse rough or spiny herbs, with alternate 
lobed or dentate leaves, and rather small heads of greenish discoid flowers, the 
staminate ones capitate-clustered at the ends of the branches, the pistillate 
axillary. Staminate heads with a short involucre of 1 to 3 series of distinct 
bracts; receptacle cylindric, chaffy; corollas tubular, 5-toothed; anthers not co- 
herent, mucronate at the apex; filaments monadelphous ; style slender, un- 
divided. Pistillate heads of an ovoid or oblong, closed involucre, covered with 
hooked bristles, 1-2-beaked, 2-celled, each cavity containing one obovoid or 
oblong achene; corolla none; pappus none; style 2-cleft, its branches exserted. 
[Greek, yellow, from its yielding a yellow hair-dye.] About 20 species, of wide 
geographic distribution. Known as Bardana and Burdock. Type species: 
Xanlhium strumarium L. 

1. Xanthium chinense Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8, no. 4. 1768. 
Xanlhium macrocarpum glabratum DC. Prodr. 5: 523. 1836. 
Xanthium longirostre Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 1: 237. 1844. 

Hispidulous, 1 m. high or less. Leaves broadly ovate-reniform in outline, 
slender-petioled, 8-15 cm. long and about as wide as long, acute or acuminate 



278 AMBROSIACEAE 

at the apex, rather thin, coarsely irregularly toothed and usually 3-5-lobed, 
scabrous on both sides, the base triangular-cuneate ; staminate heads numerous, 
about 5 mm. in diameter; fruit oblong, its body 2 cm. long or less, 5.5-8 mm. 
thick, hispidulous and glandular or sometimes glabrous; bristles rather slender, 
3-4.5 mm. long, hispidulous toward the base; beaks stout, 4-6 mm. long, some- 
what incurved. [Xanthium canadense of Cook and Collins, not of Miller; 
Xanthium strumarium of Bello and of Millspaugh, not of Linnaeus. Xanthium 
echinatum of Urban, not of Murray; Xanthium orientate of Schlechtendal.] 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, at lower elevations; Vieques; St. Croix; 
St. Thomas; St. Jan (according to Eggers); Tortola: — eastern North America; Bermuda; 
Bahamas; Jamaica: Cuba; Hispaniola; Saba to Martinique. 

Xanthium spinosum L., listed by Krebs from St. Thomas, and also 
recorded by Borgesen from the Virgin Islands (Veg. Dansk-Vestindian) has 3- 
parted spines 1-2.5 cm. long in the axils and leaves narrowed at the ends; it is 
widely distributed in temperate regions, but unknown in the West Indies; both 
records are, presumably erroneous. 

2. AMBROSIA L. Sp. PI. 987. 17.53. 

Monoecious (rarely dioecious) branching herbs, with alternate or opposite, 
mostly lobed leaves, and small heads of green flowers, the staminate spicate or 
racemose, the pistillate solitary or clustered in the upper axils. Involucre of 
the pistillate heads globose, ovoid to top-shaped, closed, 1-flowered, usually 
armed with 4-8 tubercles or spines; corolla none; stamens none; style-branches 
filiform; achenes ovoid or obovoid; pappus none. Involucre of the staminate 
heads mostly hemispheric or saucer-shaped, 5-12-lobed, open, many-flowered ; 
receptacle nearly flat, naked, or with filiform chaff; corolla funnelform, 5-toothed; 
anther scarcely coherent, mucronate-tipped ; style undivided, penicillate at the 
summit. [The ancient classical name.] About 15 species, mostly natives of 
America. Type species: Ambrosia maritima L. 

Prostrate; densely hirsute. 1. .4. hispida. 
Erect; pubescent. 

Leaf-segments 1-3 cm. long. 2. .4. peruviana. 

Leaf-segments mostly less than 1 cm. long. 3. A. tenuifolia. 

1. Ambrosia hispida Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 743. 1814. 

Ambrosia crithmifolia DC. Prodr. 5: 525. 1836. 

Perennial, hirsute or hispid; stems branched at the base, the branches 
diffusely spreading or ascending, 2-8 dm. long, leafy. Leaves 2-3-pinnately 
divided, rather firm in texture, 4-12 cm. long, short-petioled ; racemes of staminate 
heads elongated, mostly solitary, the involucres bristly-pubescent; fertile heads 
clustered, 2.5-3 mm. long, short-beaked, usually tubercled. 

Maritime rocks and sand-dunes, northern coast of Porto Rico; Tortola : Virgin Gorda ; 
planted for ornament and for a ground-cover in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: — ■ 
Florida; West Indies (except Jamaica) south to Barbados; Mexico. Bay Tansy. 

2. Ambrosia peruviana Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 377. 1805. 

Ambrosia paniculata peruviana O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Ant. 7: 87. 
1911. 

Perennial, erect, branched, strigose-pubescent, 2 m. high or less. Leaves 
deeply pinnately lobed or bipinnatifid, 4-15 cm. long, the lobes or segments 
lanceolate or ovate, acute or obtuse; racemes of staminate heads slender; pe- 
duncles 1-1.5 mm. long; involucre hispidulous, 3-4 mm. broad; pistillate heads 



CARDUACEAE 279 

few in the upper axils, short-beaked, the fruit 2.5-3 mm. long. [? A. artemisiae- 
folia of Krebs.] 

Occasional in waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico, persistent after cultivation 
or escaped; (?) St. Thomas; — Jamaica; Cuba; Mexico; South America. ArtemiSA. 

3. Ambrosia tenuifolia Spreng. Syst. 3: 851. 1826. 

Appressed-pubescent and somewhat villous, 3-6 dm. high, branching. 
Leaves bipinnatifld, finely divided, 5-8 cm. long, slender-petioled, the ultimate 
segments small, about 1 cm. long or shorter, linear to ovate, mostly acute; im- 
mature staminate inflorescence 2-3 cm. long, the heads about 1.5 mm. broad. 

Collected by Stevenson at Algaroba, and by Britton in white sand near Laguna 
Tortuguero, Porto Rico. The plant collected by Stevenson was referred to this species 
by Rydberg (N. A. Fl. 33: 16); it bears young inflorescence. The specimens found near 
Laguna Tortuguero are barren; at that place the plant appeared like a native perennial.- 
The true A. tenuifolia is an annual, native of Uruguay and Argentina, adventive in 
Louisiana. Complete specimens of the Porto Rico plant are necessary to determine its 
actual relationship. 

Ambrosia cumanensis H.B.K. [A. artemisiaefolia trinitensis Griseb.], 
recorded by Eggers in 1876 as naturalized at Fredericksted, St. Croix, has not 
been observed there recently. It is similar to A. peruviana, differing especially 
in its hirsute stems and branches. 

Family 7. CARDUACEAE Neck. 

Thistle Family. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs (some tropical species trees), with watery or resinous 
(rarely milky) sap, and opposite alternate or basal estipulate leaves. Flowers 
perfect, pistillate, or neutral, or sometimes monoecious, or dioecious, borne 
on a common receptacle, forming heads, subtended by an involucre of few 
to many bracts arranged in one or more series. Receptacle naked, or with 
chaffy scales subtending the flowers, smooth or variously pitted or honey- 
combed. Calyx-tube completely adnate to the ovary, the limb (pappus) 
of bristles, awns, teeth, scales, or crown-like, or cup-like, or wanting. Corolla 
tubular, usually 5-lobed or 5-cleft, the lobes valvate, or that of the marginal 
flowers of the head expanded into a ligule (ray) : when the ray-flowers are 
absent the head is said to be discoid; when present, radiate; the tubular 
flowers form the disk. Stamens usually 5, borne on the corolla and alternate 
with its lobes, their anthers united into a tube (syngenesious), often append- 
aged at the apex, sometimes sagittate or tailed at the base; pollen-grains 
globose, often rough or prickly. Ovary 1-celled; ovule 1, anatropous; 
style of fertile flowers 2-cleft; stigmas marginal; style of sterile flowers com- 
monly undivided. Fruit an achene. Seed erect; endosperm none; embryo 
straight; hypocotyl inferior. About 800 genera and not less than 10,000 
species, of wide geographic distribution. 

A. Perfect flowers with regular corollas. 

1. Stigmatic lines at the base of the stigma or below the 

middle. 
Stigmas filiform or subulate, hispidulous. 
Stigmas more or less clavate, papillose-puberulent. 

2. Stigmatic lines extending to the tip of the stigma or 

to the appendages, 
a. Anthers without elongated appendages at the tip. 
Anther-sacs tailed at the base. 
Anther-sacs not tailed at the base. 
Receptacle naked. 

Bracts of the involucre well imbricated. 
Stigmas of the perfect flowers with ter- 
minal appendages. 



Tribe 1. 
Tribe 2. 


Vernonieae. 
eupatorieae 


Tribe 4. 


INULEAE. 


Tribe 3. 


ASTEREAE. 



280 



CARDUACEAE 



Stigmas of the perfect flowers with 
truncate, hairy or papillose tips. 
Bracts of the involucre little if at all im- 
bricated except when the broad, outer 
overlap the inner. 
Receptacle mostly chaffy, bracts of the in- 
volucre herbaceous, sometimes foliaceous. 
b. Anthers with elongated, cartilaginous, mostly 
connate appendages. 
B. Perfect flowers, or all, with bilabiate corollas. 

Tribe 1. Vernonieae. 



Tribe 6. Helenieae. 



Tribe 7. Senecioneae. 
Tribe 5. Heliantheae. 



Tribe 8. 
Tribe 9. 



Cynareae. 
Mutisieae. 



1. Heads separate and distinct. 
Pappus a cartilaginous ring. 

Pappus of scales or bristles, or of both. 
Foliage not lepidote. 
Foliage lepidote or stellate-tomentose. 

Outer pappus of broad scales, the inner of twisted 

narrow ones. 
Outer pappus of linear scales, the inner of bristles. 

2. Heads glomerate. 

Involucre-bracts 8 or more 

Pappus-bristles all alike, straight. 

Pappus-bristles dissimilar. 
Involucre-bracts only 2. 

Tribe 2. Eupatorieae. 

Anthers truncate, not appendaged. 
Anthers appendaged. 
Pappus of scales. 
Pappus of capillary bristles. 

Involucre-scales more than 4; heads several-many- 
flowered; mostly shrubs. 
Receptacle pilose. 
Receptacle naked. 

Involucre cylindric or oblong, its bracts in several 

series, coriaceous or chartaceous, striate. 
Involucre various, its bracts in 1 or few series, 
mostly membranous or herbaceous. 
Heads many-flowered. 
Heads few-flowered. 
Involucre-scales only 4; heads 4-flowered; mostly vines. 

Tribe 3. Astereae. 

Ray-flowers present; plants not dioecious. 

Pappus none; achene topped by a cartalaginous ring. 
Pappus of capillary bristles. 

Involucre-bracts in 4 or 5 series. 
Involucre-bracts in 1-3 series. 

Ligules mostly longer than the diameter of the disk. 
Ligules minute, shorter than the diameter of the disk. 
Ray— flowers none; plants dioecious. 



1. Struchium. 

2. Vernonia. 



3. Piptocoma. 

4. Piptocarpha. 



5. Elephantopus. 

6. Pseudelephantopus. 

7. Rolandra. 



8. Adenostemma. 

9. Ageratum. 

10. Hebeclinium. 

11. Osmia. 



12. Eupatorium. 

13. Critonia. 

14. Mikania. 



15. Egletes. 

16. Gundlachia. 

17. Erigeron. 

18. Leptilon. 

19. Baccharis. 



Tribe 4. Inuleae. 
Involucre-bracts herbaoeous. 

Heads corymbose; involucre-bracts broad. 

Heads glomerate; involucre-bracts narrow. 
Involucre-bracts scarious. 

Tribe 5. Heliantheae. 

A. Heads only 1-flowered, glomerate. 

B. Heads few-many-flowered. 

1. Disk-flowers perfect, but not producing fruit. 
Receptacle naked or bearing a few scales. 
Receptacle chaffy. 

Achenes thick, not flattened. 

Fruit unarmed. 

Fruit armed with hooked prickles. 
Achenes flattened. 

2. Disk-flowers producing fruit. 

a. Ray-flowers persistent on the achenes. 

b. Ray-flowers not persistent, sometimes wanting. 

♦Pappus a mere crown or of a few teeth or awns, 
f Achenes, at least those of the disk, not flat- 
tened, or laterally flattened. 
JOuter involucre-bracts 4, large, opposite in 
pairs. 
tJOuter involucre-bracts not opposite in pairs. 
§Chaff of the receptacle mere bristles. 



20. Pluchea. 

21. Pterocaulon. 

22. Gnaphalium. 



23. Nocca. 



24. Clibadium. 



25. Melampodium. 

26. Acanthospermum. 

27. Parthenium. 

28. Crassina. 



29. Enydra. 

30. Verbesina. 



CARDUACEAE 



281 



§ §Chaff of the receptacle concave or clasp- 
ing. 
| Achenes closely invested by the chaff. 
|| Achenes subtended or enclosed by 
chaff. 

lAchenes wingless. 
Achenes angled. 
Pappus of scales. 

Ray-flowers present. 
"Ray-flowers fertile. 
"Achenes sharply 

angled; shrubs. 
Achenes obtusely 
angled; herbs or 
shrubs. 
Ray -flowers sterile. 
Ray-flowers wanting. 
Pappus of deciduous awns or 
bristles. 
Achenes laterally flattened. 

Herbs; heads few or solitary. 
Shrubs or woody vines ; heads 
cymose. 
1H Achenes of the disk-flowers 
broadly winged. 
Pappus-awns hooked. 
Pappus-awns not hooked. 
tfAchenes dorsally flattened parallel with the in- 
volucre-bracts. 
Involucre single. 
Involucre double. 

Achenes beakless; ray-flowers yellow or 

white. 
Achenes beaked ; ray-flowers mostly rose or 
purple, sometimes yellow. 
**Pappus of several or many scales . 
Pappus-scales not plumose. 
Pappus-scales plumose-ciliate. 

Tribe 6. Helenieae. 

Style-branches of the perfect flowers elongated. 

Pappus of scales. 

Pappus of bristles. 
Style-branches of the perfect flowers very short, blunt. 

Tribe 7. Senecioneae. 
Receptacle chaffy. 
Receptacle naked. 

Marginal flowers pistillate; disk-flowers perfect. 
Flowers all perfect. 

Tribe 8. Cynareae. 
Only one genus in our territory. 



31. Sclerocarpus 



Tribe 9. Mutisieae. 



Shrubs or woody vines with alternate leaves. 
Scapose herbs, the scapes monocephalous. 



32. Borrichia. 

33. Wedelia. 

34. Tithonia. 

35. Eleutheranthera. 

36. Mclanthera. 

37. Spilanthes. 

38. Salmea. 



39. Tepion. 

40. Ximenesia. 



41. Synedrella. 

42. Bidens. 

43. Cosmos. 

44. Galinsoga. 

45. Tridaz. 



46. Tagctes. 

47. Porophyllum. 

48. Pedis. 



49. Neurolaena. 

50. Erechthitcs. 

51. Emilia. 



52. Cirsium. 



53. Proustia. 

54. Chaptalia. 



1. STRUCHIUM P. Br.; J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 406. 1805. 
A slightly succulent herb, with thin alternate petioled serrate leaves, and 
sessile axillary many-flowered heads of perfect tubular white or purplish flowers. 
Involucre hemispheric, its bracts imbricated in several series. Receptacle convex. 
Corolla 3-4-lobed; style-branches slender. Achenes mostly 4- angled, truncate, 
glabrous or finely glandular; pappus a cartilaginous crown with no bristles. 
[Greek, of uncertain derivation.] A monotypic genus of tropical America and 
tropical Africa. 

1. Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 366. 1891. 

Ethulia sparganophora L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1171. 1763. 

Sparganophorus Vaillantii Crantz, Inst. 1: 261. 1766. 

Erect or spreading, simple or branched, 1 m. high or less, sparingly appressed- 
pubescent above, otherwise glabrous or very nearly so. Leaves lanceolate to 



282 CARDUACEAE 

elliptic, acuminate at both ends, 5-12 cm. long, 1^ cm. wide, rather finely serrate, 
the slender petioles 1-2 cm. long; heads 6-9 mm. wide, solitary or clustered in the 
axils; bracts of the involucre acuminate-aristate, narrowly scarious-margined; 
achenes oblong- obpyramidal, about 1.5 mm. long; pappus-crown tubular, nearly 
white, one-third to one-half as long as the achene. 

Wet or moist grounds at lower elevations, Porto Rico; St. Thomas (according to 
Eggers); St. Croix: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Trinidad; tropical Africa. 
Yerba db faja. 

2. VERNONIA Schreb. Gen. 2: 541. 1791. 

Erect branching perennial herbs, vines or shrubs, with alternate (very 
rarely opposite), leaves and discoid cymose-paniculate heads of purple, pink or 
white tubular flowers. Involucre hemispheric, campanulate or oblong-cylindric, 
its bracts imbricated in several or many series. Receptacle flat, naked. Corolla 
regular 5-cleft. Anthers sagittate at the base, not caudate. Style-branches 
subulate, hispidulous their whole length. Achenes 8-10-ribbed, truncate. 
Pappus in 2 series, the inner of numerous roughened capillary bristles, the outer 
of much shorter small scales or stout bristles. [Named after William Vernon, 
English botanist.] Over 500 species, of wide distribution, most abundant in 
South America. Type species: Serratula noveboracensis L. 

Shrubs or woody vines. ... 

Cymes short, dense. 1- V- albicauhs. 
Cymes elongated. 

Leaves thin in texture; inflorescence not flexuous. 2. V. sericea. 

Leaves firm in texture, subcoriaceous; inflorescence flexuous. 3. V. borinquensis. 

Herbaceous annual. 4. V. anerea. 

1. Vernonia albicaulis Pers. Syn. 2: -404. 1807. 

' Vernonia Vahliana Less. Linnaea 4: 306. 1829. 

Vernonia thomae Benth.; Oerst. Vid. Medd. 1852: 66. 1852. 

Cacalia thomae Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 324. J 891. 

Vernonia longifolia Vahliana Urban, Symb..Ant. 1: 456. 1899. 

Vernonia longifolia Sintenisii Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 

Vernonia Sintenisii Gleason, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 187. 1906. 

A shrub, up to 2 m. high, the branches slender, the twigs densely and finely 
whitish tomentose. Leaves oblong to elliptic or elliptic-obovate, 7 cm. long or 
less, 0.6-4 cm. wide, rather thin in texture, punctate, more or less pubescent, 
entire-margined, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, rounded or narrowed at the 
base, the petioles 1-3 mm. long; inflorescence of small dense corymbs, the nearly 
sessile heads secund ; involucre 4-6 mm. high, its bracts oblong-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, pubescent ; loosely imbricated; achenes 2-3 mm. long, densely pubescent; 
pappus brown or tawny. [V. punctata of Eggers and of Millspaugh; (?) Conyza 
fruticosa of West; V. arborescens of Stahl, not of Grisebach.] 

Shaded hillsides at lower and middle elevations in dry districts, Porto Rico; De- 
secheo; Vieques; St, Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Virgin Gorda: — St. Eustatius; recorded 
from Hispaniola. Santa Marta. 

2. Vernonia sericea L. C. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 112. 1792. 

Lepidaploa phyllostachya Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 26: 16. 1823. 

Vernonia Berteriana DC. Prodr. 5: 52. 1836. 

Vernonia aiborescens Lessingiana Griseb. Fl. Br. W. I. 353. 1861. 

Cacalia sericea Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 971. 1891. 

Cacalia arborescens Lessingiana Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 323. 1891. 

Eupatorium sessile Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 182. 1894. 

Vernonia phyllostachya Gleason, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 176. 1906. 

Vernonia venusta Gleason, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 177. 1906. 



CARDUACEAE 283 

A shrub, 2 m. high or less, with slender branches and appressed-pubescent 
twigs. Leaves linear-lanceolate to ovate, thin in texture, 2.5-7.5 cm. long, 1-2.5 
cm. wide, entire-margined, acute or acutish at the apex, or perhaps sometimes 
obtuse, obtuse or narrowed at the base, papillose-pubescent above, silky-pu- 
beScent beneath, the petioles 1.5-3 mm. long; cymes elongated, leafy-bracted ; 
heads very nearly sessile; involucre 4-5 mm. high, its bracts narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, sparingly appressed-pubescent or glabrate; flowers white to pink; 
achenes obpyramidal, about 1.5 mm. long, densely pubescent, pappus brown. 
[V. arborescens of Bello, of Schlechtendal and of Millspaugh, not of Swartz.] 

Hillsides, mostly in partial shade, at lower and middle elevations mostly in moist 
districts, Porto Rico; Vieques; St. Thomas; St. Jan. Recorded from Hispaniola. Tapa- 

CAMINO. LONG-SHOOT. 

The related plant with obovate or elliptic obtuse leaves and pale violet 
flowers, recorded by Urban as collected on Monte Llano, near Penuelas, and in- 
dicated by Urban as perhaps a distinct species, requires further investigation. 

3. Vernonia borinquensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 390. 1903. 

Vernonia borinquensis Stahlii Urban, loc. cit. 391. 1903. 

Vernonia borinquensis resinosa Gleason, Bull. Torr. Club 46: 236. 1919. 

Vernonia borinquensis hirsula Gleason. Bull. Torr. Club 46: 236. 1919. 

A shrub, or woody vine, up to 5 m. long, with slender, terete, often nexuous 
branches, the young twigs sparingly loosely pubescent. Leaves firm in texture, 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, nearly or quite entire, somewhat revolute-margined 
when old, typically punctate, or epunctate, 6 cm. long or less, 1.5-2 cm. wide, 
acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base, the petiole 2-5 mm. long; 
cymes elongated, flexuous, leafy, the heads sessile, distant; involucre about 6 mm. 
high, the bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers 
white to pink; achenes 1.5-2 mm. long, typically densely pubescent, sometimes 
glabrous; pappus tawny. [Referred by Stahl to V. arborescens divaricata and 
by Bello to V. rigida Sw.] 

Hillsides, woodlands and thickets at middle elevations in moist districts, Porto Rico- 
Endemic. 

4. Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Linnaea 4: 291. 1829. 

Conyza cinerea L. Sp. PI. 862. 1753. 

Annual, simple or little-branched, erect, 3-10 dm. high, appressed-pubescent, 
leafy nearly to the base. Leaves flaccid, ovate to lanceolate, repand or entire, 
acute or obtuse, the lower petioled, 4-7 cm. long, the upper much smaller and 
sessile; heads numerous, slender-peduncled, in terminal compound leafless 
cymes; involucre about 3.5 mm. high, its bracts narrowly lanceolate, sharply 
acuminate, pubescent, the outermost minute; flowers purple; achenes pubescent; 
pappus white. 

Waste and cultivated grounds, Porto Rico; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola: — 
Florida; Bahamas; Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Grenada; 
Barbados; Panama; native of the Old World tropics, and has become a troublesome weed 
in Porto Rico and other West Indian islands. 

3. PIPTOCOMA Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 10. 1817. 

A finely tomentose-lepidote shrub with slender nearly terete branches, alter- 
nate, petioled entire leaves and small heads of tubular blue or pinkish flowers in 
terminal corymbs. Receptacle nearly flat, naked. Involucre-bracts imbricated 
in several series, Arm in texture, the outer shorter than the inner and tomentose. 
Corolla with a slender tube and a narrow limb. Anthers sagittate. Achenes 
striate, 5-angled. Pappus an outer series of about 10 oblong scales, and an 



284 CARDUACEAE 

inner series of narrower caducous ones. [Greek, referring to the caducous inner 
pappus-scales.] A monotypic West Indian genus. 

1. Piptocoma rufescens Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 10. 1817. 

A shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, the twigs angle:l. Leaves ovate to oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, 5-8 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide or less, obtuse or acutish at the apex, nar- 
rowed at the base, dark green above, finely whitish tomentose and strongly 
veined beneath, the petioles less than 1 cm. long; corymbs 4-10 cm. broad; heads 
numerous, sessile or on angled peduncles; involucre about 6 mm. high, cam- 
panulate, its inner bracts acutish, tomentose at the tip, the outer obtuse, tomen- 
tose all over; achenes about 2 mm. long; pappus yellowish, 5 mm. long. 

Shaded hillsides, Cabeza San Juan and on serpentine hillsides in the western districts 
of Porto Rico; Water Island, St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; Virgin Gorda: — Hispaniola. 

4. PIPTOCARPHA R. Br.; Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 41: 109. 1826. 

Shrubs, sometimes climbing, with alternate petioled n?arly or quite entire 
leaves stellate-tomentose or lepidote beneath, and small terminal or axillary , 
panicled or corymbose heads of tubular flowers. Involucre ovoid or campanulate, 
its bracts imbricated in several series; corolla 5-cleft; anthers subcaudate at the 
base; achenes truncate, ribbed; pappus mostly of two series of bristles, the 
outer series shorter than the inner, sometimes inconspicuous. iGreek, deciduous 
scales.] About 30 species, natives of tropical America. Type species: Pipto- 
carpha brasilie7isis Cass. 

1. Piptocarpha tetrantha Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 457. 1899. 

Climbing, up to 10 m. long; twigs somewhat angular, ashy-lepidote. Leaves 
oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, sparingly few-toothed or entire, subcoriaceous, 
obtuse or bluntly acute at the apex, obtusely inequilateral or subcordate at the 
base, densely whitish-lepidote beneath, 12 cm. long or less, 2-5 cm. wide, the peti- 
oles 6-15 mm. long; heads 4-flowered, clustered in terminal panicles; involucre 
6-7 mm. long, its outer bracts short, ovate, the inner ones lanceolate, obtusish, 
deciduous with the achenes; receptacle naked; inner pappus-bristles 4-5 times 
as long as the outer; corolla white; achenes about 4 mm. long, 10-ribbed. [P. 
triflora of Cook & Collins, not of Benn.] 

Mountain woodlands, Porto Rico, at middle and higher elevations. Endemic. 

5. ELEPHANTOPUS L. Sp. PI. 814. 1753. 

Perennial rigid pubescent herbs, with alternate or basal, simple, pinnately- 
veined leaves, and glomerate bracted heads of blue, whitish or purple tubular 
flowers in branching corymbs. Heads 2-5-flowered. Involucre compressed f 
oblong, its chaffy bracts imbricated in about 2 series, the 4 outer bracts shorter. 
Bracts of the glomerules large, foliaceous. Receptacle small, naked. Corolla 
nearly regular, 5-lobed, but a little deeper cleft on the inner side. Achenes 10- 
ribbed, truncate. Pappus of rigid persistent awn-like scales or bristles in 1 or 2 
rows. [Greek, ivory, or Elephant 's-foot.] About 14 species, natives of tropical 
or warm regions. Type species Elephantopus scaber L. 

1. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 4: 26. 1820. 

Hirsute-pubescent, or appressed-pubescent above, usually branched, 2-10 
dm. high. Lower leaves broadly oblong to obovate, sometimes 2 dm. long, 



CARDUACEAE 285 

obtuse at the apex, narrowed or long- attenuate at the base, finely crenate, rough- 
ish above, soft-pubescent beneath; upper leaves much smaller, ovate to lanceolate, 
acute, sessile; clusters of heads long-stalked, loosely paniculate, their bracts 
orbicular-ovate, about 1 cm. long, abruptly acute; heads usually 3-5 together; 
involucre about 9 mm. high, its longer bracts lanceolate, spinulose-acuminate ; 
corolla whitish; pappus-bristles dilated below, about 7 m. long. [E. scaber of 
Bello, of Cook and Collins and of Kuntze, not of Linnaeus; E. tomentosus of 
Millspaugh and of Cook and Collins, not of Linnaeus ] 

Fields, banks and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola; West Indies (except Bahamas); continental 
tropical America. Lengua de vaca. 

6. PSEUDELEPHANTOPUS Rohr, Skr. Nat. Selsk. 2: 213. 1792. 
Erect branched perennial herbs, with leafy stems and small glomerate heads 
of white tubular flowers in panicled spikes, the glomerules subtended by 2 or 3 
bracts. Heads 4-flowered. Involucre of 4 pairs of bracts, the first and third 
pair conduplicate, the outer bracts shorter than the inner. Corolla-tube slender. 
Achenes flattened, 10-striate. Pappus of a single series of 5-15 bristles, the two 
lateral bristles longer and thicker than the others and contorted at the tip. 
[Greek, false- Elcphanto pus.] Two species, the following typical, the other 
Bolivian. 

1. Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. Skr. Nat. Selsk. 2: 213. 1792. 

Elephantopus spicatus Juss.; Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 808. 1775. 
Distreptus spicatus Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 13: 367. 1819. 
Elephantopus glaber Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 197. 1894. 

Stem glabrous or nearly so, 1 m. high or less, the branches loosely pubescent 
with long appressed hairs. Leaves punctate, pubescent on the veins beneath, 
the lower and basal ones spatulate to obovate, crenate or entire, 6-15 cm. long, 
mostly obtuse, the upper linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, entire, much smaller; 
heads narrowly oblong, usually 2-4 in the glomerules; involucre 8-12 mm. long, 
its bracts lanceolate, aristate-acuminate, whitish-margined. 

Fields, banks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations; Vieques; 
St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies (except Bahamas); continental 
tropical America; Philippine Islands. Yerba de burro. 

7. ROLANDRA Rottb. Coll. Soc. Med. Havn. 2: 256. 1775. 
A virgate stiff perennial herb, with alternate entire short-petioled leaves, 
white-tomentose beneath, and numerous 1-flowered heads in dense axillary and 
terminal globose glomerules, the bracts aristate. Tnvolucre of 2 aristate bracts, 
the outer one the larger. Corolla regular, its tube slender, its limb 3-toothed or 
4-toothed. Anthers sagittate, with long auricles. Achenes angled, truncate. 
Pappus a lacerate crown. [Commemorates Dr. Rolander, who travelled in 
Surinam.] A monotypic genus of tropical America. 

1. Rolandra fruticosa (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 360. 1891. 

Echinops fruticosus L. Sp. PI. 815. 1753. 

Rolandra arqentea Rottb. Coll. Soc. Med. Havn. 2: 258. 1775. 

Stem divergently branched, or simple, terete, appressed-pubescent with 
whitish hairs, at least above, 3-8 dm. tall. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, 
scabrate above, white-woolly and with long hairs on the veins beneath, acute at 
both ends, or obtusish at the base, firm in texture, 5-10 cm. long, 1-4.5 cm. wide; 
glomerules sessile in the axils and at the end of the stiff branches, about 1.5 cm 



286 CARDUACEAE 

in diameter; aristae of the bracts abruptly bent at the apex; corolla white; 
achene oblong- turbinate. 

Banks, thickets and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: — Antigua 
to Trinidad; continental tropical America. Yerba de Plata. 

8. ADENOSTEMA Forst. Char. Gen. 89. 1776. 
Herbs, with petioled, usually triplinerved leaves, and rather small discoid 
corymbose heads of white tubular flowers. Involucre broadly campanulate or 
hemispheric, its herbaceous bracts imbricated in about 2 series. Receptacle 
nearly flat, naked. Corolla regular, the limb 5-toothed. Anthers obtuse at the 
base, not appendaged. Achenes glandular-tuberculate, obtuse, 5-ribbed. Pap- 
pus of a few short stiff, often clavate, gland- like bristles. IGreek, gland-crown, 
referring to the pappus.] About 10 species or more, natives of tropical regions. 
Type species: Adenoslema viscosa Forst. 

1. Adenostema Verbesina (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 304. 1891. 

Cotula Verbesina L. Syst. ed. 10, 1222. 1759. 
Adenostcmma Swartzii Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 25: 362. 1822. 

Stems slender, sparingly pubescent or glabrous, weak, ascending, rooting at 
the lower nodes, 2-4 dm. long. Leaves ovate, rhomboid- ovate or ovate-orbicular, 
thin, glabrate, 2-5 cm. lone, dentate or subentire, acute or obtuse, the base obtuse 
or subtruncate. somewhat decurrent on the petiole; heads few, slender-ped uncled, 
6-8 mm. broad: involucre about 5 mm. high, its oblanceolate bracts cilia te at the 
apex; achenes 3-4 mm. lone. 

Woodlands near Barranquitas, Porto Rico, at 800 m. elevation, collected only by 
Stahl:— Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; St. Kitts; St. Vincent; South America. Recorded 
by Krebs from St. Thomas, presumably in error. 

9. AGERATUM L. Sp. PI. 839. 1753. 
Herbs, or some continental species shrubs, with mostly opposite leaves and 
small terminal, corymbose or cymose heads of blue, purple or white tubular 
flowers. Involucre campanulate to hemispheric, its nearly equal bracts im- 
bricated in 2 or 3 series, sometimes with 1-3 smaller outer ones. Receptacle 
flat to conic. Corolla expanded above, 5-toothed. Anthers linear or oblong. 
Achenes prismatic, 5-angled. Pappus of scales or coronate. [Name ancient, 
not originally applied to these plants.] About 25 species, one African, the others 
of warm and tropical America. Type species : Ageratum conyzoides L. 

1. Ageratum conyzoides L. Sp. PI. 839. 1753. 

Carelia conyzoides robusta Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 325. 1891. 
Eupatorium paleaceum Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2, 181. 1894. 

Annual, more or less pubescent, branched, 9 dm. high or less, the stem 
terete, the branches widely ascending. Leaves thin, ovate, 2-8 cm. long, mostly 
obtuse at the apex, cuneate to subcordate at the base, crenate or crenate-dentate, 
the slender hirsute petioles 3 cm. long or less; corymbs compound, convex, the 
heads several to numerous, about 6 mm. broad, many-flowered; involucre cam- 
panulate, its bracts oblong, glabrous or slightly pubescent, green with scarious 
margins, acuminate; receptacle naked; corolla blue or white; achenes black; 
shining; pappus of 1-5 lanceolate scales attenuate at the apex, sometimes very 
unequal in length and the shorter ones bluntish. 

Banks, moist grounds and waste places, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: 
Vieques: St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — West Indies; tropical continental 
America; Old World tropics and subtropics. Yerba de Cabrio. 



CARDUACEAE 287 

Ageratum Houston ianum Mill., Mexican, occasionally grown in Porto 
Rican flower gardens, has larger heads of blue flowers, the pubescent involucre- 
bracts attenuate. [A. mexicanum Sims.] 

10. HEBECLINIUM DC. Prodr. 5: 136. 1836. 
A tall perennial puberulent herb, with terete stems and branches, large long- 
petioled broadly ovate leaves, and large terminal corymbs of small heads, the 
flowers white. Involucre imbricated, the scales in about 4 series, pubescent, 
strongly 3-5-striate. Receptacle convex, pilose. Corollas slender. Achenes 
angled. Pappus of a single series of roughish bristles. [Greek, referring to the 
hairy receptacle.] A few species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Hebeclinium macrophylJlum (L.) DC. Prodr. 5: 136. 1836. 

Eupatorium macrophyllum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1175. 1763. 

Branched, 3 m. high or less, the stems rather stout, little woody. Leaves 
thin, flaccid, 7-20 cm. long, often as broad as long, 3-nerved and pinnately veined, 
densely puberulent and pale green beneath, darker green and sparingly pu- 
berulent above, crenate, acuminate at the apex, subcordate at the base, the 
puberulent petioles about half as long as the blades; heads oblong-campanulate, 
3-4 mm. long, usually very numerous, in dense compound corymbs; outer scales 
of the involucre short, ovate, the inner lanceolate; achenes glabrous; pappus 
whitish, about twice as long as the achene. 

Woodlands and river-banks, Porto Rico, in moist or wet districts, ascending into the 
Luquillo Mountains: — St. Croix; St. Thomas: — West Indies (except Bahamas); con- 
tinental tropical America. Turma TORO. 

11. OSMIA Sch. Bip. Pollichia 22-24: 251. 1866. 
Small trees, shrubs, rarely perennial herbs, with opposite petioled leaves, 
the discoid heads corymbose-paniculate. Involucre cylindric or ovoid, many- 
flowered, its numerous bracts striate-nerved, obtuse, or the inner acute, imbricated 
in several series. Receptacle flat or convex, naked. Corollas tubular, regular. 
Anthers obtuse and entire at the base. Achenes ribbed. Pappus of capillary 
bristles. [Greek, odorous.] Perhaps 100 species, natives of tropical America. 
Type species Eupatorium odoratum L. 

Involucre 7-12 mm. long; leaves green beneath. 
Leaves dentate, crenate, or the upper entire. 

Leaves long, thin, acuminate; involucre 8-12 mm. long. 1. O. odorata. 

Leaves small, fleshy, acute to obtuse; involucre 7-9 mm. long. 2. O. corymbosa. 
Leaves deeply lobed, densely pubescent. 3. O. geraniifolia. 

Involucre about 5 mm. long. 

Leaves ovate, whitish-canescent beneath. 4. O. sinuata. 

Leaves oblotig to lanceolate, green on both sides. 

Branches loosely pubescent; leaves oblong to lanceolate. 5. O. ivaefolia. 

Glabrous throughout; leaves triangular-lanceolate. 6. O. borinquensis. 

1. Osmia odorata (L.) Sch. Bip. Pollichia 22-24: 251. 1866. 

Eupatorium odoratum L. Syst. ed. 10, 1205. 1759. 

Shrubby, much branched, more or less pubescent, erect, or in thickets half- 
climbing, 1-3 m. high. Leaves thin, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 
3-nerved, dentate, often with large acute teeth, acuminate at the apex, usually 
cuneate at the base, the slender petioles 1-4 cm. long; heads in terminal corymbs 
5-10 cm. broad, cylindric, 8-12 mm. long; involucre-bracts imbricated in about 4 
series, striate-nerved glabrous or nearly so, shining, all obtuse or the inner acute 
or acutish; flowers 10-20, white to blue, achenes rough-angled. 

Banks, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle elevations: Vieques- 
Culebra; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Florida; West Indies; tropical con; 
tinental America. Santa Maria. Bitter-bush. 



TNv' w 1 / 

LIBRARY 



288 CARDUACEAE 

2. Osmia corymbosa (Aubl.) Britton & Wilson. 

Eupatorium corymbosum Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 799. 1775. 
Eupatorium atriplicifolium Lam. Encycl. 2: 407. 1788. 
Eupatorium repandum Willd. Sp. PL 3: 1767. 1804. 

Shrubby, finely pubescent, branched, 1 m. high or less. Leaves thick and 
fleshy, ovate, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, acute or obtuse at the apex, subtruncate to cordate 
at the base, crenate or crenate-dentate, densely punctate, finely pubescent be- 
neath, nearly glabrous above, the pubescent petioles 5-10 mm. long; heads in 
small terminal dense corymbs; involucre 7-9 mm. long, its bracts imbricated in 
about 5 series, pubescent, at least at the obtuse tips, finely striate; flowers bright 
blue; achenes rough-angled. [Erigeron atriplicifolium of Millspaugh.] 

Coastal hills near Quebradillas, Porto Rico; St. Thomas; St. Croix; St. Jan; Tortola 
Virgin Gorda: — Bahamas; Hispaniola; Martinique. 

3. Osmia geraniifolia (Urban) Britton & Wilson. 

Eupatorium geraniifolium Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 458. 1899. 

A shrub up to 1.5 m. high, the twigs and foliage densely pubescent. Leaves 
ovate in outline, 2-6 cm. long, deeply lobed or cleft into 3 segments and these 
again lobed or very coarsely toothed, dark green above, paler beneath, the lobes 
obtuse or minutely apiculate; petioles 2 cm. long or less; lower leaves sometimes 
with small dense entire leaves at their axils; heads in small dense terminal 
corymbs; involucre 7-8 mm. long, oblong-cylindric; its bracts imbricated in 4 or 
5 series, obtuse, 3-striate, pilose; flowers blue; achenes minutely hairy. 

Mountain forests and hillsides in the central districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

4. Osmia sinuata (Lam.) Britton & Wilson. 

Eupatorium sinuatum Lam. Encycl. 2: 407. 1788. 

A shrub, 2 m. high or less, with slender canescent branches and twigs. 
Leaves ovate, thin, 0.5-3 cm. long, entire or with few blunt teeth, rounded or 
obtuse at the apex, rounded, truncate or cuneate at the base, 3-nerved, rather 
bright green above, pale and densely canescent beneath, the petioles 2-8 mm. 
long; heads oblong-cylindric, in small terminal corymbs; involucre about 5 mm. 
long, its bracts in about 4 series, striate, obtuse or the inner acute, pubescent, at 
least at the tips; flowers white; achenes pubescent. 

Banks, hillsides and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower elevations in dry and relatively 
moist districts; Culebra; Vieques; St. Croix; St. Jan; St. Thomas; Virgin Gorda:— Cuba 
Hispiniola; St. Eustatius to Guadeloupe. 

5. Osmia ivaefolia (L.) Sch. Bip. Polliehia 22-24: 252. 1866. 

Eupatorium ivaefolium L. Syst. ed. 10, 1205. 1759. 

A shrub, 5-15 dm. high, often much branched, the slender branches loosely 
pubescent. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, dentate or 
the upper entire, 5-8 cm. long or shorter, acute, the base mostly narrowed, the 
petioles short; involucres about 5 mm. long, 10-20-flowered, its bracts oblong or 
linear-oblong; flowers purple; achenes about 2 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so, 
angled. 

Monte Mesa, Mayaguez, Porto Rico: — southern United States; Cuba; Hispaniola; 
Guadeloupe; Martinique; Tobago; Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

6. Osmia borinquensis Britton, sp. nov. 

A straggling vine-like shrub, about 2 m. long or shorter, the slender branches 
glabrous. Leaves triangular-lanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, glabrous, chartaceous, 
sharply few-toothed below the middle, the apex acuminate, the base broadly 
cuneate, the petioles 3-5 mm. long; heads few or several in terminal corymbs, 



CARDUACEAE 289 

their slender peduncles 10-15 mm. long; young involucre about 4 mm. long, its 
bracts striate, glabrous, obtuse or rounded, imbricated in about 4 series, the outer 
much smaller than the inner; achenes glabrous, about 3.5 mm. long. 

Limestone cliffs near Lares, on the road to Arecibo, Porto Rico. Type collected by 
Britton and Boynton, no. 8486, April 5, 1925. Endemic. 

Osmia macrantha (Sw.) Sell. Bip. [Eupatorium macranthum Sw.] of the 
Lesser Antilles was recorded by Krebs from St. Thomas, apparently in error. 

12. EUPATORIUM L. Sp. PI. 836. 1753. 
Herbs, shrubs or trees, with opposite or verticillate, or sometimes alternate, 
often punctate leaves, and corymbose or cymose-paniculate discoid heads of 
white, blue or purple flowers. Involucre ovoid, campanulate, or hemispheric, 
the bracts imbricated in 1 to 3 series. Receptacle naked. Corolla regular, its 
tube slender, its limb 5-lobed or 5-toothed. Anthers obtuse and entire at the 
base, Achenes 5-angled, truncate. Pappus of numerous capillary usually 
scabrous bristles arranged in 1 row. [Named for Mithridates Eupator, i.e., of a 
noble father.] Over 500 species, mostly of warm or tropical regions. Type 
species: Eupatorium cannabinum L. 

Leaves elongated oblong-lanceolate, entire or nearly so. 1. E. triplinerve. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate, dentate or crenate. 
Plants not resinous. 

Shrubs with thick leaves. 

Leaves broadly ovate, cordate, scabrous. 2. E. polyodon. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, not cordate. 

Short-villous, heads short-peduncled. 3. E. dolicholepis. 

Puberulent; heads flliform-pedimcled. 4. E. droserolepis. 

Annual herb with thin leaves. 5. E. nucrostemon. 

Twigs and leaves viscid-resinous. 6. E. resiniftuum. 

1. Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Symb. 3: 97. 1794. 

Eupatorium Ayapana Vent. Jard. Malm. 3. 1803. 

Perennial, stoloniferous, woody below, somewhat branched, glabrous or 
sparingly pubescent above, 1-1.5 m. high. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 
entire or very nearly so, sessile or short-petioled, acuminate at both ends, triple- 
nerved from below the middle, 5-15 cm. long, 3 cm. wide or less; heads few, 
in loose corymbs ; involucre subcampanulate, 5-6 mm. high, its bracts in 1-2 series, 
linear, acuminate, pubescent; achenes 2 mm. long, glabrous. 

Escaped from cultivation into woodlands at higher elevations in Porto Rico; St. 
Croix: — Martinique; Guadeloupe. Native of continental tropical America. Valued as 
a febrifuge. Curia. Yapana. 

2. Eupatorium polyodon L T rban, Symb. Ant. l: 462. 1899. 

A shrub up to 6 m. in height, the twigs rough-puberulent. Leaves broadly 
ovate or ovate-elliptic, 4-11 cm. long, 2-7 cm. wide, 3-nerved, acute or short- 
acuminate at the apex, cordate or subtruncate at the base, firm in texture, low- 
crenate or dentate, scabrous above, glandular beneath and pubescent on the 
veins, the stout petioles 5-15 mm. long; heads numerous in loose terminal co- 
rymbs; involucre about 4 mm. long, its bracts in 2 series, linear, acute, pubescent; 
corolla white or rose; achenes 5-ribbed, glabrous, slightly glandular. [E. cordi- 
folium of Bello, not of Swartz; E. triste of Stahl.] 

Woodlands and thickets, Porto Rico, at lower and middle altitudes in moist districts. 
Endemic. 

3. Eupatorium dolicholepis (Urban) Britton. 

Eupatorium villosum dolicholepis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 462. 1899. 
A fragrant shrub, 1-4 m. high, with slender ascending branches, the twigs 
and branches of the inflorescence densely pubescent. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 



290 CARDUACEAE 

6 cm. long or less, 1-3 cm. wide, acute or bluntly acuminate at the apex, rounded 
at the base, 5-nerved, low-dentate with distant teeth, rather thick, roughish 
above, puberulent beneath, at least on the veins, the petioles 8 mm. long or less; 
heads in small, rather loose, terminal corymbs; involucre about 5 mm. long, its 
bracts in 2-3 series; linear, pubescent, obtuse or acutish; flowers white, achenes 
pubescent. 

Hillsides and thickets at lower and middle elevations in moist parts of the central 
and western districts of Porto Rico: — Cuba. Oregaxillo. 

4. Eupatorium droserolepis Robinson, Proc. Am. Acad. 54: 243. 1918. 

A shrub, about 1 m. high or lower, the nearly terete branches slender, the 
young twigs and inflorescence puberulent. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
thin, 3-7 cm. long, or the upper ones much smaller, glabrate, dentate or crenate- 
dentate, acuminate, the base rounded, subtruncate or subcordate, the slender 
petioles about 1.5 cm. long or shorter; panicles diffuse, widely branched, the 
nearly filiform peduncles 5-25 mm. long; involucre subcampanulate, 6 mm. 
high, about 11-flowered, its linear oblong bracts imbricated in about 2 series; 
corolla 3.5 mm. long; achenes 2 mm. long, glabrous when mature; pappus-bristles 
numerous, brownish, unequal. 

Summit of Monte Torrecillo and near TJtuado, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

5. Eupatorium microstemon Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 25: 432. 1822. 

Eupatorium paniculatum Schrad. Com. Soc. Sci. Gotting. 6: 130. 1827. 

Eupatorium guadalupense DC. Prodr. 5: 170. 1836. 

E. microstemon albiflorum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 338. 1891. 

Annual, herbaceous, glabrous, or sparingly puberulent, erect, weak, often 
much branched, 1 m. high or less. Leaves thin, flaccid, opposite or the upper 
alternate, ovate, rhombic-ovate or suborbicular, acute to acuminate at the apex, 
narrowed, subtruncate, or cuneate at the base, 2-8 cm. long, crenate-dentate, 
3-5-nerved, the slender petioles often half as long as the blades; corymbs ter- 
minal, loose; heads few or numerous; involucre 4-5 mm. high, its linear bracts 
in 2 series, glabrous, shining, obtuse or mucronate; flowers white; achenes gla- 
brous. 

Moist or wet woods and thickets, Porto Rico, ascending to at least 800 m. altitude: — 
Hispaniola; Jamaica; Saba to Trinidad; continental tropical America. 

6. Eupatorium resinifluum Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 461. 1899. 

A shrub, 1-2 m. high, the terete branches rather stout, irregularly ascending, 
glabrous, the young twigs and leaves exuding a viscid resin. Leaves lanceolate 
to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, 4-12 cm. long, 4 cm. wide or less, firm in texture, 
pinnately veined, crenate or serrate, obtuse to acuminate at the apex, mostly 
rounded at the base, the petioles 4-12 mm. long; heads many, few-flowered, in 
terminal somewhat pubescent or glabrous corymbs often 8 cm. broad; involucre 
about 5 mm. high, few-flowered, the bracts only 5 or 6 in 1 series, linear-oblong, 
obtuse, or 1 of them shorter and acute ; corollas white : achenes hispid on the angles. 

Hillsides at middle elevations, central and western districts of Porto Rico appar- 
ently local. Endemic. 

Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small, cultivated on St. Croix, accord- 
ing to Millspaugh, is a species of the southeastern United States, the erect stem 
1-3 m. high, the mostly alternate leaves dissected into linear-filiform segments, 
the small heads in panicles. [E. foeniculaceum Willd.] 

Eupatorium cuneifolium Willd., cited by Eggers from de Candolle 
(Prodr. 5: 177) as from St. Thomas, was not from our island St. Thomas. 



CARDUACEAE 291 

13. CRITONIA [P. Br.) Ludwig, Def. Gen. 157. 1760. 

Shrubs or small trees, with opposite, petioled dentate pellucid-lineolate or 
punctate leaves, and small heads of discoid flowers glomerate on the branches of 
terminal corymbs. Involucre cylindric or oblong, its bracts imbricated in 3-5- 
series. Flowers 3-5, the corolla clavate. Achenes 5-angled. Pappus-bristles 
pilose. [Named for Criton, a physician of ancient Greece.] A few species, 
natives of the West Indies. Type species: Eupatorium Dalea L. 

1. Critonia portoricensis (Urban) Britton and Wilson. 

Eupatorium portoricense Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 459. 1899. 

A small glabrous tree, 3-6 m. high, with a trunk 1.5 dm. in diameter or more, 
sometimes lower and shrubby. Leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, rather thin in 
texture, fragrant, 7-16 cm. long, 8 cm. wide or less, dentate or crenate-dentate, 
pinnately veined, acute, short-acuminate or obtuse at the apex, copiously punctate 
with pellucid lines and dots, the petioles 1.5 cm. long or less; heads numerous, 
sessile in clusters in large terminal corymbs; involucre oblong, 6-7 mm. high, 
its bracts in 4 or 5 series, striate, obtuse, the outer ovate, the inner oblong; 
flowers about 5 in each head, white; achenes hairy. [Critonia Dalea of Bello, 
not of de Candolle ; Eupatorium Dalea of Cook and Collins, not of Linnaeus; 
Critonia parviflora portoricensis of Cook and Collins.] 

Hillsides, woodlands and coastal thickets, northern, central and western districts of 
Porto Rico; sometimes planted for its fragrant foliage; Vieques. Endemic. Guerrero. 

14. MIKANIA Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1742. 1804. 

Herbaceous twining vines, or some South American species shrubs, with 
opposite petioled leaves, and discoid, mostly corymbose or corymbose-paniculate 
heads of white or pink flowers. Heads 4-flowered. Involucre oblong, of 4 
slightly unequal narrow bracts. Receptacle small, naked. Corolla regular, its 
tube slender, the limb campanulate, 5-cleft. Achenes truncate, 5-angled. Pappus 
of numerous capillary roughish bristles in 1 or 2 series. [In honor of Joseph 
Gottfried Mikan, 1743-1814 professor at Prague.] About 150 species, natives 
of America. Type species: Mikania hastata (L.) Willd. The species are known 
as Guaco in Porto Rico. 

Inflorescence elongated, paniculate, the heads sessile or nearly 
so in spikes or glomerules. 
Leaves thin, entire or nearly so, 6 cm. long or less. 1. A/, porosa. 

Leaves thick, dentate, 4-6 cm. long. 2. Af. pachyphylla. 

Inflorescence corymbose, or corymbose-paniculate. 
Leaves thin, entire or merely toolhed. 

A pair of foliaceous, stipule-like organs at the nodes. 3. ~M. fragilis. 

No stipule-like organs at the nodes. 

Involucre 6-9 mm. long; corolla-lobes lanceolate. 

Inflorescence, twigs and under surfaces of the 

leaves pubescent; corolla-lobes revolute. 4. M. cordifolia. 

Glabrous or very nearly so; corolla-lobes flat. 5. M. odoratissima. 

Involucre 3.5-5 mm. long; corolla-lobes ovate 6. M. congesta. 

Leaves thick, very rough, sharply 3-lobed, the middle lobe 

acuminate. 7. M. Slevensiana 

1. Mikania porosa Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 465. 1899. 

Willughbaeya porosa Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 264. 1903. 

Glabrous, climbing on trees to at least 8 m., the branches striate, the inter- 
nodes long. Leaves thin, ovate to oblong, 0.5-6 cm. long, 3 cm. wide or less, 
entire or nearly so, or sometimes 3-lobed, 3-nerved, obtuse to acuminate at the 
apex, rounded at the base, the petioles 3-15 mm. long; inflorescence elongated, 



292 CARDUACEAE 

sometimes 3 dm. long, drooping, paniculate, the heads sessile or nearly so in 
spikes or glomerules; bracts of the inflorescence 2-3 mm. long: involucre 3-3.5 
mm. long, its bracts oblong, obtuse; corolla white, the limb narrowly campanu- 
late, the lobes triangular-ovate; achenes glabrous; pappus-bristles about 30. 
[M. Swartziana of Stahl, not of Grisebach.] 

Thickets and forests, Porto Rico in moist or wet regions, ascending to at least 600 m. 
Endemic. 

2. Mikania pachyphylla Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 463. 1899. 

Branches angulate-striate, glabrous. Leaves estipulate, ovate, 4-6 cm. 
long, remotely dentate or nearly entire, thick, coriaceous, acuminate, the base 
rounded, the petioles 6-12 mm. long; inflorescence short-stalked, paniculate, 
3-12 cm. long; heads short-pedicelled ; bracts of the inflorescence lanceolate, 2-3 
mm. long; involucre about 2.5 mm. long, its linear-oblong bracts obtuse; achenes 
2 mm. long, glabrous ; pappus-bristles 24-30. 

Summit of Mt. Yunque, Luquillo Mountains. Endemic. 

3. Mikania fragilis Urban, Symb. Ant, l: 464. 1899. 

Mikania fragilis leptodon Urban, loc. cit. 1899. 

Climbing on trees to at least 6 m., the branches loosely hirsute or pubescent, 
angular and striate. Nodes bearing a pair of stipule-like expansions, which are 
reniform to orbicular, strongly veined, obtuse or apiculate, 1 cm. broad or less; 
leaves ovate-orbicular, 2-8 cm. broad, 5-7-nerved, Arm in texture, dentate, 
cordate at base, acute to obtuse at apex, scabrate above, loosely pubescent at 
least on the veins beneath; petioles stout, 1-3 cm. long; inflorescence loosely 
corymbose; pedicels 4r-6 mm. long; involucre about 7 mm. long, its bracts 
linear, obtuse, pubescent; flowers white; achenes glabrous. 

Mountain forests, eastern and central districts of Porto Rico. Endemic. 

4. Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1746. 1804. 

Cacalia cordifolia L.f. Suppl. 351. 1781. 

Mikania gonoclada DC. Prodr. 5: 199. 1836. 

Mikania convolvulacea DC. loc. cit. 1836. 

Willughbaeya coidifolia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 372. 1891. 

Willughbaeya gonoclada Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 1: 536. 1902. 

Trailing or climbing, sometimes 4 m. long, the branches pubescent, angular 
and striate. Leaves ovate, 12 cm. long or less, dentate or undulate, thin and 
flaccid, 5-nerved, obtuse to acuminate at the apex, cordate to subtruncate at the 
base, loosely finely pubescent above, densely pubescent beneath, the petioles 
often nearly as long as the blades; inflorescence corymbose, the corymbs often 
12 cm. broad; heads pedicelled; bracts of the involucre 6-9 mm. long, pubescent, 
acute or acuminate; flowers white; achenes glabrous. [? Eupatorium denticu- 
latum of Schlechtendal.] 

Hillsides, river-banks and thickets at lower and middle elevations; Porto Rico; 
Vieques; St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — southern United States to Paraguay; 
Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola; Guadeloupe; Trinidad. 

5. Mikania odoratissima Urban, Symb. Ant. l: 464. 1899. 

Willughbaeya odoratissima Cook & Collins, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 264. 
1903. 

Sparingly pubescent when young, becoming glabrate, the branches slender 
and striate, the internodes long. Leaves thin, ovate or triangular-ovate, the 
larger up to 6 cm. long, dentate, 5-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, 



CARDUACEAE 263 

truncate or subcordate at the base, the slender petioles 4 cm. long or less; upper 
leaves much smaller than the lower, entire; inflorescence loosely corymbose, the 
heads pedicelled; involucre about 7 mm. high, its linear-oblong bracts glabrous, 
or merely puberulent at the acutish tips; achenes glabrous. [M. convolvulacea 
of Stahl not of de Candolle.] 

Woodlands in moist parts of the central and western districts of Porto Rico, ascending 
to higher elevations. Endemic. 

6. Mikania congesta DC. Prodr. 5: 197. 1836. 

Glabrous or nearly so, 1.5-4.5 m. long. Leaves ovate or hastate, deeply 
cordate, acuminate at the apex, repand or obtusely dentate, 5-10 cm. long, 2-5 
cm. wide; petioles slender, shorter than the blades; heads in compound compact 
corymbs at the ends of the branches; involucre 3.5-5 mm. long, its bracts lance- 
olate, acuminate or apiculate sometimes puberulent; flowers white or pink; 
achenes glabrous, resinous. [Mikania scandens of authors, not of Willdenow; 
Willughbaeya scandens of Kuntze.] 

Marshes, moist thickets and river-banks at lower elevations, Porto Rico: — northern 
South America. Falso guaco. 

7. Mikania Stevensiana Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 458. 1916. 

Climbing to a height of 5 m., th9 branches glabrous, striate, nearly terete, 
the twigs angular, sparingly pubescent. Leaves triangular-ovate in outline, firm 
in texture, brittle when dry, 5 cm. long or less, very scabrous and sparingly 
short-hispid above, pubescent on the elevated veins beneath, 5- nerved, sharply 
3-lobed, the middle lobe triangular-lanceolate, long-acuminate, dentate, 3 or 4 
times as long as the acute entire or sparingly toothed lateral ones; petioles spar- 
ingly pubescent, 1-2 cm. long; inflorescence corymbose-paniculate ; heads pedi- 
celled; bracts of the involucre linear, acute, 7 mm. long; achenes angled, gla- 
brous, 5 mm. long ; pappus-bristles about 40 ; corolla 7 mm. long, as long as the 
pappus, its lobes acute. 

Wooded valley, Maricao River, above Maricao, Porto Rico. Endemic. 

8. Mikania sp. A vine 3 m. long, the young stems pubescent with scattered 
hairs, the slender-petioled, pubescent, triangular-ovate leaves 2-3-parted, with 
the segments deeply several-lobed, or the upper merely coarsely lobed, occurs in 
the Sierra de Naguabo, but is known only from barren shoots (Britton & Cowell, 
2219); similar leaves were collected by Professor Whetzel at Finca Maria, north 
of Yauco, in 1924. 

15. EGLETES Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 153. 1817. 

Low herbs, with alternate dentate or lobed leaves, the rather large peduncled 
radiate and discoid heads terminal, or opposite the leaves, usually solitary. 
Involucre subhemispheric, its bracts imbricated in few series. Receptacle ovoid 
or conic, naked. Ray-flowers perfect, the rays narrow. Disk-flowers regular, 
tubular, the limb 3-5-cleft. Anthers obtuse and entire at the base. Achenes 
flattened, oblong, ribless, tipped by a dentate or ciliate cartilaginous ring. 
[Greek, shining.] A few species of tropical America, the following typical. 

1. Egletes prostrata (Sw.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 334. 1891. 

Matricaria prostrata Sw. Prodr. 114. 1788. 
Pyrethrum simplicifolium Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 2151. 1804. 
Egletes domingensis Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 14: 265. 1819. 

Perennial, prostrate or procumbent, glabrate or villous, 2-5 dm: long, branch- 
ed. Leaves obovate or spatulate, coarsely dentate above the middle, 2-7 cm. 



294 CARDUACEAE 

long, the apex rounded, the base cuneate, the petioles above 2 cm. long, or less, 
or the upper leaves sessile; involucre about 4 mm. high, its bracts lanceolate; 
rays white, 4-5 mm. long. [E. glabratus of Krebs.] 

Sandy shores, St. Thomas: — Hispaniola; Jamaica; St. Kitts to Trinidad; Curacao; 
Aruba; Venezuela. 

16. GUNDLACHIA A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 16: 100. 1880. 

Somewhat viscid leafy shrubs, with alternate entire linear to oblanceolate 
leaves, and numerous small heads of both discoid and radiate white flowers in 
terminal thyrses or compound corymbs. Ray-flowers few, pistillate ; disk-flower s 
somewhat more numerous, perfect. Involucre obconic, its bracts coriaceous, 
imbricated in 4 or 5 series, the outer much shorter than the inner. Achenes 
nearly terete, 5-nerved. Pappus a single series of capillary bristles, fin honor 
of John Gundlach, 1810-1896, traveller and naturalist.] Six or seven species, 
natives of the West Indies. Type species: Solidago domingensis Spreng. 

1. Gundlachia corymbosa (Urban) Britton; Boldingh, Fl. Ned. West Ind. 
391. 1913. 

Gundalachia domingensis corymbosa Urban, Symb. Ant. 3: 406. 1903. 

Nearly glabrous, viscid above, bushy-branched, 6-12 dm. high. Leaves 
oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 3-8 cm. long, 5-20 mm. wide, fleshy, obtuse 
and rounded at the apex, or emarginate or mucronulate, narrowed at the base, 
short-petioled, the midvein rather prominent, the lateral veins few and obscure; 
corymbs dense, convex, 3-10 cm. broad; heads short-peduncled ; involucre about 
5 mm. high, its bracts acute or acutish, the outer ovate, the inner linear-lanceolate ; 
rays spreading, 4-5 mm. long. 

Saline soil, Arecibo District, Porto Rico; Anegada: — Bahamas; Hispaniola; Saba; 
Montserrat; Desirade; Curacao; Aruba. Sereno. Horse-bush. 

17. ERIGERON L. Sp. PI. 863. 1753. 

Branching or scapose herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and corymbose, 
paniculate or solitary, peduncled heads, of both tubular and radiate (rarely all 
tubular) flowers. Involucre hemispheric or campanulate, its bracts narrow, 
nearly equal, imbricated in 1 to 3 series. Receptacle nearly flat, usually naked. 
Ray-flowers white, violet or purple, pistillate. Disk-flowers yellow, tubular, 
perfect, their corollas mostly 5-lobed. Anthers obtuse and entire at the base. 
Style-branches more or less flattened, their appendages short, mostly rounded or 
obtuse. Achenes flattened, 1-nerved or 2-nerved. Pappus-bristles, fragile, slender, 
scabrous or denticulate, in 1 series, or often an additional outer shorter series. 
[Greek, early-old, alluding to the early hoary pappus.] A genus of 130 species or 
more, of wide distribution. Type species : Erigeron acris L. Known as Fleabane. 

Basal leaves rosulate, those of the scape-like stems much smaller. 
Basal leaves suborbicidar, the margined petiole longer than the 

blade; stems filiform. 1. E. bellioides. 

Basal leaves obovate-cuneate, scarcely petioled; stems slender. 2. E. cuneifolius. 
Stem leafy, the upper leaves progressively smaller than the lower, 
the basal sometimes tufted. 3. E. jamaicensis. 

1. Erigeron bellioides DC. Prodr. 5: 288. 1836. 

Sparingly and loosely pubescent; rootstock 1-3 cm. long, oblique. Basal 
leaves thin, tufted, 1^ dm. long, the blade nearly orbicular or ovate, 4-20 mm. 



CARDUACEAE 295 

broad, entire or few-toothed, abruptly narrowed into a long margined petiole; 
stems usually several, weak, filiform, spreading, or ascending, 10 cm. long or 
less, bearing a few small spatulate to oblong leaves, simple or with few branches; 
heads few or solitary, about 5 mm. broad; involucre 3-3.5 mm. high, its linear 
acute bracts in 1-2 series; rays white, short. [E. rivulare of Sprengel, not of 
Swartz.] 

Moist grassy places, waste and cultivated grounds and stream-banks, Porto Rico, at 
lower and middle elevations; Vieques: — Cuba; Hispaniola. Porto Rico is the type 
locality. Bellorita. 

2. Erigeron cuneifolius DC. Prodr. 5: 288. 1836. 

Pubescent; rootstock short, slender, oblique. Basal leaves tufted, cuneate- 
obovate to oblanceolate, 1.5-6 cm. long, obtuse at the apex, few-toothed or entire, 
scarcely petioled; stems solitary or several, simple or branched, slender, erect or 
ascending, 1-3 dm. long; stem-leaves few and distant, small, oblong or oblance- 
olate, rarely over 1.5 cm. long; heads solitary or several, about 7.mm. broad; 
involucre about 5 mm. high, its linear-lanceolate acuminate bracts scarious- 
margined ; rays narrow, white, a little longer than the disk flowers. [E. jamaicen- 
sis of Swartz and of Krebs, not of Linnaeus.] 

Moist banks, rocks and hillsides, Porto Rico, at lower and middle altitudes; St. 
Thomas; St. Jan; Tortola: — Jamaica; Cuba; Hispaniola. Porto Rico is the type locality. 

3. Erigeron jamaicensis L. Syst. ed. 10, 1213. 1759. 

Erigeron rivularis Sw. Prodr. 113. 1788. 

Pubescent; rootstock short or elongated; stems slender, usually somewhat 
branched, erect or nearly so, 1-3 dm. high, leafy. Leaves spatulate or oblong- 
spatulate, pinnately lobed or coarsely toothed, 3-10 cm. long, 3-15 mm. wide, 
the lower ones somewhat tufted, acute or obtuse at the apex, narrowed into 
margined petioles, the upper smaller, often entire, linear to oblong; heads few 
or several, about 4 mm. wide; involucre 4-5 mm. high, its linear acuminate 
bracts narrowly scarious-margined ; rays white, somewhat exceeding the disk- 
flowers. 

Wet rocks and cliffs, Porto Rico: — Jamaica; Cuba. 

Erigeron laevigatus Rich., a little known species of French Guiana, was 
listed by Krebs from St. Thomas, apparently in error. 

18. LEPTILON Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 268. 1818. 

Annual or biennial herbs, with small racemose thyreoid or panicled heads of 
white flowers, the rays small, usually shorter than the diameter of the disk, or 
none. Involucre mostly campanulate, its narrow bracts in 2 or 3 series. Re- 
ceptacle naked. Ray-flowers pistillate; rays short; disk-flowers perfect, their 
corollas usually 4-lobed or 4-toothed, the anthers obtuse at the base; style- 
branches somewhat flattened , their appendages short. Achenes flattened. Pappus 
of numerous simple fragile bristles in 1 series. [Greek, referring to the small 
heads.] About 20 species, of America and Asia. Type species: Erigeron di- 
varicatum Michx. 

Leaves linear, or the lower spatulate or oblanceolate, entire or few- 
toothed; involucre 2-3 mm. high. 1. L. pusillum. 
Lower leaves lanceolate to obovate or oblong-lanceolate, coarsely 
toothed; involucre about 5 mm. high. 
Lower leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate. 

Foliage green. 2. L. bonariense. 

Foliage whitish-hirsute. 3. l. linifolium. 

Lower leaves obovate to broadly spatulate. 4. L.